Contents. CHAPTER 1 Writing from Research 1. CHAPTER 2 Finding a Topic 10. CHAPTER 3 Finding and Filtering Internet Sources 32

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1 Preface to the Instructor xii Preface to the Student xvi CHAPTER 1 Writing from Research 1 1a Why Do Research? 2 1b Learning Format Variations 3 1c Understanding a Research Assignment 3 Understanding the Terminology 4 1d Establishing a Schedule 8 CHAPTER 2 Finding a Topic 10 2a Relating Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem 12 Connecting Personal Experience to Scholarly Topics 12 Speculating about Your Subject to Discover Ideas and to Focus on the Issues 13 2b Talking with Others to Refine the Topic 17 Personal Interviews 17 Internet Discussion Groups 18 2c Using the World Wide Web to Refine Your Topic 19 Using an Internet Subject Directory 19 Using an Internet Keyword Search 20 2d Using the Library s Electronic Databases to Find 2e and Narrow a Subject 20 Using the Library s Electronic Book Catalogs to Find a Topic 21 2f Expressing a Thesis Sentence, Enthymeme, or Hypothesis 23 2g Drafting a Research Proposal 26 The Short Proposal 26 The Long Proposal 27 Your Research Project 30 CHAPTER 3 Finding and Filtering Internet Sources 32 3a Beginning an Internet Search 33 3b Reading an Internet Address 36 3c Using a Search Engine 40 iii

2 iv Contents Subject Directory Search Engines 40 Robot-Driven Search Engines 42 Metasearch Engines 42 Specialized Search Engines 42 Educational Search Engines 43 Educational Search Engines Maintained by Libraries 44 3d Searching for Articles in Journals and Magazines 45 Online Journals 45 Online Magazines 45 3e Searching for Articles in Newspapers and Media Sources 46 3f Accessing E-books 48 3g Using Listserv, Usenet, and Chat Groups 49 News Groups 49 Real-Time Chatting 50 3h Examining Library Holdings via Internet Access 50 3i Finding an Internet Bibliography 51 3j Conducting Archival Research on the Internet 51 Go to the Library 51 Go to an Edited Search Engine 52 Go to a Metasearch Engine 53 Use Search Engine Directories 53 Go to a Listserv or Usenet Group 53 Go to Newspaper Archives 54 Your Research Project 54 CHAPTER 4 Gathering Data in the Library 56 4a Launching the Search 56 4b Developing a Working Bibliography 57 4c Finding Books on Your Topic 59 Using Your Library s Electronic Book Catalog 59 Using the Library s Printed Bibliographies 60 4d Finding Articles in Magazines and Journals 64 Searching the General Indexes to Periodicals 64 Finding Indexes by Topic in Appendix B 65 Using the H. W. Wilson Indexes 66 Searching for an Index to Abstracts 67 Searching for Abstracts of Dissertations 68 4e Searching for a Biography 69 4f Searching for Articles in the Newspaper Indexes 71 4g Searching the Indexes to Pamphlet Files 72 4h Searching for Government Documents 73 4i Searching for Essays within Books 74 4j Using Microforms 75 Your Research Project 75

3 v CHAPTER 5 Conducting Research outside the Library 77 5a Investigating Local Sources 77 Interviewing Knowledgeable People 77 Writing Letters and Corresponding by 79 Reading Personal Papers 80 Attending Lectures and Public Addresses 80 Investigating Government Documents 81 5b Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio 82 5c Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire 83 5d Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observation 84 Your Research Project 87 CHAPTER 6 Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism 88 6a Using Sources to Enhance Your Credibility 88 6b Placing Your Work in Its Proper Context 89 6c Honoring Property Rights 90 6d Avoiding Plagiarism 91 Common Knowledge Exceptions 92 Correctly Borrowing from a Source 94 6e Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects 99 6f Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online Classrooms 100 6g Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your Web Site 101 Your Research Project 101 CHAPTER 7 Reading and Evaluating the Best Sources 103 7a Finding the Best Source Materials 103 7b Selecting a Mix of Both Primary and Secondary Sources 110 7c Reading All or Part of a Source 112 Reading the Key Parts of an Article 112 Reading the Key Parts of a Book 114 Reading the Key Parts of an Internet Article 115 7d Outlining a Source 117 7e Summarizing a Source 117 7f Preparing an Annotated Bibliography 118 7g Preparing a Review of the Literature on a Topic 120 Your Research Project 127 CHAPTER 8 Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals 128 8a Charting a Direction and Setting Goals 128 Using a Basic, Dynamic Order to Chart the Course of Your Work 129 Using Your Research Proposal to Direct Your Notetaking 129

4 vi Contents Listing Keywords and Phrases to Set Directions for Notetaking 130 Writing a Rough Outline 130 Using Questions to Identify Issues 131 Setting Goals by Using the Modes of Development 131 Using Approaches across the Curriculum to Chart Your Major Ideas 132 Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your Research 133 8b Using Academic Models (Paradigms) 135 A General All-Purpose Model 135 Paradigm for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories 136 Paradigm for the Analysis of Creative Works 136 Paradigm for Argument and Persuasion Papers 137 Paradigm for Analysis of History 137 Paradigm for a Comparative Study 138 8c Writing a Formal Outline 139 Using Standard Outline Symbols 139 Writing a Formal Topic Outline 140 Writing a Formal Sentence Outline 141 Using a Research Journal to Enrich Your Organizational Plan 143 Your Research Project 143 CHAPTER 9 Writing Notes 145 Gathering Printouts, Photocopies, Scanned Images, and Downloaded Data 145 Writing Notes of High Quality 146 9a Creating Effective Notes 146 Honoring the Conventions of Research Style 146 Using a Computer for Notetaking 147 Developing Handwritten Notes 148 9b Writing Personal Notes 149 9c Writing Direct Quotation Notes 149 Quoting Primary Sources 150 Quoting Secondary Sources 151 9d Writing Paraphrased Notes 152 9e Writing Summary Notes 154 9f Writing Précis Notes 155 Use the Précis to Review Briefly an Article or Book 155 Use the Précis to Write an Annotated Bibliography 155 Use the Précis in a Plot Summary Note 156 Use the Précis as the Form for an Abstract 156 9g Writing Notes from Field Research 157 Your Research Project 157 CHAPTER 10 Drafting the Paper in an Academic Style a Focusing Your Argument 159

5 vii Maintaining a Focus on Objective Facts and Subjective Ideas b Refining the Thesis Sentence 160 Using Questions to Focus the Thesis 161 Adjust or Change Your Thesis during Research If Necessary c Writing an Academic Title d Drafting the Paper from Your Research Journal, Notes, and Computer Files 164 Writing from Your Notes 164 Writing with Unity and Coherence 165 Writing in the Proper Tense 166 Using the Language of the Discipline 167 Using Source Material to Enhance Your Writing 167 Writing in the Third Person 168 Writing with the Passive Voice in an Appropriate Manner 168 Placing Graphics Effectively in a Research Essay e Avoiding Sexist and Biased Language f Drafting Electronic Research Papers 171 Creating a Plan for Your Research Paper 171 Designing Your Electronic Research Paper 171 Creating a Web Page 174 Delivering Your Electronic Research Paper to Readers 175 Your Research Project 175 CHAPTER 11 Blending Reference Material into Your Writing by Using MLA Style a Blending Reference Citations into Your Text 177 Making a General Reference without a Page Number 177 Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number 177 Putting the Page Number Immediately after the Name 178 Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of Borrowed Material b Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed 179 Citing the Title of a Magazine Article 179 Citing the Title of a Report 179 Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate Body c Citing Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Number d Citing Internet Sources 180 Identify the Source with Name or Title 180 Identify the Nature of the Information and Its Credibility 180 Omitting Page and Paragraph Numbers to Internet Citations e Citing Indirect Sources f Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work g Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies h Adding Extra Information to In-Text Citations 186 One of Several Volumes 187

6 viii Contents Two or More Works by the Same Writer 187 Several Authors in One Citation 188 Additional Information with the Page Number i Punctuating Citations Properly and Consistently 188 Commas and Periods 188 Semicolons and Colons 190 Question Marks and Exclamation Marks 190 Single Quotation Marks j Indenting Long Quotations k Citing Poetry 192 Quoting Two Lines of Poetry or Less 192 Quoting Three Lines of Poetry or More 193 Indenting Turnovers for Long Lines of Poetry 193 Retaining Internal Quotations within a Block 194 Providing Translations l Handling Quotations from a Play mAltering Initial Capitals in Quoted Matter n Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points o Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets 199 Parentheses 199 Brackets 199 Your Research Project 200 CHAPTER 12 Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion a Writing the Introduction of the Paper 202 Provide the Thesis Statement, Enthymeme, or Hypothesis 202 Provide the Enthymeme 203 Provide a Hypothesis 204 Relate to the Well Known 204 Provide Background Information 204 Review the Literature 205 Review the History and Background of the Subject 206 Take Exception to Critical Views 206 Challenge an Assumption 207 Provide a Brief Summary 207 Define Key Terms 208 Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence b Writing the Body of the Research Paper 208 Relate a Time Sequence 209 Compare or Contrast Issues, Critical Views, and Literary Characters 211 Develop Cause and Effect 211 Define Your Key Terminology 212 Explain a Process 212

7 ix Ask Questions and Provide Answers 213 Cite Evidence from the Source Materials 213 Use a Variety of Other Methods c Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper 215 Restate the Thesis and Reach Beyond It 215 Close with an Effective Quotation 216 Return the Focus of a Literary Study to the Author 216 Compare the Past to the Present 217 Offer a Directive or Solution 217 Discuss Test Results 218 Your Research Project 219 CHAPTER 13 Revising, Proofreading, and Formatting the Rough Draft a Conducting a Global Revision 220 Revising the Introduction 220 Revising the Body 220 Revising the Conclusion 221 Participating in Peer Review b Formatting the Paper to MLA Style 222 Title Page or Opening Page 223 Outline 224 Abstract 224 The Text of the Paper 225 Content Endnotes Page 225 Appendix 225 Works Cited c Editing before Typing or Printing the Final Manuscript 226 Using the Computer to Edit Your Text d Proofreading on the Screen and on the Printed Manuscript 227 Your Research Project e Sample Papers in MLA Style 228 Literary Research Paper 228 Sample Research Paper 237 CHAPTER 14 Works Cited: MLA Style a Formatting the Works Cited Page b Bibliography Form Books c Bibliography Form Periodicals d Bibliography Form Newspapers e Bibliography Form Government Documents f Bibliography Form Internet Sources g Bibliography Form Sources Found on CD-ROM 290

8 x Contents 14h Bibliography Form Other Electronic Sources i Bibliography Form Other Sources 293 CHAPTER 15 Writing in APA Style a Writing Theory, Reporting Test Results, or Reviewing Literature 302 Theoretical Article 302 Report of an Empirical Study 303 Review Article b Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Paper c Using In-Text Citations in APA Style d Preparing the List of References 310 Book 312 Periodical 313 Abstract 314 Review 315 Report 315 Nonprint Material 315 Internet Sources 316 World Wide Web Sites 316 CD-ROM e Variations on APA Style for Other Disciplines in the Social Sciences 321 Linguistics 321 Sociology and Social Work f Formatting an APA Paper 323 Theoretical Paper 323 Report of Empirical Research 323 Review Article g Writing the Abstract h Sample Paper in APA Style 325 CHAPTER 16 The Footnote System: CMS Style a Inserting a Superscript Numeral in Your Text 339 Writng Full or Abbreviated Notes b Formatting and Writing the Footnotes 341 Book 342 Collection or Anthology 343 Journal Article 343 Magazine Article 343 Newspaper Article 343 Review Article 343 Nonprint Source: Lecture, Sermon, Speech, Oral Report 344 Encyclopedia 344 Government Documents 344

9 xi Television 344 Film on DVD 344 Musical Work on VHS 344 Biblical Reference c Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources 344 Scholarly Project 345 Article Online, Limited Information 345 Magazine Article Reproduced Online 345 Journal Article Reproduced Online 345 Journal Article Online with No Author Listed 345 Article from a Scientific Database 345 Article Accessed from a Database through the Library System 345 Book Online 346 CD-ROM Source 346 Electronic Mailing List, Archived 346 Article from an Online Service d Writing Subsequent Footnote References e Writing Endnotes Rather Than Footnotes f Writing Content Footnotes or Content Endnotes g Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Humanities h Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Fine Arts i Writing a Bibliography Page for a Paper That Uses Footnotes j Sample Research Paper in the CMS Style 355 CHAPTER 17 CSE Style for the Natural and Applied Sciences 368 Guide by Discipine a Writing In-Text Citations Using the CSE Number System b Writing a Cited References Page c Writing In-Text Citations Using Name and Year d Using Name and Year with Bibliography Entries e Sample Paper Using the CSE Numbering System 377 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B Rules and Techniques for Preparing the Manuscript in MLA Style A-1 Finding Reference Works for Your General Topic A-20 Credits A-32 Index I-1

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