Spreadsheet Software. MS Office Excel SS2 Level 2. 4 Credits. August Gwent ACL Partnership

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1 Spreadsheet Software SS2 Level 2 4 Credits MS Office Excel 2010 August 2014 Gwent ACL Partnership

2 Contents WORKING WITH SPREADSHEETS... 3 OPEN MICROSOFT EXCEL... 4 CELL REFERENCES... 5 ENTER TEXT AND NUMERIC DATA... 6 EDIT/AMEND A SPREADSHEET... 6 SAVE A SPREADSHEET... 6 PRINT PREVIEW... 7 CLOSE PRINT PREVIEW... 7 PRINT A WORKSHEET... 7 CLOSE A SPREADSHEET... 7 CREATE A NEW SPREADSHEET... 8 ADJUST COLUMN WIDTHS... 8 MAGNIFICATION OR ZOOM TOOL... 8 USING HELP... 9 FORMATTING... 9 FORMAT TEXT FORMAT NUMBERS Currency Thousand separator Decimal Places & Percentage DATES ALIGNMENT BORDER EFFECTS FILL EFFECTS FORMAT PAINTER SET THE HEIGHT/WIDTH OF A ROW/COLUMN WIDTH Row Column INSERTING/DELETING ROWS/COLUMNS UNDO OPTION SWITCH BETWEEN WORKSHEET DELETE A WORKSHEET INSERT A WORKSHEET NAME A WORKSHEET COPY DATA BETWEEN WORKSHEETS COPY A WORKSHEET TO A NEW SPREADSHEET MOVE A WORKSHEET IN A SPREADSHEET SORTING RECORDS

3 HEADERS AND FOOTERS INSERT TEXT INSERT A FIELD SEARCH REPLACE FREEZE OPTIONS FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS ADDITION SUBTRACTION MULTIPLICATION DIVISION FUNCTIONS SUM FUNCTION AVERAGE FUNCTION MIN FUNCTION MAX FUNCTION COUNT FUNCTION COUNTA FUNCTION COUNTBLANK FUNCTION ROUND FUNCTION IF FUNCTION FILL BUTTON ABSOLUTE CELL REFERENCE SET ORIENTATION ERRORS IN FORMULAS Cell with a formula problem FORMULAE VIEW REMOVE FORMULAE VIEW FIT TO ONE OR MORE PAGES DISPLAY GRIDLINES AND ROW/COLUMN HEADINGS APPLY AUTOMATIC TITLE ROW PRINT OPTION CHARTS FORMAT PERCENTAGE LABELS SAVE A CHART PRINT A CHART CREATE A CHART FROM TWO SEPARATE PARTS OF A SPREADSHEET MOVE A CHART FORMAT CHART TITLES - FONT SIZE AND TYPE CHANGE COLOURS IN PIE CHART CHANGE SEGMENT COLOUR IN A BAR/COLUMN CHART FORMAT THE BACKGROUND AREA RE-POSITION A CHART SAVED AS AN OBJECT IN A WORKSHEET RESIZE A CHART AMENDING A CHART

4 Introduction This reference guide will help you gain the Spreadsheet Software Level 2 module of the BCS Level 2 ITQ Certificate in IT User Skills (ECDL Extra or BCS Flexiquals) qualification. This book assumes no prior computer knowledge. You are advised to complete the build-up and full exercises (but you do not need to complete them all) until you feel confident before trying your test and moving on to a new module. Mouse terms used in this book: Point Move the tip of the mouse pointer on top of something on the screen Pointer The on-screen arrow-head mouse pointer Click To quickly press and release the mouse button Right-click To press and release the right mouse button Double-click To press and release the mouse button quickly twice in succession Click and drag To hold down the left mouse button, move the mouse around until the pointer is where you want it, then release the button Release To stop holding down the mouse button Select To point on a menu or to highlight text or a graphic by clicking the mouse Highlight This allows a set of letters to be treated as a single piece of text. Click on the first letter and drag the cursor to the final letter Working with Spreadsheets Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that can help you create worksheets in which you can do simple and sophisticated number crunching. Spreadsheets are used for many purposes such as producing and editing calculations, organising data, producing charts, financial planning and much more. When you open a spreadsheet package like Excel, you are presented with a worksheet, which is like a sheet of squared paper, made up of rows and columns. Data and formulae are entered into the worksheet(s) and once entered, figures can then be updated or amended very quickly and recalculations can be done automatically. Term Data Numbers and/or text Term Formulae Function Formulae/functions are equations that perform calculations on values (numbers) in your worksheet. 3

5 Open Microsoft Excel 1. Click the Start button. 2. From the Start menu click All Programs, from the sublist click Microsoft Office and then click Microsoft Office Excel 2010 from this sub-list. Start button OR Double-click the Microsoft Excel 2010 icon on your Desktop. 4

6 Cell References When you open Excel, you will see a page, which is made up of a grid of rows and columns of cells. Rows go across the page and are numbered down the left-hand side of the screen. Columns go down the page and are identified by a letter across the top of the screen. This page is called a worksheet. Each of the cells that make up the worksheet has a name called a cell reference. The references can identify an individual cell or a group of continuous cells, which is called a range. The reference tells Excel where to look for the values or data you may want to use in calculations in the worksheet. A cell s reference is identified first by the column letter the data is in, followed by the row number. Excel adds a dark outline (cell selector) to the cell you are working in ie the active cell. Excel Worksheet The cell reference for this cell is A1 The dark outline cell selector indicates this cell is active Home Tab Formula Bar Columns Rows Worksheet tab 5

7 Term Ribbon A line of short-cut icons relating to a subject. Term Formula Bar A bar near the top of the window that displays the value of formula of the active cell. Term Row headings The numbers down the side of the worksheet, which identify the rows in the worksheet. Term Column headings The letters across the top of the worksheet, which identify the columns in the worksheet. Term Cell selector The dark outline that indicates the active cell. (It indicates the cell you are currently working in.) Enter Text and Numeric Data 1. Click in the cell and enter the data. You can use the mouse, the Enter key, Tab key or Arrow keys on your keyboard, to move from cell to cell. Edit/Amend a spreadsheet Once you have entered data in a spreadsheet it is very easy to amend, just click in the cell and enter the new text and/or figures. Save a spreadsheet To ensure that you do not lose work, it is important to save it regularly. 1. From the File tab click Save as. 2. Enter the filename of your spreadsheet in the Filename box ie Entering data. 3. Click Save. 6

8 Save options There are many ways to save your spreadsheet, all are found in the Save As types: options Template Microsoft Excel 5.0/95, 2003 Workbook Text file CSV Saves your spreadsheet as a template Saves as an earlier version of Excel Saves your file in text only format Saves your file in common separator value which is compatible with databases, word processing and spreadsheets Print Preview Microsoft Excel has a facility called Print Preview, whereby you can view what will be your printed worksheet before you actually print it. This allows you to identify errors or layout problems on screen, which you can then amend before printing. Previewing and correcting your work can save paper. 1. From the File menu click Print. 2. Displayed on the right of the screen is a print preview of your document. If your worksheet is displayed with the figures too small for you to see, you can "zoom in" to get a close-up view of your worksheet by clicking your mouse on any of the data in the worksheet. Close Print Preview Click the Home tab to return to your worksheet or press the ESC key on your keyboard. Print a Worksheet 1. From the File tab click Print. 2. Click Print. Close a Spreadsheet From the File tab click Close. 7

9 Create a New Spreadsheet 1. From the File tab click New. 2. Click the Blank Workbook option, click Create. Adjust Column Widths When text does not fit into a cell (because of the column width set for that column), Excel displays the information in one of two ways: If the next cell is empty, the text overflows into that cell, allowing you to see your entire entry. If the cell to the right of your entry is not empty, you will be able to see only the portion of your entry that fits within the confines of the cell. This can easily be remedied by changing the column width. As shown in the diagram below you have to make column A wider so when you enter the data into column B you can still view all the data in column A in full. Either 1. Move the mouse pointer on the right of the column onto the division line between the column letters until a double-sided arrow appears, this is called a Sizing tool. Double sided arrow Sizing tool 2. Click and drag the Sizing tool until all the data is displayed in column A. Click and drag to here Or Move your mouse pointer to the right of the column until the Sizing tool appears and then doubleclick with your left mouse button. Excel will automatically adjust the column width to fit the widest entry. Magnification or Zoom Tool 1. From the View tab and the Zoom group, click Zoom. 2. From the Zoom options, click the required size eg 75%. 3. Click OK. 8

10 Using Help Excel supplies a Help system that makes it easy for you to look up information on applications commands and features as you work. 1. Press the F1 key on your keyboard or click the Microsoft Help button near the top right of your screen. Excel will open the Excel Help task pane. 2. In the Search for: box, enter the text relating to the information you want to find. 3. Click Search. 4. Excel will display a list of options, click on a relevant option. Excel will display this information. 5. Close the Excel Help task pane by clicking the Close button Formatting Selecting (highlighting) cells Cell Range of adjacent cells Range of non-adjacent cells A larger range of cells eg not all displayed on one screen An entire row An entire column Adjacent rows/columns Click on the cell Click on the first cell in the range and drag to the last cell in the range or click in the first cell. Select the first cell or range of cells. Hold down the Ctrl key. Select the other cell or range of cells. Select the first cell in the range. Hold down the Shift key. Click on the last cell in the range. Click on the row heading Click on the column heading Drag across the row or column headings. Alternatively select the first row/column. Hold down the Shift key. Select the last row/column. 9

11 You can use formatting to change text and number attributes. Format Text 1. Highlight the cell range you want to apply the formatting to. 2. From the Home tab and the Font group select the option(s). Font Font Size Bold Italics Underline Some options are not displayed in the toolbar, for more comprehensive options use the Format Cells Font: dialogue launcher. Format Numbers Currency 1. With the cell(s) selected from the Home tab and the Number group click the General down arrow. 2. From the drop down list click Currency. Thousand separator 1. With the cell(s) selected, from the Home tab and the Number group, click Comma Style. Decimal Places & Percentage With the cell(s) selected, from the Home tab and the Number group select the required option. Percentage Decrease decimal Increase decimal 10

12 Dates 1. From the Home tab and the Number group, click the General down arrow. 2. Select either Short Date or Long Date. 3. Click OK. Alignment You can align text within a cell, across a range of cells or merge several cells to hold a sheet title. Ideally, if you have a title heading it is a good idea to leave a blank line between the title heading and the information. Top align Middle align Bottom align Orientation Wrap text Merge & Centre Align text left Align text right Centre Border Effects As you work with your worksheet on screen, you ll notice that each cell is identified by gridlines that surround the cell. By default these gridlines do not print; even if you choose to print them, they don t look very good on the printed page. To create well-defined lines on the printout (and onscreen, for that matter), you can add borders to selected sides. 1. Highlight the cell range 2. From the Home tab and the Font group click the More Borders down arrow. 3. Select the required option. 11

13 If you want to change the colour of the border and or the line style, click the More Borders down arrow and from the drop down list More Borders. Select the options in this sequence: Style Color: Presets/Border. Fill Effects Another way to offset certain cells in a worksheet is to add shading to those cells. With shading, you can add a colour or gray shading to the background of a cell. 1. From the Home tab and the Font group, click the Fill Color down arrow. 2. Select the required colour option. 12

14 Format Painter Once you have formatted the text in one cell, Excel offers a function whereby you can copy the formatting to other cells. 1. Click in the cell(s) you want to copy the formatting from. 2. From the Home tab and the Clipboard group, double-click Format Painter 3. Click the cells you want to apply to formatting to (the formatting will automatically change). 4. Press the Esc key on your keyboard or click the Format Painter button again to de-select the Format Painter option. Set the Height/Width of a Row/Column Width There may be occasions when you will need to increase the height or width of a row or column eg if the height or width is not sufficient to show all the data or you want to emphasise the row/column. Row 1. Right-click in row. Rightclick in the row heading 2. From the drop-down list click Row Height 3. Change the Row height: to the required option. 4. Click OK. 13

15 Column Column heading 1. Right-click in the column heading. 2. From the drop-down list, select Column Width 3. Change the Column width: to the required option. 4. Click OK. Inserting/Deleting Rows/Columns 1. From the Home tab and the Cells group, click the Insert down arrow. 2. From the drop-down list click Insert Sheet Rows or Insert Sheet Columns. Use the same method if you want to delete a row/column, selecting the required option. Undo option If you make a mistake use the Undo icon. Use the Redo icon when you want to redo something you have just undone. Both are found in the Quick Access toolbar, found at the top left of the screen. Clicking the down arrow will display a list of undos allowing you to select how many actions you wish to undo. 14

16 Switch between worksheet Your spreadsheet may contain several worksheets and it is easy to move between each of these to enable you to work on them. With the spreadsheets open click on the worksheet tab you want to view. Sales worksheet Purchase worksheet Delete a Worksheet 1. Right-click on the worksheet tab. 2. From the pop-up list, click Delete. 3. Excel will ask if you want to delete the worksheet, click Delete. (If there is no data in a worksheet, Excel will automatically delete without giving you this prompt.) Insert a Worksheet 1. Right-click on the worksheet tab where you want the new worksheet to appear. 2. From the pop-up list, select Insert. 3. From the Insert dialogue box and the General tab, with Worksheet selected lick OK. 15

17 Name a Worksheet It is a good idea to name a worksheet relating to the information it contains. 1. Right-click on the worksheet tab. 2. From the pop-up list, click Rename. 3. Type in the new worksheet name 4. Press the Enter key on your keyboard. Copy Data Between Worksheets 1. With the cells selected, from the Home tab and the Clipboard group, click Copy. 2. Click on the destination worksheet and the destination cell. 3. From the Home tab and the Clipboard group, click Paste Use the same method to move the contents of a worksheet, selecting Cut from the Clipboard group. Copy a Worksheet to a New Spreadsheet A worksheet in a spreadsheet can easily be copied or moved to an existing spreadsheet or to a new spreadsheet without having to retype all the data. 1. Right-click on the worksheet tab. 2. From the pop-up list, click Move or Copy 16

18 3. In the To book:.. section, click the down arrow. 4. From the drop-down list, click (new book). 5. Click the Create a copy option. 6. Click OK. Use the same method to move a worksheet, but do not select the Create a copy option at Step 5. If you want to copy/move a worksheet from one spreadsheet to another existing spreadsheet, open both spreadsheets. The spreadsheet name will be shown in the To book: drop-down arrow. Move a Worksheet in a Spreadsheet You may need to change the order of your worksheets eg to appear in alphabetical order, data order or the one you work use most frequently to appear at the beginning of the spreadsheet. Click and drag the worksheet tab to the new destination point. Move indicator Sorting Records There may be occasion when you wish to sort your data by a particular column or column heading eg Items. Excel will sort the data by a column and its relevant data. 1. Click in the column you want to sort (do not highlight the column). 2. From the Home tab and Editing group, click the Sort & Filter down arrow. 3. Select Sort A-Z. to sort ascending order or Sort Z-A to sort descending order 17

19 Headers and Footers Headers and footers are used when you need certain information to appear on all/selected pages in your document. A header appears at the top of a page and a footer appears at the bottom of a page. Insert text 1. From the Insert tab and the Text group select Header and Footer. 2. The Header area will be appear with 3 sections displayed. Click in the required section and type in the text. (To view the Footer section scroll down the page.) Insert a field Click in the Header/Footer section and then select the required option from the Header & Footer Elements group. Current Date File Name Sheet Name 18

20 Search 1. From the Home tab and the Editing group, select Find & Select and then Find from the drop-down list. 2. With the Find tab selected, type in the word you want to find. 3. Click Find Next. 4. Excel will display the found item ie pens 5. Click Close to close the Find and Replace dialogue box. Tip: If you want Excel to search several worksheet, click the Options>> button, and then select the Within: down-arrow and then select Workbook. Replace A great way to change multiply occurrence of a label or value is using Excel s Replace feature; you can locate data in the worksheet and replace it with new data. 1. From the Home tab and the Editing group, select Find & Select and then Replace from the drop-down list. 2. Type in the word you want to replace in the Find what: box. 3. Type the word you want to replace it with in the Replace with box. 4. Click Replace All. 5. Excel will prompt you with the number of times it has made the replacement, click OK. 19

21 Freeze Options When spreadsheets do not display in their entirety on screen, it is useful to be able to keep rows or columns visible so that when scrolling through you can still see what the cell contents relate to. Excel allows you to freeze row/column headings so that they are visible even when they should have scrolled out of view. 1. From the View tab and the Window group, select the Freeze Panes down arrow. 2. Select the required option. To unfreeze: from the Window group and the Freeze Panes down arrow, select: Unfreeze Panes. Freeze first column Freeze column Freeze row(s) Freeze columns and rows Select Freeze First Column Click in a cell to the right of where you want the split to appear. Click in a row below where you want to split to appear. Click in the cell below and to the right of the column you want the split to appear. Click Freeze Panes from the Freeze Panes options. Formulas and Functions All formulae must start with the = sign. This instructs Excel that a calculation needs to be performed on the formula that is entered. If the = sign is not entered first, Excel will recognise the formula as text and not perform a calculation. When you enter the cell reference in a formula, you can either use lower or upper case, Excel will automatically amend the case to upper. Formulae also contain Arithmetic symbols, known as operators, to perform basic mathematical operations eg addition. 20

22 Examples: + (plus sign) addition - (minus sign) subtraction * (asterisk) multiplication / (forward slash) division The Arithmetic symbols can be found on the number pad on your keyboard or on the main keyboard. ALL FORMULAE BEGIN WITH THE EQUAL SIGN = Addition 1. Click in the cell where you want to display the result and enter = (the equal sign) 2. Click the first cell you want to appear in your formula 3. Press the + key on your numeric keypad. 4. Click the next cell you want to appear in your formula. Repeat steps 3 and 4 to add any additional cells. 5. Press the Enter key on your Numeric keyboard. OR Type the following formula in the result cell: =first cell reference+next cell reference eg =A2+A3 Subtraction Repeat the steps for addition but at step 3 press the key on your numeric keypad. OR Type the following formula in the result cell: first cell reference-next cell reference eg =C2-C3 Multiplication Repeat the steps for addition but at step 3 press the * or x key on your numeric keypad. OR Type the following formula in the result cell: first cell reference*next cell reference: eg =E2*E3 21

23 Division Repeat the steps for addition but at step 3 press the / or key on your numeric keypad. OR Type the following formula in the result cell: first cell reference/next cell reference: eg =G2/G3 FUNCTIONS Functions are Excel s built-in formulae; they are ready-made formulae that perform a series of operations on a specified range of values. For example, to calculate the SUM of a series of numbers in cell A1 through H1, you enter the function =SUM(A1:H1) or to calculate the AVERAGE of a series of numbers in cell A1 through H1, you enter the function =AVERAGE(A1:H1). Commonly Used Excel Functions Functions Example Description SUM =SUM(A1:H1) Calculates the total in a range of cells. AVERAGE =AVERAGE(A1:H1) Calculates the average of a range of cells. MIN =MIN(A1:H1) Returns the minimum value in a range of cells. MAX =MAX(A1:H1) Returns the maximum value in a range of cells. COUNT =COUNT(A1:H1) Counts the number of cells that hold numeric values in the selected range of cells. COUNTA =COUNTA(A1:H1) Counts the number of cells that hold text in the selected range of cells. COUNTBLANK =COUNTBLANK(A1:H1) Counts the number of cells that are blank (empty) IF =IF(A2>200, YES, NO ) Or =IF(A2>A3,H1,H2) Looks in cell A2 for the condition ie greater than 200 or a cell reference, if it is, returns the result Yes or the contents of a cell reference, if it is not, returns the result No or the contents of a cell reference Use the following symbols with IF Functions: = is equal to >= greater than or equal to < less than <= less than or equal to > greater than <> not equal to ROUND =ROUND(B3,0) Rounds the contents of cell B3 to 0 22

24 SUM Function If you needed to total a whole column of figures, it would be very time consuming to type =A1+B1+C1+D1. Any group of continuous cells is called a range of cells and fortunately Excel provides an easier way to total such groups of cells. You can instruct the computer to total the cells from the first cell reference to the last, including the cells in between with a colon separating the first and last cells in the range ie =sum(a1:d1) So instead of entering A1+B1+C1+D1 to find the total you can enter the function or use the AutoSum button in the toolbar. =sum(a1:d1) This gives the total of the numbers in cells A1 to D1 1. Click in the cell where you want to display the result. 2. From the Formulas tab and the Function Library group click the AutoSum down arrow. 3. From the drop down list click Sum. 4. Excel will display a suggested cell range with a scrolling dashed box. (If the range of cells suggested are not correct just highlight the correct range.) 5. Either press the Enter key on your keyboard or click the Enter key in the Formula bar. OR Type in the required cell range in the result cell: eg =SUM(B3:B8) AVERAGE Function Repeat the steps for the SUM function but at step 3 select Average. OR Type in the required cell range in the result cell: eg =AVERAGE(F3:F7) 23

25 MIN Function Repeat the steps for the SUM function but at step 3 select Min OR Type in the required cell range in the result cell: eg =MIN(F3:F7) MAX Function Repeat the above steps, selecting Max from the AutoSum drop-down list. OR Type in the required cell range in the result cell: eg =MAX(F3:F7) COUNT Function Repeat the above steps, selecting Count numbers from the AutoSum drop-down list. OR Type in the required cell range in the result cell: eg =COUNT(F3:F7) COUNTA Function The AutoSum does not offer the COUNTA option, you can either enter the function in cell B31 ie =COUNTA(A2:A13) or use the Function Builder. 1. From the Formulas tab and the Function Library group, click the Insert Function button. 2. In the Insert Function dialogue box, enter counta in the Search for a function section, click Go. 24

26 3. From the Select a function: option, click COUNTA 4. Click OK 5. The Function Arguments dialogue box will open. 3. Highlight the range of cell you want to include in your function. 4. Excel will add this range to the Function Arguments dialogue Value 1 box. 5. Click OK. 25

27 COUNTBLANK Function Repeat the above steps entering countblank in the Search for a function: box. ROUND Function 1. Click in cell where you want the result displayed. 2. From the Formulas tab and the Function Library group, click Insert Function. 3. Type round in the Search for a function box, and then click Go. 4. Excel will display several round functions but the one we are going to use is the basic round function, click ROUND and then OK. 26

28 5. The Function Arguments box will be displayed, in the Number box either click in the cell you want to round ie I17 or type I In the Num_digits box enter Click OK. IF Function The AutoSum does not offer the IF option, you can either enter the function in the cell or use the Function Builder. 1. Click in destination cell. 2. From the Formulas tab and the Function Library group click the Insert Function button. 3. Enter if in the Search for a function: section. Click Go. 27

29 4. With IF selected in the Select a function options, click OK. 5. Enter the criteria in the Logical_test dialogue box, ie B12>C12 6. Enter the data you want displayed if the argument is true in the Value_if_true dialogue box ie the data or cell reference containing the data. 7. Enter the data you want displayed in the Value_if_false dialogue box ie the data or cell reference containing the data. (You will notice that Excel adds speech marks ( ) around text entered in the Value_if_true and Value_if_false boxes this instructs Excel that the contents of cells B24 and B25 are text ie YES and NO not numbers.) 8. Click OK. OR Type in the function =IF(Logical_text,Value_if_true,Value_if_false) Eg =IF(D27>2500, YES, NO ) or =IF(B2<C2,A15,A16) 28

30 Use the following symbols in the logical test with IF Functions: = is equal to > is greater than < is less than <= is less than or equal to >= is greater than or equal to <> not equal to Fill Button If the same formula needs to be entered into other cells eg to total the remaining columns/rows, you do not have to type in the formula each time, you can replicate (copy) the formula to each of the cells using the Fill button. 1. Click in cell you want to copy, you will notice that Excel adds a border around the cell (cell selector) which contains a little black box at the bottom right of this cell. 2. Move the mouse pointer onto the square at the bottom right-hand corner of the cell until it changes to a black cross. 3. With this displayed, click and drag over the cell range. 4. Release the left mouse button. 29

31 Absolute Cell Reference When you copy a formula from one place in the worksheet to another, Excel adjusts the cell reference in the formulae relative to the new positions in the worksheet. There might be occasions when you don t want Excel to change the reference related to a particular cell that appears in a formula. For example, suppose you have a worksheet that adds an extra set amount to an item ie in the example below the VAT is contained in only one cell on the worksheet B2. Therefore, when you create the formula used in cell C5 (=B5*B2 ie multiply B5 by B2) and then copy to cells C6 to C9, you need to make sure that the VAT amount in cell B2 is always referenced by the formula. This is a case where you must absolutely reference the VAT amount in cell B2. Therefore you would instruct Excel that cell B8 is an absolute cell and the formula used is =B5+$B$2 (the character $ makes the cell reference absolute). Function copied to the cell range C6 to C9 (formula view) Now if the VAT changes from 20% you only have to amend the contents of cell B2 and the corresponding cells containing this cell reference will automatically recalculate. Magic!!!! 30

32 Set Orientation A worksheet is set to print in portrait orientation by default, but landscape orientation is useful if you have a worksheet with a large number of columns. Portrait short side of the paper at the top Landscape - long side of the paper at the top. 1. From the Page Layout tab and the Page Setup group, select the Orientation down arrow. 2. From the Orientation options, select Portrait or Landscape. Margins 1. From the Page Layout tab and the Page Setup group, select the Margins down arrow. 2. From the Margins options, click Custom Margins Amend the margins as required. 4. Click OK. 31

33 Errors in Formulas If a formula can t properly evaluate a result, Microsoft Excel will display an error value. Each error type has different causes, and different solutions. Listed below are samples: #DIV/0! Occurs when a number is divided by zero (0). #NAME? Occurs when Microsoft Excel doesn't recognize text in a formula. #REF! Occurs when a cell reference is not valid. Problems can be reviewed in two ways: one at a time like a spelling checker, or immediately on the worksheet as you work. A triangle appears in the top-left corner of the cell (F6) when a problem is found. Both methods present the same options. Cell with a formula problem A problem can be resolved using the options that appear, or it can be ignored. If a problem is ignored, it does not appear in further error checks. However, all previously ignored errors can be reset so that they appear again. Formulae View There may be occasions when you need to view the formulae contained in cells not the values eg this is another way to check if there are errors in the formula/function. Excel changes the column widths by default when you change to formulae view, but if the formulae/functions are not displayed in full, increase the width of the relevant column(s). Hold down the Ctrl key, gently press the grave accent key, once (the key to the left of the number 1 key on your QWERTY keyboard - if you are not sure which key to press, ask your tutor). Ensure all formulae are displayed in full, if not increase the columns widths as needed, scroll across your worksheet until the formula are displayed. Remove Formulae View With the worksheet displayed on the screen, hold down the Ctrl key; gently press the grave accent key, once (the key to the left of the number 1 key on your QWERTY keyboard). 32

34 Fit to One or More Pages If your worksheet is too large to print on one page even after you change the orientation and margins, consider using the Fit To Page(s) option. This option shrinks the worksheet to make it fit on the specified number of pages. You can specify the document s width and height. But remember, don t try to cram too much information on a page; this will make the font very small and the data difficult to read. 1. From the Page Layout tab and the Scale to Fit group, click the Width: down arrow and then select the required option. 2. Repeat for the Height if required. Display Gridlines and Row/Column Headings 1. From the Page Layout tab and the Sheet Options group. 2. Select Print from the Gridlines option and then Print from the Headings options (a tick will appear in both boxes when these options are selected). Apply Automatic Title Row Print Option Excel provides a way for you to select labels and titles that are located on the top edge and left side of a large worksheet and to print them on every page of the printout. This option is useful when a worksheet is too wide to print on a single page. If you don t use this option, the extra columns or rows are printed on subsequent pages without any descriptive labels 1. From the Page Layout tab and the Page Setup group, click Print Titles. 33

35 2. From the Sheet tab and the Print titles section, click the Rows to repeat at top: box. Click here 3. Move the mouse pointer to the row heading ie 1 and an arrow will be displayed. Arrow shown 4. With this arrow displayed, click the left mouse button. Excel will add $1:$1 to the Rows to repeat at top: box. 5. Click OK. Use the same method to automatically display a column on each page, select Columns to repeat at left: option and then select the column heading. 34

36 CHARTS Charts enable you to create a graphical representation of data in a worksheet. You can use charts to make data more understandable to people who view your printed worksheets. Working with Different Chart Types With Excel, you can create many types of charts. Some common chart types are show below. The chart type you choose depends on the kind of data you are trying to chart and on how you want to present that data. Pie Bar Use this chart type to show the relationship among parts of a whole. Use this chart type to compare values at a given point in time. Column Similar to the bar chart; use this chart type to emphasise the difference between items. Line Use this chart type to emphasise trends and the change of values over time. Pie chart Column chart Line chart Bar chart When entering data to produce a chart, make sure that you do not leave any empty cells among the data, because when the data is highlighted to create the chart, empty cells will also be taken into the chart. 35

37 1. Highlight the cells that contain the data you want displayed as a chart ie A3 to B5. 2. From the Insert tab and the Charts group, click the required chart option icon ie Pie (Different types of Pie charts are available, click the Pie down arrow). Format data labels 1. With the chart selected, from the Layout tab and Labels group, click the Data Labels down arrow and then select More Data Label Options. 36

38 2. Select the required option ie Percentages from the Label Contains section. (You can also select a Label Position, if required.) 3. Click Close. Add/Remove a Chart Title 1. With the chart selected, from the Layout tab and Labels group, click the Chart Title down arrow and then select the required option. 2. If you selected to add a chart title, enter the title in the chart title placeholder. Add/Remove/Position a Legend With the chart selected, from the Layout tab and Labels group, click the Legend down arrow and then select the required option. Save a Chart Your chart is saved within a worksheet or saved on a sheet of its own so by saving the spreadsheet it will automatically include your chart. 37

39 Print a Chart 1. With your chart selected on the screen, from the File tab click Print. 2. Click the Print icon. If you want to print a chart saved as an object in a worksheet and the contents of the worksheet, do not select your chart before selecting Print. Create a Chart from Two Separate Parts of a Spreadsheet 1. Highlight the first set of data. Holding down the Ctrl key, highlight the second set of data. 2. Release the Ctrl key. You are now ready to create a chart. Move a Chart 1. With the chart selected, from the Design tab and the Location group, select the Move Chart. 2. Select New sheet: if not already selected, if you want to name the new sheet, delete Chart1 and enter the sheetname. 3. Click OK. Tip: If you want to save the chart in a different worksheet as an object, click the Object in: down arrow, and then select the worksheet name. 38

40 Format Chart Titles/Legends/Data Labels - Font Size and Type 1. Click on the item you want to apply the formatting to. 2. From the Home tab and the Font group, change the font type, font size, font colour etc to the required specifications. Font type Font size Fill colour Bold Italics Font colour Change Colours in Pie Chart It is important that the different segments of your chart are easily identifiable eg two segments should not be the same/similar colour. 1. Click on the chart to make it active. 2. Click anywhere in the segment, once. This should now be the only segment active. 3. Right click in this segment. 4. From the floating toolbar, click the Shape Fill down arrow. Select the required option. 39

41 Change Segment Colour in a Bar/Column Chart 1. Right click on the series. 2. From the floating toolbar select the Shape Fill down arrow. 3. Select the required option. Format the Chart Area 1. Right click anywhere in the Chart Area. 3. Select the required option. 2. From the floating toolbar click the Shape Fill down arrow. 40

42 Re-position a Chart Saved as an Object in a Worksheet When you create the chart as an object in a worksheet, you can instruct Excel to print the data and the chart on the same page. When you wish to do this, you should ensure that the chart does not obscure any data in the worksheet. 1. If you want to move a chart within a worksheet, click on the chart to make it active, release the mouse button. 2. Position the mouse pointer anywhere in the background of the chart, press and hold down the left mouse button. 3. Drag to the new position. 4. Release the left mouse button. Resize a chart If you want to resize a chart, click on the chart to make it active, click and drag a corner resizing handle while holding down the Ctrl key. (Holding down the Ctrl key as you resize a chart using the resizing handles will ensure proportions are maintained.) Resizing handles 41

43 Amending a chart If you want to amend an existing chart use the options: Design ribbon Group Icon Type Amend the chart type eg from a pie to a column chart Data Change the range of cells you highlighted to create the chart Location Move the chart to a another sheet or a tab in the workbook Layout ribbon Labels Add/amend or position the chart title Labels Add/remove or position the text used to label each axis Labels Add/remove or position legend Labels Add/remove or position data labels. Use data labels to label the elements of the chart with their actual data values Exit MS Excel From the Office button, select Exit. 42

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