# Harmonic Vehicle/Track Interaction: Using Simulation Tools to Increase Train Speeds and Safety Assurance. Raphael Marotta Lucas Valente

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1 Harmonic Vehicle/Track Interaction: Using Simulation Tools to Increase Train Speeds and Safety Assurance Raphael Marotta Lucas Valente 1

2 MRS Logistic in Brazil MRS Logística is a concessionary that controls, operates and monitors the Southeastern Federal Railroad Network. The company has been in operation in cargo railway transportation since 1996 Across the rails, connect the three main economic centers of Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and São Paulo. MRS Shareholders 2

3 Why a presentation on harmonic excitations? Some derailments are related with harmonic excitations. Methodology developed to analyze the vehicle dynamic behaviour taking in account the MRS s features of vehicles, track and operation. Operation s need to increase speed in many sections of MRS track safely. Case: Derailment with a GHS (Gondola Hopper) wagonwithworntruckconditions. 3

4 What is a resonance phenomenon? A vibratory system will have energy dissipated when oscillating only under an initial disturbance. An external force must be applied to maintain an oscillation motion, such as: harmonic, nonharmonic, transient or random. In a railway track irregularities are harmonic motion of the base Resonance is a harmonic excitation, when the frequency of excitation coincides with the natural frequency of the system. 4

5 What is a resonance phenomenon? Single degree of freedom fr f 1 f 2 1 Natural frequency Excitation frequency Resonance 5

6 Carbody modes The lower sway is a combination between rolling and lateral oscilation. 6

7 Carbody modes 7

8 Lower sway The lower sway motion is related to the cross level irregularity. The harmonic instability occurs when the excitation frequency is near to the carbody natural frequency of sway mode. 8

9 Vehicle modal analysis Eingenvalue method Although the freight car is suspension is non linear, this analysis allows to examine and understand about the carbody mode. The result is the free response of the system. Frequency Mode f n (Hz) ζ f d (Hz) 1 Lower sway f LS LS f LS 2 Yaw f Y Y f Y 3 Bounce f B B f B 4 Pitch f P P f P f n : Natural frequency ζ: Damping factor f d : Natural frequency 5 Upper sway f US US f US 9

10 Harmonic combination Connecting speed, frequency and wavelength, thus: Wavelength vs Speed Speed (km/h) Wavelength (m) Lower Sway Yaw Bounce Pitch Upper Sway 10

11 Lower sway frequency Transient method An external force is applied in the carbody center of gravity. 2 simulations were performed, one with friction wedges(damping natural frequency) and the other without(natural frequency). Vehicle oscillation Natural frequency 11

12 Lower sway frequency 12

13 Geometry data processing After modal analysis it is necessary identify the λ from geometry data provided by the TrackSTAR It is usual to apply Signal Processing Tools for this purpose Strip Chart (Cross level) Wagon Speed Defect amp Geometry Data Track Wavelenght Excitation frequency v=λf v f Km 13

14 Geometry data processing The geometry data is defined as a sum of sines and cosines λ is determinated using the Fast Fourier Transform method Sin (0.02πx) Geometry data sample f(x) = sin (0.02πx) sin (0.04 πx) + 2.5sin (0.08 πx + 0.5) + sin (0.16 πx) PSD An alternative way to represent track geometry Sin (0.04πx) 2.5 Sin( 0.08πx +0.5) Sin (0.16πX) 14

15 P O W E R Geometry data processing Expected behavior of a PSD Frequency 15

16 Geometry data processing With the modal analisys completed, the next step is to determine the frequency bands of interest. Upper and Low frequency limits must be defined. What do we need to identify if the resonance phenomenon occurs? Determinate power within the frequency band. A higher power level correspond to most likely resonance. Diagnosticate risk areas ( mile post) and confirm the diagnosis through simulation. Modal Analisys Track Inspetion Input data Simulation Geometry data processing 16

17 Geometry data processing FREQUENCY UPPER LIMIT Frequency band LOW LIMIT POWER Km Post POWER Power within the frequency band 17

18 Simulation Vehicle Modeling Main vehicle modeling elements in VAMPIRE Mass Wheelset Stiffness elements Spring Friction elements Non linear stiffness

19 Suballast Main track modeling elements in VAMPIRE Geometry Track Geometry Car Rail and Fasntenings Simulation Track Modeling Ballast Foundation Tie Shoulder Vertical Stiffness Track Modulus Field Instrumentation, Track Inspection Vehicle. Lateral Stiffness Rail to tie TrackSTAR Tie to ballast STPT, Tamping Machines.

20 Case GHS derailment 20

21 GHS Vehicle Modeling Vehicle GHS 100 tons with Ride Control 6 x 11 truck. High conicity wheel profile. Center of gravity height: 2.21 m. Block side bearing. Constant damping with worn wedges. 62 degree of freedom. Note: Friction wedges in worn conditions due to failure in the manufacturing process 21

22 Vehicle modal analysis Eingenvalue method results: Frequency Mode f n (Hz) ζ f d (Hz) 1 Lower sway Yaw Bounce Pitch Upper sway

23 Transient method results: Lower sway frequency Natural frequency Damping natural frequency 0.88 Hz 0.83 Hz 23

24 Harmonic combination Wavelength vs Speed Speed (km/h) Lower Sway Yaw Bounce Pitch Upper Sway Wavelength (m) 24

25 Harmonic combination CWR length at MRS 240 m Dominant Wavelength If the rail Parameter Bar length 24 m or welds Component (m) joints were Affected applied The wavelength is more 50 or in less a the alternating same CWR length due the low stiffiness way the region λ will be 20 Ballast Vehicle 12 m(comfort) 10 Low stiffness 5 λ = 24 m 2 Dynamic forces 1 Rail (Track 0.5 deterioration) Low 0.05 stiffness Mode f n (Hz) Lower sway 0.94 Yaw km/h λ yaw = 5.72 m

26 Track geometry at derailment site Visually the cross level wavelengths seems to be about 20 m. It s necessary to investigate more deeply MAXIMUM DEFECTS AMPLITUDES Surface 10 mm Alignment 12 mm Cross level 17 mm Gauge 20 mm No geometry exceptions 26

27 FREQUENCY POWER Track Geometry Analysis Km Post UPPER LIMIT = 0.05 Hz Frequency band LOW LIMIT = 0.06 Hz POWER From the modal analysis Damping natural frequency 0.83 Hz Natural frequency 0.88 Hz Frequency band lower sway Likely sites for to find 0.83Hz to 0.88Hz a harmonic Wagon Speed behavior 50 km/h λ = 15m 16 m f = 1/ λ f = 0.05Hz 0.06Hz v. f Natural frequency 0.83Hz to 0.88Hz 27

29 Speed Gains 2015 Results reached through simulation Ferrovia do Aço Paraopeba STEPS TO INCREASE SPEED SAFELY L/V Hunting Harmonic Behavior Longitudinal Dynamic Location Speed Gain Car type Ferrovia do Aço Gondola Paraopeba Fuel tank car Paraopeba Cement tank car Vale Paraíba After the derailment at Vale do Paraiba, the harmonic behavior is taken into account to increase train speeds at MRS. No derailments related to harmonic behavior since 2013! 29

30 Conclusions Harmonic excitation analysis is an important step to increase speed safely. Multibody simulations can be applied to support new operation conditions. The simulations can reduce cost and time in instrumentation field tests, if necessary. The methodology presented is applicable for any vehicle, speed, and carbody modes. 30

31 Questions? Raphael Marota Lucas Valente 31

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