Bell Task 11/15. Using Table F determine if the following substances are soluble or insoluble.

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1 Using Table F determine if the following substances are soluble or insoluble. Silver Iodide Calcium Chromate Barium Hydroxide Sodium Chlorate Strontium Sulfate Lithium Carbonate Bell Task 11/15 Oct 18 2:28 PM Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous solutions Alot of chemistry takes place in water or in aqueous solutions. It is imperative to study these types of reactions. Oct 18 2:11 PM 1

2 4.1 Some ways that chemical reactions occurs There are 3 chemical reactions that take place in aqueous solution: 1. Precipitation-insoluble solid formed-table F 2. Acid Base Neutralization 3. REDOX-reduction/oxidation Precipitation Reaction- Table F - Regents Reference Table occurs between 2 aqueous solutions that form an insoluble product indicated for a solid product formed. Cations and anions exchange partners Example: KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2 KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s) Soluble or Insoluble: 1. Calcium Sulfate 2. Silver Iodide 3. Ammonium Hydroxide 4. Barium Chromate 5. Aluminum Sulfide Memorize Page 112 for Solubility Guidelines Quiz on Wednesday! Oct 18 2:30 PM Acid Base Neutralization are reactions between acids and bases that produce salt and water NaOH (aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) Remember, definition of Acids in Chapter 2-they produce H+ ions in solution and Bases produce OHions in solution. You should be able to predict products of these reactions! Oct 18 2:37 PM 2

3 Try these Problem 4.1 a c Nov 14 7:44 PM Bell Task 11/16 Problem 4.32 Nov 16 9:51 AM 3

4 Oct 19 10:15 AM Bell Task Think backwards on this problem. How might you use a precipitation reaction to prepare a sample of PbI 2? Oct 19 9:58 PM 4

5 Electrolytes are substances that dissolve in water to produce conducting solution of ions. CH 3 OH Methanol is an alcohol group that does not conduct current because of the hydroxyl group attached- Any alcohol does not conduct current -can be weak electrolytes or strong electrolytes -All ionic bonded substances ARE STRONG ELECTROLYTES AND will produce MANY ions in solution and dissociate to almost completely. -All acids and bases will produce ions in solution-some ACIDS AND BASES ARE WEAK AND STRONG remember -NonPolar covalent bonded substances WILL NOT CONDUCT CURRENT BECAUSE OF NO DIPOLES PRESENT-no partial charges present. Oct 19 9:29 PM Difference in Strength of Electrolytes NaCl Glucose Strong electrolyte is a compound that dissociates almost completely Weak electrolyte is a compound that dissociates to small extent and produces just a few ions in solution Oct 19 9:42 PM 5

6 Practice problems 11/17 Nov 16 7:09 PM Dissociation of NaCl Video Dissociation of KMnO 4 Video electrolyte vs. nonelectrolyte video Strong vs. Weak Electrolyte video Nov 16 7:30 PM 6

7 Nov 16 7:18 PM Nov 16 7:19 PM 7

8 Notice the moles of each ion produced! We can use aqueous solution stoichiometry to figure out the molar concentration of ions produced. Nov 16 7:19 PM Dissociation is a process where a compound splits apart when dissolved in water-see below example! H 2 O K 2 SO 4 (s) 2K + (aq) + SO 2 4 (aq) How many total moles of ions were produced? Sample Problem: What is the total molar concentration of ions in a M solution of strong electrolyte Potassium Sulfate, assuming complete dissociation? Oct 19 9:37 PM 8

9 Bell Task 11/18 Below are three different substances. Which one is the strongest electrolyte and weakest electrolyte from the illustration below. Nov 17 10:48 AM Solubility Guidelines from Brown and LeMay Text Nov 17 10:50 AM 9

10 Sample Problem 4.2 What is the molar concentration of Br ions in a M aqueous solution of FeBr 3, assuming complete dissocation. Nov 16 7:26 PM Nov 16 7:19 PM 10

11 Nov 16 7:20 PM Nov 16 7:20 PM 11

12 Nov 16 7:20 PM Memorize table 4.1 NH 3 Oct 19 9:46 PM 12

13 Oct 19 9:48 PM Bell Task Identify the following as soluble or insoluble using solubility guidelines 1. PbCrO 4 2. NaOH 3. AgBr 4. (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 5. CaCO 3 6. KCl Nov 16 7:40 PM 13

14 Bell Task Identify the following as soluble or insoluble using solubility guidelines 1. PbCrO 4 2. NaOH 3. AgBr 4. (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 5. CaCO 3 6. KCl Oct 20 9:48 PM Solubility Guidelines Soluble Compounds Compounds containing alkali metal ions and Ammonium ion form soluble compounds Nitrates, bicarbonates, and chlorates form soluble compounds Halides(Cl, Br, I) form soluble compounds except Ag +, Hg +2 2, Pb +2 Sulfates form soluble compounds except-ag+,ca+2, Sr+2, Ba+2, Hg+2, Pb+2 Insoluble compounds Carbonates, Phosphates, Chromates and Sulfides except when combined with alkali metal ions and Ammonium ion Hydroxides except when combined with alkali metals and the Ba+2 ions Oct 20 9:23 PM 14

15 Oct 20 9:23 PM Nov 17 1:08 PM 15

16 Nov 17 1:09 PM Nov 17 1:09 PM 16

17 Nov 17 1:09 PM Nov 17 1:09 PM 17

18 Nov 17 1:09 PM Sample Problem Write out the balanced net ionic equation for aqueous Potassium Chromate reacting with Barium Nitrate. Nov 17 1:11 PM 18

19 Net Ionic Equations Oct 20 8:22 PM Nov 19 10:28 AM 19

20 Nov 19 10:16 AM 11/22/10 start Oct 19 10:02 PM 20

21 Oct 20 8:22 PM Oct 20 8:22 PM 21

22 Sample Problem A chemical reaction occurs between aqueous Chromium III Sulfate and aqueous Ammonium Carbonate. Write the net ionic equation for this reaction. Oct 22 10:22 AM Nov 22 10:16 AM 22

23 Nov 22 10:19 AM Bell Task 11/29 3 multiple choice questions 1. Which of the following is an electrolyte? A. Carbon Dioxide gas B. Sulfur Trichloride C. Nitrogen Monoxide D. Iron III Sulfate 2. Which of the following is a redox reaction? A. Ba(OH) 2 (aq) + HNO 3 (aq) Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) B. Na(s) + CoCl 2 (aq) NaCl(aq) + Co(s) C. AgNO 3 (aq) + KCl(aq) KNO 3 (aq) + AgCl(s) 3. Which of the following is insoluble? A. Calcium Hydroxide B. Magnesium Chromate C. Calcium Sulfate Nov 28 7:20 PM 23

24 Agenda Bell task and review Review Limiting Reactant Lab with Beakers final conclusions Review Chapter 3 test Acids and Bases and neutralization reactions Nov 28 7:37 PM Section 4.5 Acids, Bases and Neutralization Reactions Neutralization reactions occur in aqueous solution They produce and Acids have different strength (strong electrolyte vs. weak electrolyte) -produce H+ ions in solution -Table 4.2 MAKE SURE YOU KNOW A WEAK ACID/BASE FROM A STRONG ACID/BASE (page 115) -Monoprotic Acids produce 1 mole of H+ ions and dissociate only once HCl (aq) H 30+(aq) + Cl-(aq) -Diprotic Acids produce 2 moles of H+ ions and dissociate twice H2SO4(aq) H30+ + HSO4-2 HSO4-2 (aq) H30+ + SO4-2 -triprotic acids produce 3 moles of H+ ions and dissociate three times H3PO4(aq) H2PO4 3 + H3O + 1st dissociation Bases -produce OH- ion in solution -have different strength (strong vs. weak electrolyte) -Ammonia weak base dissociates slightly -NaOH strong base dissociates almost completely Net ionic equation for neutralization reactions -What do you think is left in a net ionic equation?? Example: Lithium Hydroxide reacts with Carbonic Acid to produce???? Oct 25 8:41 PM 24

25 Section 4.5 Acids, Bases and Neutralization Reactions Neutralization reactions occur in aqueous solution They produce and Acids have different strength (strong electrolyte vs. weak electrolyte) -produce H+ ions in solution -Table 4.2 MAKE SURE YOU KNOW A WEAK ACID/BASE FROM A STRONG ACID/BASE (page 115) -Monoprotic Acids produce 1 mole of H+ ions and dissociate only once HCl (aq) H30+(aq) + Cl-(aq) -Diprotic Acids produce 2 moles of H+ ions and dissociate twice H2SO4(aq) H30+ + HSO4-2 HSO4-2 (aq) H30+ + SO4-2 -triprotic acids produce 3 moles of H+ ions and dissociate three times H3PO4(aq) H2PO4 3 + H3O + 1st dissociation Bases -produce OH- ion in solution -have different strength (strong vs. weak electrolyte) -Ammonia weak base dissociates slightly -NaOH strong base dissociates almost completely Net ionic equation for neutralization reactions -What do you think is left in a net ionic equation?? Example: Lithium Hydroxide reacts with Carbonic Acid to produce???? Oct 25 8:41 PM Nov 30 10:31 AM 25

26 Nov 30 10:21 AM Dec 7 10:42 AM 26

27 Nov 28 7:33 PM Nov 28 7:33 PM 27

28 Nov 28 7:33 PM Nov 28 7:33 PM 28

29 Nov 28 7:33 PM Nov 28 7:34 PM 29

30 Nov 28 7:34 PM Nov 28 7:34 PM 30

31 Nov 28 7:34 PM Nov 28 7:34 PM 31

32 Nov 28 7:35 PM Nov 28 7:35 PM 32

33 Bell Task Determine the products and balance using lowest whole number coefficients for the following Barium Hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid to produce??? Oct 25 8:36 PM Oxidation and Reduction (REDOX) How do you know that a redox rx has occurred in aqueous solution? Is the following a redox rx? Mg(s) + HCl(aq) MgCl 2 + H 2 (g) Key terms in redox rx: -substance oxidized -substance reduced -oxidizing agent -reducing agent -half reaction for oxidation -half reaction for reduction Oct 25 8:54 PM 33

34 Bell Task 12/3 Assign the oxidation numbers to each atom in the following substances: 1. PO KAl(SO 4 ) 2 3. Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 (Potassium Aluminum Sulfate) 4. H 2 S 5. V 2 O 3 6. OH - Oct 26 7:56 PM Continued Practice of Assigning Oxidation Numbers Name each of the following using IUPAC rules! H 2 SO 4(aq) Li 2 O Rb 2 S 2 O 3 H 2 O 2 **** Dec 3 10:06 AM 34

35 Dec 2 10:28 AM Dec 3 10:14 AM 35

36 Dec 3 10:31 AM Bell Task 12/6 Identify the following as either precipitate, acid base or redox rx. Oct 25 9:10 PM 36

37 Dec 6 10:11 AM Agenda Bell task and review Review Assigning oxidation number rules Page 121 review trending of elements loss/gain of e Writing Balanced redox reactions Problem 4.13 Finish Dec 5 8:52 PM 37

38 Assigning Oxidation numbers in a chem rx 1. an atom in its elements state has an ox # of an ion has an ox # equal to its charge 3. Polyatomic ions are equal to ionic charge-don't forget to assign ox # to every part of the ion 4. Hydrogen ions can be +1 or -1-depends on what they are bonded with 5. oxygen usually have an ox # of Halogens usually have an ox # of The sum of ox # in a compound are equal to ZERO. Don't forget your Periodic Table trends for the ox #'s. Oct 25 8:57 PM Determine if the following reaction is redox? If it is determine the substance oxidized, substance reduced, oxidizing agent, reducing agent. Write the half reaction for oxidation and reduction and balance if necessary. Cu(s) + 2AgNO 3 (aq) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2Ag(s) substance Oxidized: substance Reduced: Oxidizing agent: Reducing agent: 1/2 reaction for oxidation: 1/2 reaction for reduction Balanced half reaction Oct 26 8:00 PM 38

39 Bell Task 12/7 5 multiple choice questions Dec 6 7:50 PM Agenda Bell task and review Gravimetric Analysis Lab Requirements Activity Series Guided Question: Do all single replacement reactions? How do you predict if a redox reaction will occur then? Dec 6 8:05 PM 39

40 Describe in your own terms the Activity Series Chart (Table J). What is it's purpose? How is it setup? What does it really mean? Dec 6 8:29 PM Dec 6 8:15 PM 40

41 The Activity Series ranks elements in order of their REDUCING ABILITY in aqueous solutions Elements at the top are very strong reducing agents Elements at the bottoms are very strong oxidizing agents As a result, any element higher in the activity series will reduce the ion of any element lower in the activity series. This chart helps predicts products of a reaction. Is the reaction spontaneous or not! Dec 6 8:24 PM Oct 26 8:23 PM 41

42 Dec 6 8:05 PM Bell Task Oct 26 8:11 PM 42

43 Table 4.3 Activity Series of the Elements An activity series is a list of metals arranged in order of DECREASING EASE of OXIDATION. Any metal on the list can be oxidized by the ions below. Oct 26 8:10 PM Oct 28 10:01 AM 43

44 Oct 28 10:15 AM Bell Task 12/ Which of the following will create a spontaneous reaction? A. Ca(s) + CuCl 2 (aq) B. Ag(s) + CuCl 2 (aq) C. Au(s) + Cucl 2 (aq) D. H2(g) + CrI 6 (aq) Oct 25 9:14 PM 44

45 Agenda Bell task and review Check HW Balancing by Oxidation Number Method Dec 7 1:26 PM Sometimes, redox reactions can be too difficult to balance by inspection or by the method taught in Regents! In a laboratory setting, we often encounter more complex redox reactions involving oxoanions: CrO 4 2, Cr 2 O 7 2, MnO 4,NO 3, SO 4 2. So, the oxidation number method focuses more on the chemical changes by analyzing species which are changing their oxidation numbers. This method gives us insight into electron transfer processes! Suppose, we are asked to balance the following equation in an acidic medium: Cr 2 O Cl Cr +3 + Cl 2 Dec 7 1:30 PM 45

46 net ionic equation where the spectator ions are removed! Oct 29 10:11 AM Oct 29 10:11 AM 46

47 Oct 30 10:21 AM Dec 7 1:42 PM 47

48 Oct 30 11:29 AM Problem #8 from Packet Dec 13 10:15 AM 48

49 Dec 13 10:11 AM Dec 13 10:14 AM 49

50 Dec 13 10:14 AM Dec 13 10:14 AM 50

51 Dec 13 10:29 AM Bell Task 12/14 Read each statement and determine if it is True or False write the word. 1. Reducing species are located to the right of the stairstep line on the Periodic Table. 2. Oxidizing species can be determined by an increase ox number. 3. In using the Activity series, the elements positioned at the bottom are strong reducing agents 4. The following 2 aqueous solutions will produce a precipitate: AgClO 4 (aq) + CaBr 2 (aq) 5. CH 3 COOH (aq) is a strong electrolyte. Dec 13 11:52 AM 51

52 Reactions in aqueous solutions.notebook Agenda Bell task and review Practice Redox Titration calculations4.84 Practice balancing equations in basic medium 4.92A and 4.92B Dec 13 8:50 PM 92B Dec 14 10:31 AM 52

53 Attachments Writing Ionic Equations.doc aabthaa0.mov

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