Presented by: Dr. Ted Liu. Senior Transportation Engineer

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1 2010 California Amendment to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Forth Edition LRFD for the Design of Retaining Walls September 9, 2011 Presented by: Dr. Ted Liu Senior Transportation Engineer

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5 References AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification (4 th Edition) CA Amendments to AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Spec (Sep 2010) Caltrans Memo To Designers 1-35: Foundation Recommendation and Reports Caltrans Memo To Designers 3-1: Deep Foundations Caltrans Memo To Designers 4-1: Spread Footings Caltrans Memo To Designers 5-20: Foundation Report/Geotechnical Design Report Checklist for Earth Retaining Systems

6 References TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls NCHRP Report 611 (Volumes 1 and 2): Seismic Analysis and Design of Retaining Walls, Slopes & Embankments, and Buried Structures NHI Course (New!): LRFD Seismic Analysis and Design of Transportation Structures, Features, and Foundations Caltrans Standard Plans, 2006 Edition Caltrans Standard Plans, 2010 Edition

7 Current Design in Caltrans LRFD for bridge supports LRFD for Abutments, Earth retention systems and Buried structures effective October 4, For more information, please refer to website of Office of Special Funded Projects, LRFD Information

8 RETAINING WALLS MAY 2006 EDITION STANDARD PLANS 2010 EDITION STANDARD PLANS Retaining Wall Type 1 - H = 4' through 30', Plan No. B3-1 Retaining Wall Type 1 - H = 4' through 30', Plan No. B3-1 Retaining Wall Type 1 - H = 32' through 36', Plan No. B3-2 Retaining Wall Type 1 - H = 32' through 36', Plan No. B3-2 Retaining Wall Type 1A, Plan No. B3-3 Retaining Wall Type 1A, Plan No. B3-3 Retaining Wall Type 2, Plan No. B3-4 Counterfort Retaining Wall Type 3, Plan No. B3-5 Counterfort Retaining Wall Type 4, Plan No. B3-6 Retaining Wall Type 5, Plan No. B3-7 Retaining Wall Type 5, Plan No. B3-4 Retaining Wall Details No. 1, Plan No. B3-8 Retaining Wall Details No. 1, Plan No. B3-5 Retaining Wall Details No. 2, Plan No. B3-9 Retaining Wall Details No. 2, Plan No. B3-6 Retaining Wall Type 6-6'-0" Maximum, Plan No. B3-11 Retaining Wall Type 6 Details No. 1-6'-0" Maximun, Plan No. B3-7 Retaining Wall Type 6 Details No. 2-6'-0" Maximum, Plan No. B3-8

9 Retaining Wall Type 1 - H = 4' through 30' 2006 Standard Plan 2010 Standard Plan

10 Retaining Wall Type 1A 2006 Standard Plan 2010 Standard Plan

11 Retaining Wall Type Standard Plan 2010 Standard Plan

12 Retaining Wall Type 6A - 6'-0" Maximum 2006 Standard Plan 2010 Standard Plan

13 Retaining Wall Type 6B - 6'-0" Maximum 2006 Standard Plan 2010 Standard Plan

14 TRB Webinar on February 17, 2010

15 NCHRP Project

16 Need for NCHRP Project TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls Difficulties with retaining wall seismic design M-O method blows up with high back slopes, high PGA s, not appropriate for passive Appropriate seismic coefficient Soldier pile, tieback, soil nail, and MSE walls Lack of guidance for slope stability Pseudo-static versus deformation approach Appropriate seismic coefficient Ground motion amplification Liquefaction effects

17 LRFD BACKGROUND Load and resistance factor design principles AASHTO seismic damage philosophy Design ground motions

18 Review LRFD Principles

19 What is LRFD? Load and Resistance Factor Design Resistance Factor Nominal Resistance Load Modifier Load Load factor

20 Capacity/Demand Ratio. TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

21 LRFD versus ASD The following condition must be satisfied Load Effects Resistance Difference in LRFD and ASD methods is based on how uncertainties in loads and resistances are accounted for LRFD: Load and resistance factors will be refined with time

22 Load Combinations and Load Factors TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

23 Limit States for Earthquake Design TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

24 Load Factors for Seismic Design TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

25 Resistance Factors TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

26 Limit states for LRFD Service Limit State: Load combinations (LCs) to ensure structure performance for service life Strength Limit State: LCs to ensure structural integrity despite distress and damage Extreme Event Limit State: LCs to ensure structural survival during extreme events (EQ, VC) Fatigue and Fracture Limit State: Not an issue in foundation design

27 How LRFD applied to Foundation Design Service Limit State (Permanent & total load): pile settlement, pile top deflection (φ=1.0) Strength Limit State (Comp & Tension): Determine pile length w/ load from SLS (φ=0.7) φ=0.5 for CIDH tip resistance φ=1.0 for uplift group (only for block analysis) in cohesionless material Extreme Event Limit State (Comp & Tension): Determine pile length w/ load from EELS (φ=1.0)

28 Information from Structure Designer Foundation type (CIDH, Concrete pile, Steel pile) Scour Data Finished Grade Elevation Cut-off Elevation Pile Cap size Permissible Settlement under Service Load Number of Pile per Support

29 At the early stage of design (PFR) Preliminary Foundation Design Data Sheet Support Foundation Type(s) Considered Estimate of Maximum Factored Compression Loads (kips) Abut 1 Class per pile Bent 2 Bent 3 Class 200 Pile Group 60 inch CIDH Pile Shaft 30 inch CIDH Pile Group 60 inch CIDH Pile Shaft 280 per pile 1850 per column 1950 per column Abut 4 24 inch CIDH Pile Group 170 per pile

30 At the foundation design stage (FR) Support No. Design Metho d Pile Type Finish Grade Elevatio n (ft) Cut-off Elevatio n (ft) Pile Cap Size (ft) Permissible Movement under Service Load (in) Number of Piles per Support B L D V D H Abut 1 LRFD Bent 2 LRFD Abut 3 LRFD

31 Support No. Abut 1 Total Vertical Load per Support (kip) Total Load Permanent Load** Lateral Load at Abutments (kip) Bent 2 Abut 3 Strength Limit State (Controlling Group) Extreme Event Limit State (Controlling Group) Support No. Compression Tension Compression Tension Per Support Max. Per Pile Per Support Max. Per Pile Per Support Max. Per Pile Per Support Max. Per Pile Abut 1 Bent 2 Abut 3

32 Support No. Degradation Scour (ft) Contraction Base Flood Scour (ft) Local Total Scour (ft) Abut 1 Bent 2 Abut 3

33 Foundation Recommendation for Bents (MTD 3-1 Attachment 1)

34 Bent Pile Group 1. Calculate Required Nominal Resistance for compression per pile (φ=0.7). 2. Calculate tip elevation for Required Nominal Resistance for single pile. 3. Calculate Required Nominal Resistance for total load per Support (φ=0.7 =0.7).

35 4. Calculate group nominal resistance using the tip elevation calculated for total load per pile (Group efficiency factor). 5. If the group nominal resistance is greater than the required nominal resistance per support, the tip elevation from single pile is Design Tip Elevation. 6. If the group nominal resistance is smaller than the required nominal resistance per support, increase pile spacing or length of piles.

36 Pile Data Table for Design Example

37 Group Pile in LRFD Spec 1. Minimum pile spacing - For driven pile, 36 inch or 2.0 pile diameters (CA Amendment ) - For CIDH pile, 2.5 pile diameters (CA Amendments ): sequence of CIDH pile installation required in the contract documents (less than 3.0 pile dia).

38 Group Pile in LRFD Spec 2. CIDH and Driven pile group capacity in cohesive soil - For compression, lesser of 1) Σ Nominal axial resistance of each pile 2) Nominal axial resistance of equivalent pier - For uplift, lesser of 1) Σ Nominal uplift resistance of each pile 2) Nominal uplift resistance of pile group considered as a block

39 Group Pile in LRFD Spec 3. CIDH pile and Driven pile group in cohesionless soil - For compression, 1) group efficiency factor for CIDH pile, 2) Σ Nominal axial resistance of each pile for Driven pile - For uplift, lesser of 1) Σ Nominal uplift resistance of each pile 2) Nominal uplift resistance of pile group considered as a block (resistance factor=1.0 even for strength limit state)

40 AASHTO Seismic Damage Philosophy

41 Seismic Design Philosophy Prescriptive Approach Explicit (quantified): Sustain damage without loss of life or collapse in a large, rare earthquake 7% probability of occurrence in 75 yr (1000 yr Rp) Implicit (not quantified): Withstand smaller, more frequent seismic events Without significant damage or With repairable damage

42 Seismic Design Philosophy Alternative approaches (Owner s discretion) More rigorous performance standard e.g., 3% probability of occurrence in 75 yr Multi-level (performance-based) design standard Upper level event for No Collapse Lower level event for No Damage Often applied to facilities of high importance Critical bridges Lifelines routes

43 Design Ground Motions

44 Design Ground Motions TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

45 Design Ground Motions TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

46

47 Site Classification System TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

48 PGA Site Factor, F PGA TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

49 Long-Period Site Factor, F V TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

50 Retaining wall design TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls Earth pressure determination External, internal, and global stability Guidance on AASHTO walls

51 Retaining Walls Types of Walls Conventional Gravity and Semi-Gravity Walls Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Walls Metallic Strips Polymeric Reinforcement Non-gravity Cantilever / Anchored Walls Discrete Elements (drilled shafts) with lagging Continuous Wall Elements (e.g., sheetpiles or tangent piles) Soil Nailed Walls

52 Types of Walls

53 Types of Walls

54 Gravity Walls AASHTO LRFD M-O Equations TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

55 Active Earth Pressures with Cohesion TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

56 Passive Earth Pressure TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

57 Design Approach TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

58 Design Approach TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

59 Retaining Walls Design Guidelines TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

60 Seismic slope stability TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls Factor of safety (C/D) approach Displacement-based approach Liquefaction issues Mitigation

61 Seismic Coefficient TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

62 Seismic Coefficient TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

63 Seismic Coefficient TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

64 Slopes and Embankments Design Guidelines TRB Webinar February 17, 2010: Load and Resistance Factor Design Analysis for Seismic Design of Slopes and Retaining Walls

65 Questions about Caltrans LRFD Geotechnical consultants working on Caltrans Projects may contact Caltrans LRFD Technical Committee through geotechnical reviewer. Any question about AASHTO LRFD Specification should be directed to AASHTO.

66 Thank you

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