# DESIGN AND DETAILING OF RETAINING WALLS. Learning Outcomes:

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1 DESIGN AND DETAILING OF RETAINING WALLS Learning Outcomes: After this class students will be able to do the complete design and detailing of different types of retaining walls. 1

2 RETAINING WALL GL2 Retaining walls are usually built to hold back soil mass. However, retaining walls can also be constructed for aesthetic landscaping purposes. GL1 BACK SOIL Gravity retaining wall 2

3 Cantilever Retaining wall with shear key 3 Batter Drainage Hole Toe

4 Photos of Retaining walls 4

5 Classification of Retaining walls Gravity wall-masonry or Plain concrete Cantilever retaining wall-rcc (Inverted T and L) Counterfort retaining wall-rcc Buttress wall-rcc 5

6 Classification of Retaining walls 6 Backfill Backfill Gravity RW Tile drain T-Shaped RW L-Shaped RW Counterfort Buttress Backfill Weep hole Counterfort RW Buttress RW

7 Earth Pressure (P) 7 Earth pressure is the pressure exerted by the retaining material on the retaining wall. This pressure tends to deflect the wall outward. GL Types of earth pressure : Active earth pressure or earth pressure (Pa) and Passive earth pressure (Pp). P a Active earth pressure tends to deflect the wall away from the backfill. Variation of Earth pressure

8 Factors affecting earth pressure Earth pressure depends on type of backfill, the height of wall and the soil conditions Soil conditions: The different soil conditions are Dry leveled back fill Moist leveled backfill Submerged leveled backfill Leveled backfill with uniform surcharge Backfill with sloping surface 8

9 9 Analysis for dry back fills Maximum pressure at any height, p=k a h Total pressure at any height from top, p a =1/2[k a h]h = [k a h 2 ]/2 Bending moment at any height M=p a xh/3= [k a h 3 ]/6 GL M h GL P a H Total pressure, P a = [k a H 2 ]/2 Total Bending moment at bottom, M = [k a H 3 ]/6 k a H H=stem height

10 10 Where, k a = Coefficient of active earth pressure = (1-sin )/(1+sin )=tan 2 = 1/k p, coefficient of passive earth pressure = Angle of internal friction or angle of repose =Unit weigh or density of backfill If = 30, k a =1/3 and k p =3. Thus k a is 9 times k p

11 Backfill with sloping surface p a = k a H at the bottom and is parallel to inclined surface of backfill GL cos k a = cos cos cos cos 2 2 cos cos 2 2 Where =Angle of surcharge Total pressure at bottom =P a = k a H 2 /2 11

12 Stability requirements 12 of RW Following conditions must be satisfied for stability of wall (IS: ). It should not overturn It should not slide It should not subside, i.e Max. pressure at the toe should not exceed the safe bearing capacity of the soil under working condition

13 Check against overturning Factor of safety against overturning = M R / M O 1.55 (=1.4/0.9) Where, M R =Stabilising moment or restoring moment M O =overturning moment As per IS: , M R >1.2 M O, ch. DL M O, ch. IL 0.9 M R 1.4 M O, ch IL 13

14 Check against Sliding FOS against sliding = Resisting force to sliding/ Horizontal force causing sliding = W/Pa 1.55 (=1.4/0.9) As per IS:456: = ( 0.9 W)/P a Friction W SLIDING OF WALL 14

15 Design of Shear key 15 In case the wall is unsafe against sliding H H+a P A p p = p tan 2 (45 + /2) = p k p where p p = Unit passive pressure on soil above shearing plane AB p= Earth pressure at BC A R C B =45 + /2 p p a W k a (H+a) R=Total passive resistance=p p xa

16 Design of Shear key-contd., 16 If W= Total vertical force acting at the key base = shearing angle of passive resistance R= Total passive force = p p x a P A =Active horizontal pressure at key base for H+a W=Total frictional force under flat base For equilibrium, R + W =FOS x P A FOS= (R + W)/ P A 1.55

17 Maximum pressure at the toe h x 1 x 2 W 2 W 1 W 4 W P a H R H/3 T x e W 3 b/6 b b/2 P max P min. Pressure below the Retaining Wall 17

18 Let the resultant R due to W and P a lie at a distance x from the toe. X = M/ W, M = sum of all moments about toe. Eccentricity of the load = e = (b/2-x) W b/6 6e P min 1 b b Minimum pressure at heel= >Zero. For zero pressure, e=b/6, resultant W should 6e cut the base within the middle third. P max 1 b Maximum pressure at toe= b SBC of soil. 18

19 Depth of foundation Rankine s formula: D f = = SBC SBC γ k a sin sin 2 D f 19

20 Preliminary Proportioning 20 (T shaped wall) Stem: Top width 200 mm to 400 mm Base slab width b= 0.4H to 0.6H, 0.6H to 0.75H for surcharged wall Base slab thickness= H/10 to H/14 Toe projection= (1/3-1/4) Base width t p = (1/3-1/4)b 200 H/10 H/14 H b= 0.4H to 0.6H

21 Behaviour or structural action Behaviour or structural action and design of stem, heel and toe slabs are same as that of any cantilever slab. 21

22 Design of Cantilever RW 22 Stem, toe and heel acts as cantilever slabs Stem design: M u =psf (k a H 3 /6) Determine the depth d from M u = M u, lim =Qbd 2 Design as balanced section or URS and find steel M u =0.87 f y A st [d-f y A st /(f ck b)]

23 Curtailment of bars 23 h 1 A st /2 h 2 L dt Dist. from top h 1c Every alternate bar cut Effective depth (d) is Proportional to h Bending moment is proportional to h 3 A st is α l to (BM/d) and is α l to h 2 A st h 2 A st /2 A st Provided A ie.. A st 1 st2 h h Cross section A st Curtailment curve

24 Design of Heel and Toe Heel slab and toe slab should also be designed as cantilever. For this stability analysis should be performed as explained and determine the maximum bending moments at the junction. 2. Determine the reinforcement. 3. Also check for shear at the junction. 4. Provide enough development length. 5. Provide the distribution steel

25 25 Design Example Cantilever retaining wall

26 Cantilever RW design Design a cantilever retaining wall (T type) to retain earth for a height of 4m. The backfill is horizontal. The density of soil is 18kN/m 3. Safe bearing capacity of soil is 200 kn/m 2. Take the co-efficient of friction between concrete and soil as 0.6. The angle of repose is 30. Use M20 concrete and Fe415 steel. Solution Data: h' = 4m, SBC= 200 kn/m 2, = 18 kn/m 3, μ=0.6, φ=30 26

27 Depth of foundation To fix the height of retaining wall [H] H= h' +D f 200 Depth of foundation D f = SBC 1 1 sin sin 2 h 1 D f h H = 1.23m say 1.2m, Therefore H= 5.2m b 27

28 Proportioning of wall 28 Thickness of base slab=(1/10 to1/14)h 0.52m to 0.43m, say 450 mm 200 Width of base slab=b = (0.5 to 0.6) H 2.6m to 3.12m say 3m Toe projection= pj= (1/3 to ¼)H 1m to 0.75m say 0.75m H=5200 mm t p = 750 mm 450 b= 3000 mm Provide 450 mm thickness for the stem at the base and 200 mm at the top

29 Design of stem 29 P h = ½ x 1/3 x 18 x =67.68 kn M = P h h/3 = x 18 x /6 = kn-m M u = 1.5 x M = kn-m Taking 1m length of wall, h M u /bd 2 = < 2.76, URS P a (Here d=450- eff. Cover=450-50=400 mm) To find steel M P t =0.295% <0.96% A st = 0.295x1000x400/100 = 1180 mm 2 D f k 90 < 300 mm and 3d ok a h A st provided= 1266 mm 2 [0.32%] Or M u = [k a H 3 ]/6

30 Curtailment of bars-stem 30 Curtail 50% steel from top (h 1 /h 2 ) 2 = 50%/100%=½ (h 1 /4.75) 2 = ½, h 1 = 3.36m Actual point of cutoff = 3.36-L d = φ bar = = 2.74m from top. h 1 A st /2 h 2 L dt Dist. from top h 1c Every alternate bar cut Spacing of bars = 180 mm c/c < 300 mm and 3d ok A st h 2 A st A st /2 A st Provid ed

31 Design of stem-contd., 31 Development length (Stem steel) L d =47 φ bar =47 x 12 = 564 mm 200 Secondary steel for stem at front 0.12% GA = 0.12x450 x 1000/100 = 540 mm < 450 mm and 5d ok Distribution steel = 0.12% GA = 0.12x450 x 1000/100 = 540 mm < 450 mm and 5d ok t p = 750 mm b= 3000 mm H=5200 mm 450

32 Check for shear 200 Max. SF at Junction, xx = P h =67.68 kn Ultimate SF= V u =1.5 x = kn Nominal shear stress =ζ v =V u /bd = x 1000 / 1000x400 = 0.25 MPa To find ζ c : 100A st /bd = 0.32%, From IS: , ζ c = 0.38 MPa ζ v < ζ c, Hence safe in shear. H=5200 mm x x b= 3000 mm 32

33 Stability analysis 33 Load Magnitude, kn Distance from A, m BM about A kn-m Stem W1 0.2x4.75x1x25 = Stem W2 ½ x0.25x4.75x1x25 = /3x0.25 = B. slab W3 3.0x0.45x1x25= Back fill, W4 1.8x4.75x1x18 = Total ΣW= ΣM R = Earth Pre. =P H P H =0.333x18x5.2 2 /2 H/3 =5.2/3 M O =140.05

34 34 h x 1 x 2 W 2 W 1 W 4 W P a H R H/3 P max kn/m 2 T x e b W 3 b/6 b/2 0.75m 0.45m 1.8m P min kn/m 2 Forces acting on the wall and the pressure below the wall Pressure below the Retaining Wall

35 Stability checks Check for overturning FOS = ΣM R / M O = 2.94 >1.55 safe Check for Sliding FOS = μ ΣW/ P H = 2.94 >1.55 safe Check for subsidence X=ΣM/ ΣW= 1.20 m > b/3 and e= b/2 x = 3/2 1.2 = 0.3m < b/6 35 Pressure below the base slab P Max = kn/m 2 < SBC, safe P Min = kn/m 2 > zero, No tension or separation, safe

36 0.75m 0.45m 1.8m kn/m kn/m Pressure below the Retaining Wall Load Magnitude, kn Distance from C, m BM, M C, kn-m Backfill Heel slab Pressure dist. rectangle Pressure dist. Triangle 0.45x1.8x25 = x 1.8 =54.29 ½ x 24.1 x1.8= /3x Total Load Total ΣM C =94.86 Design of heel slab

37 Design of heel slab-contd., 37 M u = 1.5 x =142.3 knm M u /bd 2 = 0.89 < 2.76, URS P t =0.264% < 0.96% A st = 0.264x1000x400/100 =1056 mm H=5200 mm x 190 < 300 mm and 3d ok A st provided= 1058mm [0.27%] x b= 3000 mm OR M u =0.87 f y A st [d - (f y A st /f ck b)]

38 Design of heel slab- Contd., Development length: L d =47 φ bar =47 x 16 = 752mm H=5200 mm Distribution steel Same, 140 < 450 mm and 5d ok L dt =752 x x

39 Design of heel slab-contd., 39 Check for shear at junction (Tension) Maximum shear =V= kn, V U, max = kn, 200 Nominal shear stress =ζ v =V u /bd = x 1000 / 1000x400 = 0.39 MPa To find ζ c : 100A st /bd = 0.27%, From IS: , ζ c = 0.37 MPa ζ v slightly greater than ζ c, Hence slightly unsafe in shear. x x

40 Design of toe slab Load Magnitude, kn Distance from C, m Bending moment, M C, kn-m Toe slab 0.75x0.45x25 = 0.75/ Pressure distribution, rectangle Pressure distribution, triangle Total Load at junction 97.99x / ½ x22.6 x /3x1= Total BM at junction ΣM=

41 Design of toe slab 41 M u = 1.5 x =43 kn-m M u /bd 2 = 0.27< 2.76, URS 200 P t =0.085% Very small, provide 0.12%GA Ast= 540 mm < 300 mm and 3d ok Development length: L d =47 φ bar =47 x 10 = 470 mm L dt

42 Design of toe slab-contd., 42 Check for shear: at d from junction (at xx as wall is in compression) 200 Net shear force at the section V= ( )/2 x x0.35x25=75.45kN V U,max =75.45x1.5= kn ζ v =113.17x1000/(1000x400)=0.28 MPa x x d L dt p t 0.25%, From IS: , ζ c = 0.37 MPa ζ v < ζ c, Hence safe in shear.

43 Other deatails 43 Construction joint A key 200 mm wide x 50 mm deep with nominal steel 250, 600 mm length in two rows Drainage 100 mm dia. pipes as weep holes at 3m c/c at bottom Also provide 200 mm gravel blanket at the back of the stem for back drain.

44 Drawing and detailing C/S OF WALL L/S ELEVATION OF WALL

45 Drawing and detailing BASE SLAB DETAILS BOTTOM STEEL PLAN OF BASE SLAB TOP STEEL 45

46 46 Important Points for drawing Note 1. Adopt a suitable scale such as 1:20 2. Show all the details and do neat drawing 3. Show the development length for all bars at the junction 4. Name the different parts such as stem, toe, heel, backfill, weep holes, blanket, etc., 5. Show the dimensions of all parts 6. Detail the steel in all the drawings 7. Lines with double headed arrows represents the development lengths in the cross section

47 Design and Detailing of Counterfort Retaining wall Dr. M.C. NATARAJA

48 Counterfort Retaining wall 48 When H exceeds about 6m, Stem and heel thickness is more More bending and more steel Cantilever-T type-uneconomical Counterforts-Trapezoidal section 1.5m -3m c/c CF Stem Base Slab CRW

49 Parts of CRW 49 Same as that of Cantilever Retaining wall Plus Counterfort Stem Counterforts Toe Heel Base slab Cross section Plan

50 Design of Stem 50 The stem acts as a continuous slab Soil pressure acts as the load on the slab. Earth pressure varies linearly over the height The slab deflects away from the earth face between the counterforts The bending moment in the stem is maximum at the base and reduces towards top. But the thickness of the wall is kept constant and only the area of steel is reduced. p=k a γh BF

51 51 Maximum Bending moments for stem Maximum +ve B.M= pl 2 /16 (occurring mid-way between counterforts) and Maximum -ve B.M= pl 2 /12 (occurring at inner face of counterforts) Where l is the clear distance between the counterforts and p is the intensity of soil pressure + - p l

52 Design of Toe 52 Slab The base width=b =0.6 H to 0.7 H The projection=1/3 to 1/4 of base width. The toe slab is subjected to an upward soil reaction and is designed as a cantilever slab fixed at the front face of the stem. Reinforcement is provided on earth face along the length of the toe slab. In case the toe slab projection is large i.e. > b/3, front counterforts are provided above the toe slab and the slab is designed as a continuous horizontal slab spanning between the front counterforts. b H

53 Design of Heel Slab 53 The heel slab is designed as a continuous slab spanning over the counterforts and is subjected to downward forces due to weight of soil plus self weight of slab and an upward force due to soil reaction. Maximum +ve B.M= pl 2 /16 (mid-way between counterforts) And Maximum -ve B.M= pl 2 /12 (occurring at counterforts) BF

54 Design of Counterforts 54 The counterforts are subjected to outward reaction from the stem. This produces tension along the outer sloping face of the counterforts. The inner face supporting the stem is in compression. Thus counterforts are designed as a T-beam of varying depth. The main steel provided along the sloping face shall be anchored properly at both ends. The depth of the counterfort is measured perpendicular to the sloping side. C d T

55 Behaviour of Counterfort 55 RW +M -M Important points Loads on Wall STEM COUNTERFORT Deflected shape Nature of BMs TOE +M -M HEEL SLAB Position of steel Counterfort details

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