14A Atomic Structure. What is inside an atom? Modeling an atom. Thinking about the atom. Atomic Structure Investigation 14A.

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1 Atomic Structure Investigation 14A 14A Atomic Structure What is inside an atom? We once believed that atoms were the smallest units of matter. Then it was discovered that there are even smaller particles inside atoms! The structure of the atom explains why nearly all the properties of matter we experience are what they are. This investigation will lead you through some challenging and fun games that illustrate how atoms are built from protons, neutrons, and electrons. Materials Atom Building Game A Modeling an atom In the atom game, colored marbles represent the three kinds of particles. Red marbles are protons, blue marbles are neutrons, and yellow marbles are electrons. B 1. Build the atom above using three red, three blue, and three yellow marbles. 2. Fill in the blanks in the empty periodic table box for the atom you constructed. Thinking about the atom a. What is the number below the element symbol? What does this number tell you about the the atom? 1

2 Investigation 14A Atomic Structure b. What is the number(s) above the element symbol called? What does this number tell you about the atom? c. Why do some elements have more than one number above the symbol? What are the variations in this number called? C Making atoms Build the 6 atoms shown on the chart and fill in the missing information Protons and neutrons go in the middle of the board. Electrons go in the outside and fill up the holes from the lowest row to the highest. 2

3 D Atomic Structure Investigation 14A Stop and think a. Two of the atoms you made were the same element. What was different about them? b. One of the atoms had just enough electrons to completely fill the first two rows. Which atom was this? Where on the periodic table is it found? c. Which atom had an atomic number of 8? d. Which atom had a mass number of 14? e. One atom is found in a lightweight, silvery metal used in airplanes. Which atom was it? f. One atom is found in an element that makes up about 21% of the air you breathe. You could not live without this element. 3

4 Investigation 14A Atomic Structure 7 4

5 Atomic Challenge! Investigation 14B 14B Atomic Challenge! How were the elements created? During the middle ages, people believed you could turn lead into gold if you did followed the right procedures. Later, we learned that lead and gold are different elements with different kinds of atoms. You have to change the atoms inside to make lead into gold. Lead atoms have 82 protons in the nucleus. Gold atoms have 79 protons. Materials Atom Building Game A Building the elements About 13 billion years ago, when the universe was much younger, the only atoms in existence were hydrogen, helium, and a small amount of lithium. These are the three lightest elements. Today, we find carbon, oxygen, iron, and even uranium atoms. Where did these heavy atoms come from? All the elements were created in the super-hot cores of stars. Stars get their energy by combining hydrogen atoms together to make other elements, such as helium. Along the way, a few protons get converted into neutrons and electrons. In this investigation, you will learn how these subatomic particles are arranged to make up the structure of an atom by playing the game of Atomic Challenge. B Quick review of the atom In the atom game, colored marbles represent the three kinds of particles. Red marbles are protons, blue marbles are neutrons, and yellow marbles are electrons. 1

7 Atomic Challenge! Investigation 14B b. How many stable isotopes does oxygen have? c. Find one element on the chart that has no stable isotopes. d. What element has atoms with 26 protons in the nucleus? e. On most periodic tables, a single atomic mass is listed instead of the mass numbers for all the stable isotopes. How is this mass related to the different isotopes? 3

8 The Periodic Table Investigation 15A 15A The Periodic Table How is the periodic table organized? Virtually all the matter you see is made up of combinations of elements. Scientists know of 118 different elements, of which about 90 occur naturally. Each element has its own unique kind of atom. The periodic table is a chart that shows all of the elements in order of increasing atomic number. Materials Periodic table tiles A Building the periodic table Every element is given a symbol of one or two letters. For example, the symbol for hydrogen is a capital letter H. The symbol for lithium is two letters, Li. Each element also has a unique number called the atomic number. The periodic table is a chart that shows the elements in an arrangement that helps us recognize groups of elements with similar properties. The picture below shows the shape of the periodic table and the first few elements in sequence from left to right. The elements are arranged from lowest to highest atomic number. Using the chart as a guide, build the periodic table out of the periodic table tiles. The only tile you should use yellow-side up is the hydrogen tile. The colors will show a pattern when you are finished. There is a tricky part near the bottom of the table. The table breaks off between element 56 (Ba) and element 71 (Lu), and fills in the first of two long rows underneath the main part of the chart. 1

9 Investigation 15A The Periodic Table B Organization of the periodic table Look at the periodic table you put together out of the tiles. Use the diagram below, and your model of the periodic table, to answer the questions below. a. Which elements are in group 1? b. Which elements are in group 8? 2

10 The Periodic Table Investigation 15A c. Name three transition metals. d. To which group does chlorine belong? What other elements are in that group? e. Which elements are in the 2 nd period? C Applying what you have learned a. Each row (period) of the periodic table contains only a certain number of elements. What does this have to do with the structure of the atom? Research this question in your textbook. 3

11 Investigation 15A The Periodic Table b. Which group of the periodic table above contains the element argon? What characteristic do the elements in this group share? c. Which group contains the element carbon? What characteristic do the elements in this group share? 4

12 15B Periodic Table Challenge What information can you get from the periodic table? Periodic Table Challenge Investigation 15B Each box on the periodic table tells you the element symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass for all the known elements. This is very useful information, but did you know that the arrangement of the elements on the periodic table gives you even more information? Each major column of elements represents a group of elements with similar chemical behavior. Can you see why the arrangement of elements on the periodic table is important? Materials Blank periodic table bingo card sheets; 1 per player Caller s clues and checklist; 1 per team Copy of the periodic table of elements; 1 per player Highlighter or other marker; 1 per player A The challenge Periodic Table Challenge is a bingo-like game that helps you understand how the elements on the periodic table are arranged. Each player will fill out their own five-by-five grid with element symbols, and then the caller will read element clues. The players must interpret the clues and highlight any boxes on the grid that fit the clue. The first player that correctly highlights five boxes across, up-and-down, or diagonally in a row is the winner. B Rules of play 1. Designate one member of your group to be the caller. The caller will call out clues and keep track of them on the checklist. 2. Each player will have a sheet of 4 blank grids. Fill out one of the grids with random element symbols (other grids can be used for additional games). You may choose elements in the atomic number range of 1 54 (hydrogen through xenon). Do not repeat symbols on the card. You will only be able to fit 25 of the possible 54 symbols on the card. You choose which ones to use, and where to place them on the grid. 3. The caller will randomly pick clues from the list, and as a clue is called out, the caller will check off the clue. The answers are only for the caller to check the winner s card! 4. When a clue is called, players check the grid to see if any of the elements fit the clue. Any elements that fit the clue must be highlighted. If no elements fit the clue, then no boxes are highlighted on that turn. 5. When a player has five boxes highlighted in a row up and down, across, or diagonally, play stops. The caller will double check the clue list and answers to see if the clues indeed match the elements. Play continues until a true winner is determined. 1

13 Investigation 15B Periodic Table Challenge C Caller s clues Clues can be called in any order. Check off each clue as you use it. Clue A member of the carbon family Chemical properties similar to calcium, but not calcium A transition metal that has a C in the symbol A member of the oxygen family Chemical properties similar to cesium, but not cesium A member of the noble gas family A nonmetal in the nitrogen family A metal in the boron family A gas in the oxygen family A solid in the halogen family An element that is liquid at room temperature A transition metal with less than 25 protons A transition metal commonly found in jewelry A metalloid in the carbon family Chemical properties similar to aluminum, but not aluminum A transition metal with protons An element symbol with a first letter that is different from the first letter of the name A member of the nitrogen family with a one-letter symbol A transition metal from period 5 Possible Answers C, Si, Ge, Sn Be, Mg, Sr Sc, Cr, Co, Cu, Tc, Cd, O, S, Se, Te H, Li, Na, K, Rb He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe N, P Al, Ga, In O I Hg, Br Cr, V, Ti, Sc Ni, Cu, Ag Si, Ge B, Ga, In Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc Na, K, Fe, Ag, Sn, Sb N, P Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd 2

14 D Periodic table challenge card Periodic Table Challenge Investigation 15B Fill in each of the squares with the symbol of an element with atomic number between 1 and 54 (hydrogen - xenon) You may not use the same element symbol twice. 3

15 Chemical Bonds Investigation 16A 16A Chemical Bonds Why do atoms form chemical bonds? Most of the matter on Earth is in the form of compounds. Even when a substance exists as a pure element, it tends eventually to combine with other elements. For example, if you leave an iron nail outside in the rain, it will quickly combine with the oxygen in the air to form iron oxide, better known as rust. In this Investigation, you will build models of atoms and discover one of the fundamental ideas in chemistry: how electrons are involved in the formation of chemical bonds. Materials Atom Building Game A Reviewing atomic structure Let s review what you already know about atoms: A neutral atom has the same number of electrons and protons. The electrons occupy energy levels surrounding the nucleus. Since electrons are attracted to the nucleus, they fill the lower energy levels first. Once a given level is full, electrons start filling the next level. 1

16 Investigation 16A Chemical Bonds B How many electrons in the outermost level? Using the atom building game, build each element in the table. For each element, record the number of electrons in the outermost energy level and the number of unoccupied spaces in the outermost energy level. element atomic number electrons in outermost level unoccupied spaces in outermost level C hydrogen helium lithium fluorine neon sodium chlorine argon potassium What are valence electrons? Examine the table you just completed and record the answers to the following questions: a. Use your textbook to find out about valence electrons. b. What do lithium, sodium, and potassium have in common? 2

17 c. What do fluorine and chlorine have in common? Chemical Bonds Investigation 16A d. What do neon and argon have in common? D Modeling a chemical bond Atoms that have a complete outermost energy level are stable. If there are empty holes, an atom will either gain, lose, or share electrons with another atom in order to complete its outermost level and become stable. When atoms gain, lose, or share electrons with another atom, they form chemical bonds. Using two atom building games, build a sodium atom and a chlorine atom. Put them next to each other and answer the questions below. a. In order to complete its outermost energy level, do you think sodium will tend to lose its only valence electron, or gain seven? Explain your answer. 3

18 Investigation 16A Chemical Bonds b. In order to complete its outermost energy level, do you think chlorine will tend to lose all of its valence electrons or gain one electron? Explain your answer. c. Why might these two atoms bond together to form a molecule? In your answer, describe what you think might happen when sodium and chlorine form a chemical bond. E Determining oxidation numbers An element s oxidation number is equal to the charge an atom has when it ionizes, that is, gains or loses electrons. Use your models of sodium and chlorine to answer the questions below. a. Remove the valence electron from sodium. What has happened to the balance of positive and negative charges? What is sodium s oxidation number? b. Move the electron you took from sodium into the chlorine. What happens to chlorine s charge when it gains the electron from the sodium atom? What is chlorine s oxidation number? 4

19 Chemical Bonds Investigation 16A c. When sodium and chlorine form a chemical bond, what is the overall charge of the molecule? Why do you think sodium and chlorine combine in a 1:1 ratio? F Modeling chemical bonds Use multiple atom boards for this part of the investigation. First, build each atom. Next, move the boards together to model the formation of a chemical bond. a. One carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms b. Two lithium atoms and one oxygen atom c. One beryllium atom and two fluorine atoms 5

20 Investigation 16A Chemical Bonds G Applying your knowledge Read in your textbook about Lewis dot diagrams. Draw a dot diagram for each compound in Part 6. 6

21 Chemical Formulas Investigation 16B 16B Chemical Formulas Why do atoms combine in certain ratios? Chemists have long noticed that groups of elements behave similarly. The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements grouped according to similar behavior. In this investigation, you will discover how the arrangement of electrons in atoms is related to groups on the periodic table. You will also learn why atoms form chemical bonds with other atoms in certain ratios. Materials Periodic Table Tiles Periodic table with oxidation numbers Special Bonds cards A Oxidation numbers and ions An element s oxidation number indicates how many electrons are lost or gained when chemical bonding occurs. The oxidation number is equal to the charge an atom has when it ionizes, that is, gains or loses electrons to become an ion. The partial periodic table below shows the most common oxidation numbers of the elements. The oxidation numbers are written above the group number above each column on the table. The most common oxidation numbers for the main group elements are shown. 1

22 Investigation 16B Chemical Formulas B Stop and think a. How are elements grouped according to the number of valence electrons in their outermost levels? b. Why do elements in group 2 have an oxidation number of 2+? c. Why do elements in group 17 have an oxidation number of 1? d. Why do the oxidation numbers in the first two groups tend to be positive? C Predicting chemical formulas A binary compound is composed of two different elements. Predict the chemical formulas for the binary compounds that are made up of the pairs of elements in the table below. Use the following steps: 1. Using the periodic table on the previous page, determine the ion formed by each element. 2. Figure out how many periodic table tiles of each element will be needed to make the compound electrically neutral. 2

23 Chemical Formulas Investigation 16B 3. Form the compound with your tiles and write the chemical formula for each compound based on the number of tiles of each element Table 1: Writing chemical formulas for binary compounds element 1 element 2 oxidation no. 1 oxidation no. 2 number of tiles of element 1 number of tiles of element 2 chemical formula hydrogen magnesium calcium aluminum potassium lithium rubidium fluorine sulfur bromine oxygen chlorine argon sulfur D Naming compounds Naming binary ionic compounds is very simple if you follow these rules: 1. Write the name of the element with a positive oxidation number first. 2. Write the root name of the element with a negative oxidation number second. For example, chlor- is the root name of chlorine. Subtract the -ine ending. 3. Add the ending -ide to the root name. Chlor- becomes chloride. Using these rules, write the name of each of the compounds in Table 1. E Playing Compound Crossword Now that you understand how elements combine to form compounds, you are ready to play Compound Crossword. In this game, you will score points by forming stable compounds, crossword style. Players use the oxidation numbers of the elements to form correct compounds. Points are determined by adding up the atomic numbers of each atom in the compound. 3

24 Investigation Play 16B Chemical Formulas Sample game after four turns: CH 3 OH scores 18 points Fe 2 O 3 scores 76 points SiO 2 scores 30 points H 2 SO 4 scores 50 points Starting the game Each player starts with ten randomly selected tiles. The remaining tiles should be placed in a box or paper bag so that additional tiles may be drawn without being seen. The playing surface can be any flat table (or floor) with minimum dimensions of 75-by-75 centimeters. Each player draws a tile from the bag; the highest atomic number goes first. Once the starting player has been determined, those tiles are returned to the bag. The play continues to the starting player s right. 1. Players take turns adding a compound to the crossword by using tiles from their set of ten. Either side of a tile may be used. 2. The elements in a compound may be arranged in any order, as long as they are in a single horizontal or vertical row. 3. Each new compound must be shown by the player to have oxidation numbers that add up to zero. Otherwise the player must take back the compound and wait until the next turn. 4. If the compound is correct, the player adds up the atomic numbers of all the atoms in the compound to determine the points and then draws new tiles to restore a set of ten. 5. Play continues until all the tiles in the bag are used and one player is out of tiles, or until all players are unable to make a compound with their remaining tiles. 6. The winner is the player with the highest score at the end of the game. Determining correct compounds The oxidation numbers found directly above each element on the periodic table provided are used to determine whether a molecule is correct. The oxidation numbers of all the elements in the compound must add up to zero. In some cases there is more than one oxidation number for an element. Iron (Fe), for example, has oxidation numbers of +2 and +3. The player may choose either oxidation number to add to the total. The Special Bonds card included with the Periodic Table Tiles gives some additional possibilities for forming compounds. 4

25 Chemical Formulas Investigation 16B Examples of correct and incorrect compounds: The oxidation number for each element in a compound is counted once for every atom present. The two iron atoms contribute a total of +6, which is balanced by the -6 from the three oxygen atoms. Note: The Special Bonds card has some extra ways compounds can form when two atoms of the same element bond together, and when hydrogen is involved in unusual ways. The example of CH 3 OH (methanol) above uses one of the special bonds that hydrogen can make with carbon. Miscellaneous rules and strategies: The noble gases do not form bonds; therefore they can t be played. Players may decide at the start of the game to remove these tiles. As another option, players can choose to turn the noble gas tiles over, revealing the + symbol. This symbol could be used as a wildcard in which the player chooses which element the + should represent. The symbol scores no points but allows the player to complete a molecule. Players must agree on the use of the noble gas tiles before the game begins. 5

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