Social Studies. Themes Natural Disasters Forces of Nature Earth. Evaluate author's purpose

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1 Level W/60 Pharaohs, Pyramids and Mummies Teacher s Guide Skills & Strategies Social Studies Anchor Comprehension Strategies Evaluate author's purpose Comprehension Synthesize Use text features to locate information Word Study/Vocabulary Use synonyms to determine word meaning Social Studies Big Idea Early civilizations established geographic, political, religious, economic, and social structures that had enduring effects on the development of the world. Themes Natural Disasters Forces of Nature Earth B e n c h m a r k E d u c a t i o n C o m p a n y

2 Name Date Author s Purpose Directions: Find the author s purpose and the evidence for that purpose in the passage. Complete the graphic organizer using information from the passage. The Rosetta Stone For hundreds of years, the secret of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing had been forgotten. Then in 1799, the French army under Napoleon Bonaparte occupied Egypt. While there, a French army officer made an amazing discovery. Buried in the Nile River mud, near the town of Rashid (called Rosetta in English), the officer found a four-foot-high black stone. The stone was engraved with three different kinds of lettering. The first was ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. The second was another form of Egyptian hieroglyphs. The third was Greek. Scholars easily translated the Greek. However, the secret was not unlocked until a French scholar named Jean François Champollion realized that the three types of writing contained the same message. Using the Greek writing as a guide, Champollion was able to figure out the meaning of the Egyptian hieroglyphics. This discovery allowed scholars to be able to read all of the writings and engravings left by the ancient Egyptians and to learn about their history, culture, and beliefs. Author s Purpose Evidence 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

3 Lesson at a Glance Before Reading (page 3) Build Background Introduce the Book Administer Preassessment Core Lesson Planning Guide The following five-day lesson plan is just one option for incorporating this teacher s guide into your daily lesson plans. During Reading (pages 4 10) Introduction Chapter 1 (pages 4 6) Model Metacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Set a Purpose for Reading Discuss the Reading Model Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Use Text Features to Locate Information: Biographical Sidebars Day 1 2 Page 3: Before Reading Build Background Introduce the Book Administer Preassessment Activities Pages 4 6: During Reading: Introduction Chapter 1 Model Metacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Model Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Use Text Features to Locate Information: Biographical Sidebars Chapter 2 (pages 7 8) Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Set a Purpose for Reading Discuss the Reading Guide Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning Chapter 3 Conclusion (pages 9 10) Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Set a Purpose for Reading Discuss the Reading Apply Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning Pages 7 8: During Reading: Chapter 2 Apply Megacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Guide Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning Pages 9 10: During Reading: Chapter 3 Conclusion Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Apply Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning Page 11: After Reading Administer Posttest Synthesize Information: Reflection A d d i t i o n a l R e l a t e d R e s o u r c e s After Reading (page 11) Administer Posttest Synthesize Information: Reflection Writing Workshop (pages 12 13) Model the Writing Process: Write a Paragraph of Purpose Blackline Masters (pages 14 16) Identify Author s Purpose (page 14) Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning (page 15) Author s Purpose (page 16) Notable Trade Books for Read-Aloud Hart, George. Eyewitness: Ancient Egypt. DK Publishing, Malam, John. Ancient Egyptian Jobs (People in the Past). Heinemann Library, Trumble, Kelly. The Library of Alexandria. Houghton Mifflin, Winters, Kay. Voices of Ancient Egypt. National Geographic, Web Site for Content Information Egypt s Golden Empire org/empires/egypt/index.html PBS (Public Broadcasting System) offers students and teachers information and research about ancient Egypt. The Web site includes lesson plans, a time line, an interactive map, a hieroglyph translator, and more. 2 Copyright 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC. All rights reserved. Teachers may photocopy the reproducible pages for classroom use. No other part of the guide may be reproduced or transmitted in whole or in part in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN:

4 Before Reading Build Background Tell students that they will be reading a book about ancient Egypt. Ask: What do you know about Egypt, Egyptian kings, mummies, or pyramids? Have students jot down a few ideas and share them with the group when finished. Draw a web with Egypt in the center circle. Write the students ideas in the outer circles. Add circles as needed. (Possible answers: Egyptians made mummies from those who had died. The Nile is a large and important river in Egypt. Egyptians thought their kings were gods. Egyptian kings had the pyramids built for themselves. Egyptian kings were known as pharaohs.) Ask: What can you tell about Egypt from what we put on the web? (Possible answers: Religion was important to ancient Egyptians. Egyptians believed in an afterlife. The kings were very important and powerful.) The Nile is a large and important river in Egypt. Egyptian kings had the pyramids built for themselves. Egypt Egyptians made mummies from those who died. Egyptians thought their kings were gods. Introduce the Book Give students a copy of the book. Have them read the title and locate the table of contents. Have students choose a chapter title that they think looks interesting. Ask them what they would like to learn about in the chapter. Tell students to skim the chapter they have chosen. Then have them locate a boldfaced word from the chapter and find the word and its definition in the glossary. Have students share the words and definitions they found. Ask: Based on the words you defined, what do you think this book will be about? After students share and respond, explain that Pharaohs, Pyramids, and Mummies is about life in ancient Egypt and how scientists learned so much about it. Administer Preassessment Have students take Ongoing Assessment #13 on page 62 in the Comprehension Strategy Assessment Handbook (Grade 6). Score assessments and use the results to determine instruction. Keep group assessments in a small-group reading folder. For in-depth analysis, discuss responses with individual students. Informal Assessment Tips 1. Assess students ability to use the table of contents and the glossary. 2. Document informal observations in a folder or notebook. 3. Keep the folder or notebook at the small-group reading table for handy reference. 4. Guide struggling students to read the table of contents and identify the page on which the chapter they chose begins. Then have them locate the page on which the glossary begins. Students can jot down both pages, then turn to them to complete the activity Benchmark Education Company, LLC 3

5 During Reading: Introduction Chapter 1 Content Information Your students may be interested in these facts about pharaohs. Pharaoh means great house. Originally, the word was used to describe the king s palace, not the king himself. According to tradition, the pharaoh had magical powers. He was all-powerful and able to crush his enemies single-handedly on the battlefield. His crown had an image of a snake, which supposedly could breathe flames at his enemies. Because he was considered a god, he was the center of many rituals. He lived separately from others. When people approached him, they had to lie face down on the ground before him. Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity 1. Have students work in pairs and look at the painting on page 3 and the stone carving on page Have students discuss how these two images depict the pharaoh s status as a ruler and as a divine being. 3. Ask students to discuss what they think is happening in the images. Encourage student pairs to compose a brief narrative or story about the images. 4. Invite students to share their narratives with the class. Model Metacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Good readers synthesize during and after reading. Using this strategy, readers stop at times and think about what they are reading. One way to synthesize information is to distinguish between facts that are important and facts that are interesting but less important. Good readers identify each type and understand that some interesting facts are also important. Use a real-life example of synthesizing. Say: When I read, I notice which facts are important. When I read page 2, I wanted to learn the most important facts about ancient Egypt, such as when it began and how Egyptians lived. In my notebook, I wrote, Egyptian civilization began about 5,000 years ago near the Nile River. People farmed the land that the Nile flooded. The author mentions that Egyptian farmers grew wheat and flax. This is interesting, but not as important. When you read, think about the important facts. Use a chart to help you separate the important and the less important facts and ideas. Draw a T-chart with the headings Important Ideas in the left-hand column and Less Important Ideas in the right-hand column. Read pages 2 3 aloud while students follow along. After page 3, say: The word pharaoh is in boldfaced print, so it must be an important idea. The sentence says the pharaoh is king. Since the king is usually the most powerful person in a region or country, I think the most important facts are about the pharaoh s power. I will write that on my chart in the left-hand column. Read the last paragraph on page 3. Say that the ideas are interesting but are not about the pharaoh s power. Write them in the right-hand column. Finish reading the introduction out loud and use the chart to conduct a think-aloud about important facts and less important facts. Important Ideas Less Important Ideas Egypt had a supreme ruler called a pharaoh. Most pharaohs were men. The pharaoh owned all the land. King Tutankhamen was nine The pharaoh was the chief religious leader years old when he and was believed to be a god. became king. Mummies are preserved bodies. Ramses ruled for Tombs are for burial of the mummies. sixty-seven years. Pyramids were the burial places of the pharaohs. Archaeologists study ancient people. Set a Purpose for Reading Invite students to draw a T-chart in their notebooks. Ask them to read the first chapter silently to see what they can learn about the history of Egypt. Remind students to complete their T-charts with important and less important information Benchmark Education Company, LLC

6 Discuss the Reading Ask students to share some of the facts they wrote in their notebooks while reading Chapter 1. Discuss which ideas are important and which are interesting but less important. Encourage students to explain how they chose the important ideas. Ask: What are some important facts about the pharaohs? (Possible answers: Khufu had the Great Pyramid at Giza built as his tomb. Hatshepsut was a female pharaoh who opened trade with other nations. Akhenaten made the sun god, Aten, the only god of Egypt.) Model Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Tell students that when authors write, they have a reason, or purpose, for writing. There are three main purposes for writing: to persuade, to inform, and to entertain. Say: When I read a book, I look for clues to the author s purpose. If the author is trying to convince readers to agree with what he or she has written or think in a certain way, he or she is trying to persuade. If the writing is full of information, the author s purpose is to inform. If the author tells an enjoyable story or includes interesting details, the author is entertaining. Authors can often have more than one purpose. For example, an author s most important purpose may be to inform, but the writing may entertain, as well. Pass out the graphic organizer Identify Author s Purpose (blackline master, page 14 of this guide). You may wish to make a chart-size copy of the graphic organizer or use a transparency. Explain to students that as they read, they will complete the first two rows together and the last rows independently. Have students follow along while you show them how to determine the author s purpose on pages 6 7. Write the information on the graphic organizer as you find it. Say: The author gives us a lot of information about pharaohs in these two pages. She tells us that pharaohs were military leaders, lawmakers, and judges and that they had complete power over their people. They also lived in luxury. We ll write that in the Evidence column. The author is not telling a story, and not trying to persuade us to think a certain way or to take a certain action. She is writing to inform. We ll write that in the purpose column. Read the text on page 8. Say: The author includes detailed information about King Khufu. She is not trying to persuade. She seems to want to inform the reader. I ll write that in the Author s Purpose column. She also included interesting details about the Great Pyramid. She is trying to entertain the reader. I ll write that in the Author s Purpose column. Informal Assessment Tips 1. Watch for students who struggle after reading Chapter In a folder or notebook, jot down what you see each student doing. 3. Students should be able to distinguish between important information and information that is interesting but less important. Document students who are and are not using this metacognitive strategy. 4. If students do not do well, model the strategy again for them as you read aloud pages 6 7. Demonstrate how to identify important information and less important information. Page Number Author s Purpose Identify Author s Purpose To inform To inform and to entertain Evidence Pharaohs were military leaders, lawmakers, and judges; they had complete power over their people; they lived in luxury. King Khufu built the Great Pyramid; the Great Pyramid is about half as tall as the Empire State Building Benchmark Education Company, LLC 5

7 Introduction Chapter 1 Page Number Author s Purpose Identify Author s Purpose To inform To inform and to entertain To entertain Evidence Pharaohs were military leaders, lawmakers, and judges; they had complete power over their people; they lived in luxury. King Khufu built the Great Pyramid; the Great Pyramid is about half as tall as the Empire State Building. The archaeologist s quote about Queen Nefertiti Read the text on page 11. Draw students attention to the archaeologist s quote about Queen Nefertiti. Point out that it does not add any additional information. Ask: Why do you think the author included this quote? (to entertain the reader) Write that in the Author s Purpose column. Say: Next time we meet, we ll look at different pages in the book to find the author s purpose. Use Text Features to Locate Information: Biographical Sidebars Explain that sidebars are used in a variety of publications, from textbooks to magazines. Sidebars contain information that is related to the text but that does not fit smoothly into the text. They are placed as close as possible to the related information on the page. Have students turn to page 10 and read They Made a Difference about Amenhotep III. Point out that pages 8 11 have information about particular pharaohs. This biographical sidebar gives detailed information about one of the most successful pharaohs. Tell students that biographical sidebars give more information about someone who is mentioned in the main text or who is related to the events or information in the main text. Have students read They Made a Difference on page 16. Point out the features that these sidebars have in common: they are formatted in a similar way, and each has information about a specific pharaoh Benchmark Education Company, LLC

8 Chapter 2 Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Have students review the important ideas they wrote yesterday. Ask them to explain how they decided which ideas were important and which were less important. Tell students that good readers synthesize by retelling or summarizing the important ideas in as few words as possible. Say: Today we are going to continue identifying important information and distinguishing it from less important information. You will also summarize these ideas in a few words. Read page 15 aloud as students follow. Model summarizing the important ideas. Say: Before summarizing, I must first identify the important ideas. I see that the first sentence of the first paragraph contains an important idea. The paragraph tells what a pyramid is. The second paragraph tells what a pyramid contains. I would summarize these ideas as follows: Pyramids were built as tombs for pharaohs. They contained a secret burial chamber for the pharaoh s body. Other rooms in the pyramids contained supplies the pharaoh would need in the afterlife. Have students read pages silently. Ask: What important facts did you learn on these pages? (Possible answers: the reason the pharaohs use the pyramid shape; the shape of the first pyramid; the shape of a true pyramid) Ask: How do you know these facts are important? (Possible answers: They are the main ideas of the paragraphs or are mentioned in the first sentence of the paragraphs.) Ask students to summarize these ideas in as few words as possible. (Possible answers: Pharaohs used the pyramid shape because the pyramid was like a mountain to the heavens. The first pyramid was a step pyramid. A true pyramid has a square base and four smooth sides that come to a point at the top.) Set a Purpose for Reading Ask students to finish reading Chapter 2 and summarize the important information they find. Have them write their summaries in their notebooks. Discuss the Reading Ask students to share with the class the summaries they wrote. Focus on the important ideas in this chapter by asking the following questions: How were the pyramids built? (No one knows for sure. Workers may have used large sleds, pulleys, and dirt ramps to move and position the heavy stones.) What is the Great Pyramid? (The largest of Egypt s pyramids; tomb of King Khufu; one of the three pyramids of Giza.) What is the relationship of the three pyramids of Giza? (The Great Pyramid was built by King Khufu; Khufu s son Khafre built the second; Khafre s son Menkaure built the third.) Content Information Your students might enjoy these additional facts about pyramids: Pyramids were built not only in Egypt but also in many other areas of the world at various times throughout history. India, Thailand, Greece, western Asia, Ethiopia, the Sudan, some Pacific islands, Mexico, and South America are among the places where people have built pyramids. The most famous pyramids in the Americas are the Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon in central Mexico. Built by an ancient civilization in Mexico, these two pyramids are located at either end of a long avenue in the ancient city of Teotihuacan, near Mexico City. They are step pyramids, built of earth and then faced with stone. The top of the pyramid was originally a temple. The larger of the two, the Pyramid of the Sun, is nearly as large as the Great Pyramid of Giza. Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity 1. Remind students that the pyramids of Egypt were built as tombs and monuments to show the greatness of the pharaohs. 2. Have students work in small groups to choose a pharaoh from Chapter 1 or Have the groups work together to draw a design for a tomb and monument that reflects the greatness or the accomplishments of the pharaoh Benchmark Education Company, LLC 7

9 Chapter 2 Page Number Author s Purpose Evidence Pharaohs were military leaders, 6-7 To inform lawmakers, and judges; they had complete power over their people; they lived in luxury Identify Author s Purpose To inform and to entertain To entertain To inform and to entertain To entertain King Khufu built the Great Pyramid; the Great Pyramid is about half as tall as the Empire State Building. The archaeologist s quote about Queen Nefertiti Interesting details, such as carved religious spells, wall paintings, and contents of the rooms in the pyramid The information does not inform; the details about how they might have been built are interesting. Informal Assessment Tips 1. Observe students as they work on the graphic organizer. 2. In your folder, jot down what you see the students doing. 3. Ask yourself: Are students having problems with this strategy? If so, what are the problems? Are students mastering this strategy? If so, how do I know? 4. For struggling students, review the strategy using the comprehension strategy poster. Use both sides of the poster if needed. Guide Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Review the author s purpose and the evidence by reviewing the graphic organizer. Explain that as a group you are going to reread Chapter 2 to identify the author s purpose and the evidence for determining that purpose. Ask students to skim page 15 to look for the author s purpose. Ask: Why did the author go into detail about the secret burial chamber for the pharaoh? (Possible answers: to inform the reader and also to entertain) Ask: What evidence shows that the author intended to entertain as well as inform? (Possible answers: The author gives interesting details, such as carved religious spells, paintings on the walls, and contents of the rooms in the pyramid.) Have students write responses on their charts. Ask students to skim page 18 to look for the author s purpose. Ask: Why did the author include the information on building pyramids? (Possible answers: to entertain) Ask: What is the evidence for the author s purpose? (Possible answers: Because how the pyramids were built is a mystery, the text does not inform; the details about how they might have been built are interesting.) Write students responses on the chart. Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning Tell students that words or phrases meaning almost the same thing are called synonyms. If you understand the meaning of one of the synonyms, you can determine the meaning of the unfamiliar synonym. Have students turn to page 4 and locate the word tombs. Say: This boldfaced word is in the glossary, but it is also defined right in the text. Authors use or to compare two words or phrases with similar meanings. Tombs means a burial structure. I know because the author told me by using or. Because I know the meaning of the term burial structure, I know the meaning of tomb. Turn to page 15 and point out the word ka. Tell students that the author has included a synonym for the word. Ask: What does this word mean? (life force) How did you identify the synonym? (by the words that follow or) Tell students that they will look for additional synonyms to help them determine the meaning of unfamiliar words as they continue reading Pharaohs, Pyramids, and Mummies Benchmark Education Company, LLC

10 Chapter 3 Conclusion Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Synthesize Have students review the important ideas they wrote for Chapters 1 and 2. Encourage them to explain how they identified which ideas were important. Say: Today we are going to synthesize the information we read by choosing one word that sums up the main idea. Read page 20 aloud while students follow along. Ask: What important ideas did you read? (Possible answers: Ancient Egyptians wanted to preserve bodies after death, but when they buried bodies in coffins, the bodies decayed. The Egyptians developed a process to preserve them.) What are all the important ideas about? (preserving bodies) What word best describes this idea? (mummification) Read page 22 aloud. Ask: What process is being described on this page? (preserving or removing organs) What word describes this idea? (embalming) Read pages aloud. Ask: What is being described in these pages? (how mummies were buried) What word describes this idea? (burial) Set a Purpose for Reading Have students read the rest of the book, pages Ask them to write the important ideas being discussed and the best single word that represents those ideas for pages Tell students they will share their words after reading the chapter. Discuss the Reading Ask students to share the words they identified. Discuss how they chose the words and compare their responses. Ask: How did ancient Egyptians try to protect their graves from robbers? (by placing curses on them) What is one way scientists learn about ancient Egyptian people? (by studying mummies) What do scientists today know about ancient Egypt? (They know about the lives and beliefs of the people, but there is still more to learn.) Encourage students to identify one word that summarizes each of these answers. (Possible answers: curses or protection; evidence; mysteries) Content Information Students may be interested in these details about Egyptian tombs: While early pharaohs built pyramids, later pharaohs built their tombs underground, cutting caverns in the natural rock. The tombs had elegant rooms and passageways, all beautifully decorated. To discourage grave robbers, underground tombs often had dead-end corridors, winding tunnels, and false doors. The outer entryways were hidden in the rock face and the openings sealed with rock. Just as pharaohs and important persons had servants in life, they also had servants in death. A pharaoh s tombs might contain as many as 700 miniature figures of servants. These doll-like figures were made of pottery, stone, or wood. Their purpose was to serve the mummies in the afterlife. Pharaohs had good reason to fear tomb robbers. Even though the penalty for robbing tombs was severe, the riches of the tombs were tempting. Corrupt officials and priests, tomb architects, artisans, and lowly laborers were just a few of those tempted to rob the tombs. Some even made a living at it. Secrets of the craft were passed down from father to son. Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity 1. Divide students into small groups. Suggest that they are planning a burial for a pharaoh, but that the pharaoh is a modern-day person. 2. Have them brainstorm the kinds of artifacts that would be put in a modern pharaoh s tomb. Remind students that the items are meant to be used in the afterlife. 3. Have students share their lists with the class. Discuss how the items would be used in the afterlife Benchmark Education Company, LLC 9

11 Chapters 3 Conclusion Page Number Author s Purpose Identify Author s Purpose To inform To inform and to entertain To entertain To inform and to entertain To entertain Evidence Pharaohs were military leaders, lawmakers, and judges; they had complete power over their people; they lived in luxury. King Khufu built the Great Pyramid; the Great Pyramid is about half as tall as the Empire State Building. The archaeologist s quote about Queen Nefertiti Interesting details, such as carved religious spells, wall paintings, and contents of the rooms in the pyramid The information does not inform; the details about how they might have been built are interesting. Apply Comprehension Strategy: Identify Author s Purpose Review the graphic organizer with students. Explain that they will work independently to identify the author s purpose and the evidence from pages Pose the following questions to help them focus. Ask: Why did the author include the information about King Tutankhamen s tomb? Why might the author have included specific information about Ramses II? Monitor their work and intervene if they are having difficulty. Discuss student responses together. (Student answers may be different from those on the graphic organizer shown here.) For more practice, have students complete the blackline master Author s Purpose on page 16 of this guide To entertain To inform The interesting story about the curse on the king s tomb Details about Ramses and how he was different from the average pharaoh Author s Purpose to entertain and inform Evidence entertaining story of finding the Rosetta Stone; information about how scholars learned how to read Egyptian hieroglyphics Informal Assessment Tips 1. Watch students as they identify the author s purpose. Ask yourself: How have the students progressed with this strategy? What problems are they still having? What questions do I have about what I see them doing? 2. Watch students as they complete the graphic organizer independently. Ask yourself: Who is still struggling with this strategy? What are they doing or not doing that makes me think they are struggling? How can I help them? 3. Jot down your thoughts in your folder or notebook. Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning Have students find the word embalmed on page 21. Ask: What is the synonym for this word? (preserved) Ask: How do you know this is the synonym? (It follows the word or.) Ask: What is the meaning of the word preserved? (Possible answer: to keep or save from being destroyed) Then ask: What is the meaning of the word embalmed? (Possible answer: to keep or save from decay or destruction) Have students find the word amulets on page 23. Have them find the synonym for amulets (charms) and give the definition of amulets (objects that have magical power to protect). For more practice, have students complete the blackline master Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning on page 15 of this guide. Familiar Unfamiliar Meaning of Unfamiliar Synonym Synonym Synonym assistant order keeper vizier decree preserver a helper rule or law handed out by a ruler one who keeps or saves granting dispensing giving out Benchmark Education Company, LLC

12 After Reading Administer Posttest Have students take Ongoing Assessment #14 on page 64 in the Comprehension Strategy Assessment Handbook (Grade 6). Synthesize Information: Reflect Have students review the web that they created at the beginning of the book. Discuss each item on the web. Ask: What new information did you learn? How would you change the information in the web? Tell students to change information in the web to reflect their new thinking. Tell students to think about what the things they learned imply about the civilization and the people of ancient Egypt. Ask: What conclusions can you draw from what you learned from the book? Write their responses on the board. (Possible answers: Egypt was a great and wealthy civilization; Egyptians had strong beliefs in their gods and in the afterlife.) Informal Assessment Tips 1. Score assessments and determine if more instruction is needed for this strategy. 2. Keep group assessments in a small-group reading folder. 3. Look closely at students responses. Ask yourself: Why has this student answered the question in this manner? For in-depth analysis, discuss responses with individual students. 4. Use posttests to document growth over time, for parent/teacher conferences, or for your own records Benchmark Education Company, LLC 11

13 Writing Workshop Teaching Tips: Process Writing Steps 1. Have students independently write a first draft using the cause-and-effect structure and include at least one embedded question. 2. After students complete their paragraphs, have them revise and edit with the help of a classroom buddy. 3. Conference with each student following the first revision and editing. 4. Have students make any additional changes and create a final copy of their paragraphs. 5. Finally, invite students to share their paragraphs with a group of other students. Model the Writing Process: Write a Paragraph of Purpose Remind students that throughout the book they have found evidence of the author s purpose. On chart paper or the board, create a chart like the one below, showing the author s purpose and the evidence for that purpose. Use the writing model to show how the information from the chart can be used to write a paragraph that shows the author s purpose. Have students think of a topic about ancient Egypt to write about. Or have them use their answers to the questions in the Synthesize Information activity as the basis for a paragraph showing the author s purpose. Encourage them to organize information in a chart similar to the one shown. Have students write a paragraph about their topic. Remind students that as they write they should include evidence to support their purpose. Informal Assessment Tips 1. Observe students as they participate in the group writing project. Identify those who might need additional assistance during the writing process. Jot down notes in your journal. 2. During conferences, keep notes on each student s writing behaviors. Ask yourself: What evidence do I have to support the conclusion that this student is writing well or poorly? What can I do about it? 3. For struggling students, practice writing sentences that support the author s purpose; then move to short paragraphs. Purpose To entertain To inform The Story of Osiris Evidence The story of the murder of Osiris and how his wife returns him to life The information that Egyptians believed their pharaohs became part of Osiris after death Benchmark Education Company, LLC

14 Writing Model The Story of Osiris Egyptian myth tells the story of how Osiris became god of the underworld. Osiris was married to the goddess Isis, and they were king and queen of Egypt. Seth, who was god of the desert, was jealous of Osiris. Seth killed Osiris, cut his body into pieces, put the pieces in a box, and put the box in the Nile River. The grief-stricken Isis searched and searched for her husband s remains. When she finally found the box, she put the body back together. Osiris came back to life. Because he had died and been brought back to life, he became the god of the underworld. Ancient Egyptians believed that when the pharaoh died, he became part of Osiris, the god who had died and come back to life Benchmark Education Company, LLC

15 Name Date Identify Author s Purpose Page Number Author s Purpose Evidence Benchmark Education Company, LLC

16 Name Date Use Synonyms to Determine Word Meaning Directions: The following passage has four sets of synonyms. For each pair, write the synonym that you are familiar with in the left-hand column of the graphic organizer. Write the synonym that is unfamiliar in the middle column. Then write the meaning of the unfamiliar synonym in the right-hand column. Egypt s pharaoh had many important duties. Even though his vizier, or assistant, helped him in his work, he had many responsibilities. As supreme ruler, he governed by royal decree, or order. He was the preserver, or keeper, of the natural order of the gods. He was responsible for dispensing, or granting, justice to his subjects. Familiar Unfamiliar Meaning of Unfamiliar Synonym Synonym Synonym 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

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