Note Taking Study Guide DICTATORS AND WAR

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1 SECTION 1 DICTATORS AND WAR Focus Question: Why did totalitarian states rise after World War I, and what did they do? A. As you read, summarize the actions in the 1930s of each of the countries listed in the table below. Soviet Union Efforts to transform the Soviet Union into industrial power result in deaths of at least 10 million people. 1930s Actions Italy Germany Mussolini outlaws political parties, takes over the press, creates a secret police. Germany reclaims Saar region from France. Japan 109

2 SECTION 1 DICTATORS AND WAR Focus Question: Why did totalitarian states rise after World War I, and what did they do? B. Use the concept web below to record the main ideas about the policies of Great Britain, France, and the United States toward aggressive nations. Did not want a repeat of World War I Appeasement 110

3 SECTION 1 Section Summary DICTATORS AND WAR In the 1920s, some nations moved toward totalitarianism, a type of leadership in which a single party or leader completely controls the lives of its people. The 1917 communist revolution in the Soviet Union produced the first totalitarian country. The leader Vladimir Lenin was replaced by Joseph Stalin in After World War I, Italy had great money troubles. In 1922, the king asked Benito Mussolini, who founded a political party called the Fascists, to lead Italy and form a government. Mussolini controlled the press tightly, created secret police, and outlawed political parties. Following World War I, Germany became a democracy. However, great money problems occurred in the 1930s. The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler rose to power. Hitler criticized many people, political programs, and ideologies, but his sharpest assaults were against communists and Jews. Hitler was antisemitic, or prejudiced against Jewish people. In 1933, he was appointed chancellor, and became president within two years. In Japan, the Great Depression ended a period of increased democracy. Military leaders thought that expanding throughout Asia would solve Japan s money problems. Japan attacked Manchuria in In 1937, Japan raided the capital city of China, Nanjing, with terrible brutality. In the 1930s, Italy and Germany acted aggressively like Japan did in Asia. Hitler took over the Saar region from French control and sent troops into the Rhineland, while Mussolini led an invasion into Ethiopia. France, Britain, and the United States responded to the aggression of Italy, Germany, and Japan with the policy of appeasement. Appeasement means compromising with a potential enemy to maintain peace. However, this approach failed. Italy, Germany, and Japan grew more aggressive. READING CHECK How did Benito Mussolini come to rule Italy? VOCABULARY STRATEGY What does the word ideologies mean in the underlined sentence? What context clues can you find in the surrounding words or phrases? Circle any words or phrases in the paragraph that help you figure out what ideologies means. READING SKILL Summarize Name the countries and leaders discussed in this section. Review Questions 1. After World War I, what kind of government was set up in Germany? Who became the country s leader? 2. How did the military leaders of Japan want to solve the country s problems? 111

4 SECTION 2 FROM ISOLATION TO INVOLVEMENT Focus Question: How did Americans react to events in Europe and Asia in the early years of World War II? Sequence the major events described in the section using the timeline below. TIP: Search for dates throughout the section. Germany invades Poland. Sept Germany attacks Britain. July 1940 Atlantic Charter issued Aug

5 SECTION 2 Section Summary FROM ISOLATION TO INVOLVEMENT In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. Britain and France declared war on Germany. World War II had begun. Germany used a new kind of warfare called blitzkrieg, or lightning war. Tanks and planes attacked in a coordinated effort. In this way, Germany quickly conquered Poland. In the spring of 1940, Germany conquered Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Germany then invaded France. In July, Germany attacked Britain from the air. Most Americans still did not want to get involved in the war. Isolationists in America believed that fighting in Europe would be wasteful and dangerous. It took two years before the United States joined the Allies. The Allies included Britain, France, and later, the Soviet Union and China. The Allies fought the Axis Powers, which included Germany, Italy, Japan, and several other nations. Winston Churchill, the prime minister of Britain, often mentioned the United States in his speeches, hoping to convince America to join the Allies. Despite America s isolationism, Congress passed the Neutrality Act of This law was designed to help the Allies buy goods and war supplies from the United States. President Roosevelt often talked about helping Britain. In early 1941, Congress approved the Lend-Lease Act. This act gave the President the power to sell, give, or lease weapons to protect the United States. All the aid went to the Allies. Later in 1941, Roosevelt met with Churchill to discuss the war and their hopes for a peaceful world. They also signed the Atlantic Charter, a document that supported national selfdetermination and a worldwide plan for peace after the war. Hitler knew the United States was helping the Allies. Therefore, in the fall of 1941 he ordered German U-boats to attack American ships. U.S. involvement in the war seemed unavoidable. READING CHECK What is a blitzkrieg? VOCABULARY STRATEGY What does the word coordinated mean in the underlined sentence? Circle the words in the underlined sentence that could help you learn what coordinated means. The word describes an important part of fighting a battle. READING SKILL Sequence List the countries Germany invaded by order of date. Review Questions 1. What nations made up the Axis Powers? 2. What was President Roosevelt s position on the war in Europe? 113

6 SECTION 3 AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR Focus Question: How did the United States react to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? A. As you read, record the causes and effects of the attack on Pearl Harbor, as well as details about the attack itself, in the chart below. TIP: Look for key words such as attack in the section. Causes Attack on Pearl Harbor Effects Japan relies on trade with the United States for natural resources. Nearly 2,500 Americans were killed. Germany and Italy declare war on the United States. B. Sequence the fighting that followed Pearl Harbor in the timetable below. TIP: Search for dates throughout the section. Early War in the Pacific May 1942 May 1942 The Philippines fall to the Japanese. Bataan Death March 1

7 SECTION 3 Section Summary AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR As Japan expanded its empire throughout Asia, its relationship with the United States worsened. Japan needed resources such as oil, steel, and rubber to maintain its military. The United States began to withhold these goods as a way to limit Japan s expansion. The United States also instituted a trade embargo against Japan. Hideki Tojo, the Japanese prime minister, tried to reach a trade agreement with the United States. When he failed, Tojo decided to attack the United States. Hundreds of airplanes were launched from Japanese aircraft carriers. These planes bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the site of the United States Navy s main base in the Pacific. The surprise attack killed nearly 2,500 Americans and sunk many ships. After the attack, Congress declared war on Japan. Because of their alliance with Japan, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. America prepared for war immediately. Men joined the military by the millions. Thousands of women joined the Women s Army Corps (WAC) as clerical workers, truck drivers, instructors, and lab technicians. The government created agencies to help produce military equipment. These agencies allocated scarce materials to the proper industries. In Asia, United States Army General Douglas MacArthur struggled unsuccessfully to hold the Philippines against the Japanese forces. In May 1942, Japan defeated U.S. forces in the Philippines. Thousands of U.S. troops surrendered. Japanese troops forced these sick and malnourished men to march many miles. More than 7,000 of them died on the march known as the Bataan Death March. In May 1942, the United States Navy finally stopped Japan s progress. At the Battle of Coral Sea, the navy prevented Japan from taking a key spot in New Guinea. This kept the Japanese from expanding further. READING CHECK Where did the United States Navy stop Japan s expansion in the Pacific? VOCABULARY STRATEGY What does the word allocated mean in the underlined sentence? Circle the words in the underlined passage that could help you learn what allocated means. Think about what the government might do with limited materials. READING SKILL Identify Causes and Effects What did the United States do immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor? Review Questions 1. Why did the United States want to limit how much oil, steel, and rubber it sent to Japan? 2. What happened to U.S. forces in the Philippines? 115

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