Another theme addressed in the gallery is how we learn about the past. Knowledge and understanding 2b cultural diversity

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1 Learning Pack Egyptians, Greeks and Romans The Ancient Worlds for Key Stages 1 and 2 Where? Leeds City Museum, second floor (right at the top!) What? Use this gallery to help your pupils engage with the Greeks, Romans and Egyptians. The gallery is grouped according to theme, not civilisation. The themes are art and architecture; objects in the earth; writing and burials. Another theme addressed in the gallery is how we learn about the past. Top Spot? Nesyamun, the Leeds mummy. Curriculum Links: Knowledge and understanding 2b cultural diversity Historical interpretation 3 different interpretations of the past Historical enquiry 4a learn from different sources Breadth of study 8a/9 - British History, Romans Breadth of study 12- European history Breadth of study 13 - World history QCA Unit Links: History Unit 6a Why have people invaded and settled in the past, Romans History Unit 10 What can we find out about ancient Egypt from what has survived History Unit 14 Who were the ancient Greeks? History Unit 15 How do we use ancient Greek ideas today? Note These worksheets are a pilot to facilitate self led visits to Leeds City Museum, in preparation for the Learning Pack, which will be available in If you have any comments about these pilot worksheets, please 1

2 Teacher Information To try and make the learning pack easy to use, we have used these icons throughout: Write Discuss Act Out / Mime Draw Think about Look 2

3 Theme One: Art and Architecture Teacher Information Aim To gain an understanding of how art and architecture are influenced by the Ancient Worlds Objectives To be able to identify the differences between Greek, Roman and Egyptian architecture To be able to recognise and demonstrate their knowledge of how Roman, Greek and Egyptian architectural styles have influenced contemporary buildings in Leeds We know a lot about the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans because of what they left behind. Buildings temples, barracks and burial chambers were of particular importance and have survived. Although the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans all seem like ancient history to us, they didn t all live at the same time and the Romans may have regarded the Greeks and Egyptians as ancient history too! The Romans were influenced by Greek architecture the Lanuvium marbles (by the gallery entrance) is an example of this. Lanuvium was a City near Rome, which resisted Roman occupation for many years. When it was finally occupied, the Romans made these marbles in traditional Greek style. The purpose of the marbles was to show the world that the Romans had finally conquered this city. Because so much architecture from the ancient worlds survived, we are still influenced by Egyptian, Greek and Roman architecture; and many contemporary buildings copy these style. At the Museum: Opposite the Lanuvium marbles is the Look around you interactive. Pupils could complete the Look around you worksheet to consider which buildings in Leeds are influenced by Egyptian, Greek and Roman architecture. At school: Consider any other local architecture which takes inspiration from ancient civilisations. 3

4 Pupil Worksheet Look around you! We know a lot about the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans because of what they left behind. Because so many buildings from the ancient worlds survived, we sometimes copy Egyptian, Greek and Roman styles in modern buildings. Look at the big board with lots of pictures of buildings in Leeds. Draw a building which you think is influenced by the Greeks. What is your building called? [Clue! match the number with the list of names on the board] 4

5 Pupil Worksheet Look around you! Draw a building which you think is influenced by the Romans. What is your building called? Draw a building which you think is influenced by the Egyptians. What is your building called? 5

6 Teacher Information Theme Two: Objects in the Earth Aim To understand the importance of archaeological findings and how they help us to interpret the past Objectives To be able to group materials according to the length of time it would take for their properties to break down To be able to recognise what simple items like pottery can tell us about the past To develop their own pot, giving clues about their own lives What can we tell about the ancient worlds from what they left behind? Archaeological digs have uncovered a lot of objects from Egyptian, Greek and Roman times. These objects are further clues as to how people in the past might have lived. Everyday objects such as tweezers, coins, jewellery and brooches have survived. Archaeologists have found a lot of Greek pottery. During the classical period these pots were often decorated with scenes from Greek life. These depictions are the foundations of much of our knowledge of Greek life. It is worth remembering that whilst archaeological finds have helped us to understand the ancient civilisations, there is a lot which has not survived. Look down at yourself, what do you think would survive thousands of years? Rings? Watch faces? Leather shoes? Maybe so, but clothes would not. At the Museum: - Archaeological Dig Pupils do their very own archaeological dig. Watch the Greek potter talk about the pottery he has made and then see if they can dig for it in the archaeological pit. - Reconstruct a Pot Archaeologists rarely find pots that are complete and whole so they have to piece them together. Pupils can have a go at this with the reconstruct a pot activity - What will survive Pupils group materials together according to how well they will survive if they were to be buried underground for thousand of years. At School or the Museum: - Design your own pot showing aspects of your life Using the design a pot worksheet, pupils can design their own Greek pot which depicts their favourite things family, friends, clothes, games, sports. They can then write a sentence about what people would be able to learn about them from the pot. 6

7 Pupil Worksheet Happy Potter and the Goblet of Clay! Watch The Greek Potter on the big screen above the archaeological pit. His pottery has been buried for over 1000 years. Can you use the brushes to gently brush away sand in the pit below the screen and see what has been buried? Draw it below. Pottery survives being buried for thousands of years. Look at the things you are wearing and carrying, what will survive? Use the What will Survive game in front of the pottery case to help you. Will Survive E.g. Leather shoes E.g. Jeans Won t Survive 7

8 Pupil Worksheet Happy Potter and the Goblet of Clay II! The Greeks drew pictures of their daily life on their pots. Draw the favourite things about your life in the pot template. It could be your hobbies, your family and friends, your favourite food or places you like to go. 8

9 Teacher Information Theme Three: Writing Hieroglyphics Aim To understand the importance of archaeological findings and how they help us to interpret the past Objectives To be able to group materials according to the length of time it would take for their properties to break down To be able to recognise what simple items like pottery can tell us about the past To develop their own pot, giving clues about their own lives Ancient Egyptian is one of the world s oldest written languages. Like all languages, it has changed over time, as has the way it was written down. At least 4 different scripts were used to write the ancient Egyptian language: Hieroglyphics, Hieratic, Demotic and Coptic. Hieroglyphs The word hieroglyph is Greek and means sacred carving. The Egyptian hieroglyphic script is one of the oldest known writing systems in the world and was in use from about 3100BC until about 400AD. A core of roughly 700 symbols was used to write, although later in the Greco-Roman period there were many more in use. Hieroglyphic symbols did not usually represent the object that was drawn. Instead each symbol represented a sound, which could be a consonant or a mix of consonants, but not vowels. Because there were no vowel sounds or word spaces in hieroglyphs, the Egyptians used symbols called determinatives which told the reader what the word related to. For example, the Egyptian word for 'to eat' was 'wenem'. To write this, you would write the symbols for 'w', 'n', and 'm', followed by a picture of a man pointing at his mouth. Hieroglyphic script could be written left to right, right to left or top to bottom. You can tell which way to read it because the figures of people and animals always face towards the beginning of the line. We can read hieroglyphics because of the discovery of the Rosetta stone in It contained three translations of a simple text in Greek, and two Ancient Egyptian languages (hieroglyphics and demotic). Because scholars could understand the Greek script, the code of hieroglyphics could finally be cracked. 9

10 Teacher Information At the Museum: - Code Breaker Activity Pupils can crack codes at the interactive table under the large light display about writing. Extra codes to crack are on the Code breakers worksheet. - Write Your Name in Greek Pupils can use Greek alphabet tiles to write their own name in Greek At School: - Hieroglyphics Activity Give pupils a copy of the Hieroglyphics alphabet insert so that they can write their name in hieroglyphics. 10

11 Code Breakers! Pupil Worksheet Archaeologists have to crack code to read ancient languages such as hieroglyphics. Are you a code breaker? Find the code wheel in the Gallery. Can you solve the first puzzle what is the word? If A=X, you must match the mystery word with the letters on the top row. The letter immediately below it is the right letter. Can you solve this code? A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WX Y Z X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W P X P P B Hieroglyphics are an ancient Egyptian language. Look around the gallery; can you see the signs for GOD and SMALL? Draw the hieroglyphic sign for GOD here! Draw the hieroglyphic sign for SMALL here! 11

12 Teacher Information Theme Five: Burials Nesyamun the Leeds Mummy Aim To recognise the importance of burial rituals within the Egyptian culture Objectives To learn about the life of the Leeds Mummy, Nesyamun To be able to recognise which Gods and Goddesses came from which ancient worlds culture Burials and the afterlife were particularly significant to the Egyptians and much of the knowledge we have about them is learnt from studying their afterlife rituals and beliefs. The Egyptians had many gods and goddesses, each with their own personality and responsibilities. Next to Code Breakers is a computer interactive where pupils can play top trumps to learn about different Greek, Egyptian and Roman gods and goddesses, and their special powers. NESYAMUN Nesyamun is the Leeds Mummy. He was brought to Leeds in Leeds has had other mummies but sadly they were destroyed in bomb raids during the Second World War The Life of Nesyamun From the inscriptions on Nesyamun s coffin and the objects left with him, we can understand a great deal about his life. We know from a leather ornament in his bandages (now lost) that he died in the reign of Ramesses XI, who ruled Egypt BC. Nesyamun was a priest at the temple of Amun in the Karnak complex at Thebes (modern day Luxor). Amun was the state god of Egypt, and the name Nesyamun means the one belonging to Amun. The Karnak temple complex employed 80,000 people at its height and is still the largest religious building in the world. Priests in ancient Egypt played a very different role to priests in society today. Their duties had nothing to do with communal worship or preaching the religion to the masses - instead they were required to tend to the sacred statue of the god, performing rituals, saying prayers and making offerings of food, clothing, jewellery and incense. The food was later divided between the priests. The statue was believed to be an embodiment of the god, and the temple literally the god s house. 12

13 Teacher Information Death We don t know if any of the above diseases killed Nesyamun. In fact it is rare to be able to pinpoint the cause of death in Egyptian mummies. But the way Nesyamun died is almost unique because he was mummified with an open mouth and a protruding tongue. Embalmers would usually close the mouth and we don t know why his was left open. His open mouth and tongue could give us clues to how he died: Was he strangled? This is possible but unlikely was there was no damage to the neck bones. Did he have a seizure or heart attack? Did he have an allergic reaction? It is possible that Nesyamun was bitten by an insect and suffered a reaction, and died by choking. In the Museum: - Dress an Egyptian computer interactive and complete the Egyptian life worksheet - Look at Nesyamun and the surrounding cases and complete the Egyptian afterlife worksheet. NOTE: Human remains can be distressing to some individuals. Please bear this in mind when working with young people in this Gallery. 13

14 Egyptian Life Pupil Worksheet Find the Egyptian Life computer interactive, choose an Egyptian to dress, and draw your dressed character below. Look for the Egyptian Life display case. It is next to the case with the hedgehog in. Find the Counter and the needles in the Egyptian Life case. What can we learn about the Egyptians by the fact that they had counters? (think about what they might use counters for) What can we learn about the Egyptians by the fact that they had needles? (think about what they might use needles for) This is a picture of 14

15 Pupil Worksheet Egyptian Afterlife The Egyptians had many gods and goddesses, all with different personalities and strengths. Find the Top Trumps computer game next to the code breakers. Which Egyptian (orange coloured) god is the strongest? Now, match the gods up Osiris Guardian of the Dead Horus King of the Underworld Anubit Symbol of Strength Look in the afterlife case (before you enter the mummies tomb). What are SHABTI? Which Egyptian (orange coloured) god is the wisest? What do they tell us about Egyptian beliefs about the afterlife? Look in the religion case, (before you enter the mummies tomb). Now enter the tomb of Nesyamun! 15

16 Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics Use the hieroglyphs below to translate your name or write a message to your friends and family. Find out more about ancient writing in the Ancient Worlds Gallery of the City Museum

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