Ch 6 Section 2 Birth of the Roman Empire

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1 Ch 6 Section 2 Birth of the ª Weakening Republic-had lasted 400 years ª Soldiers have no land ª Republic out growing itself ª Bureaucracy - nobles to big (greed) ª Reform needed???? 1

2 Birth of the ª 2 Brothers- see need for reform ª Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus ª Tiberius 133 BC - elected tribune. ª Troubled by fate of farmer/soldier ª Felt land had been stolen. ª Soldiers liked him, Senate doesn t Birth of the ª 2 Brothers ª Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus ª Tiberius 133 BC - elected tribune. ª Troubled by fate of farmer/soldier ª Felt land had been stolen. ª Soldiers liked him, Senate doesn t ª Senate clubbed him to death (along with 100 supporters) ª FIRST TIME IN 400 YEARS WHERE THERE WAS A POLITICAL KILLING.. REPUBLIC S AT POINT OF NO RETURN. VIOLENCE REPLACES LAW.. 2

3 Birth of the ª Senate clubbed him to death (along with 100 supporters) ª FIRST TIME IN 400 YEARS WHERE THERE WAS A POLITICAL KILLING.. REPUBLIC S AT POINT OF NO RETURN. VIOLENCE REPLACES LAW.. ª Don t mess with tradition! ª Violence now replaced respect for law Birth of the ª 2 Brothers ª Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus ª Gaius - elected 123 BC. ª Social War ª Has Government buy grain and sold it to poor people for less money--- ª Senate not happy- ª Gaius and 250 followers killed in riots ª At this point Roman government has changed. ª Relationship with allies throughout the Italian Peninsula in CRISIS 3

4 Birth of the ª At this point Roman government has changed ª Now it is a Civil War - Roman army wants benefits of Rome s power & SENATE doesn t want to give up power Birth of the ª Social War??? Not in book ª 91 BC Bloodiest war in Roman History ª Rome won, but senate eventually gave citizenship and political participation to allies. 4

5 Birth of the ª 107 BC Gaius Marius ** not in book! ª Roman General who makes more changes ª First volunteer army - ª paid in money, land and loot from victories Birth of the ª 107 BC Gaius Marius ª Roman General who makes more changes ª First volunteer army - ª paid in money, land and loot from victories ª 88 BC Lucius Cornelius Sulla ª Didn t like Marius, fought little Civil War, (82-79BC) tries to restore power of Senate. (Sulla wins) ª Soldiers become loyal to Generals, not Government Starts Dictatorships. 5

6 Julius Caesar #67 Mainly because he conquered a lot of land and made Rome who they are today BC Nephew of Marius Popular General- Charismatic, get into literature, powerful speaker. Actually didn t do that much historically but. (Octavian #19 did more but not as famous) 6

7 Julius Caesar #67 60 BC First Triumvirate (3 people run Rome 1. Caesar - Gaul (France) Julius Caesar #67 60 BC First Triumvirate (3 people run Rome 1. Caesar - Gaul (France) 2. Pompey- Sole Consul (Rome) 52 BC 7

8 Julius Caesar #67 60 BC First Triumvirate (3 people run Rome 1. Caesar - Gaul (France) 2. Pompey- Sole Consul (Rome) 52 BC 3. Crassus - Wealthy, not a lot of political power. (fire guy - made his money in real estate) Dies in Battle. 53 BC 60 BC First Triumvirate Pompey got jealous of Caesar and made him come home & return as a civilian. Caesar brings army with him and thus starts civil war (refuses to play second fiddle to Pompey) 49 BC Caesar declares war on Republic. Pompey flees to Greece where Caesar defeats him. 8

9 46 BC Caesar returns to Rome Senate declares him dictator for life. Increases number of Senators to 900 Reduces power of Senate 46 BC Caesar returns to Rome Senate declares him dictator for life. Increases number of Senators to 900 Reduces power of Senate Caesar killed Brutus- kills Caesar Pompey s supporters whom Caesar had forgiven (forgave Pompey) Ides of March (March 15, 44 BC) 9

10 Caesar had chosen his grandnephew OCTAVIAN #19 as his heir. Caesar had chosen his grandnephew OCTAVIAN #19 as his heir. 2nd Triumvirate Octavian - 19 years old (similar to Alexander the Great) Mark Anthony = Caesars General & Allie Lepidus = Caesars second in command. 10

11 2nd Triumvirate Mark Anthony takes the East Re conquers Syria & Asia Minor, joins Cleopatra in Egypt. Octavian build power in Italy and gets the West Lepidus is forced to retire. Rome is divided (east & west) 2nd Triumvirate Senate declares war on Marc Anthony Naval battle, Octavian defeats fleet Capture Alexandria Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide. Octavian named first AUGUSTUS Augustus = revered one, first citizen, Augustus = Octavian (same person) 11

12 Octavian becomes 1st Emperor Octavian = Augustus Caesar #19 Died 14 AD Octavian becomes 1st Emperor Octavian = Augustus Caesar #19 Roman Republic becomes Empire expands Died 14 AD Pax Romana = Roman Peace years Peace came at a price.. Senate,Assemblies and Magistrates all have their power greatly reduced. Emperor could abuse power. Some did! 12

13 Julio - Claudian Emperors 14 AD - 68AD 54 years of Julius Caesar relatives ruling Empire Tiberius 14 AD- 37 AD Adopted son of Augusta Caligua Cladius Nero

14 - pg 164 chart Julio - Claudian Emperors 14 AD - 68AD Army Emperors AD Flavian Emperors AD Name comes from the last of the army emperors The Five Great Emperors AD Marcus Aurelius years of Peace makes for help in Education Trade Culture Roads 14

15 Slaves & Captivity Gods and Goddesses Society & Culture Pages

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