WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire

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1 WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire Objective: The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. to 500 A.D. in terms of its impact on Western civilization by a) assessing the influence of geography on Roman development; b) describing Roman mythology and religion; c) explaining the social structure, significance of citizenship, and the development of democratic features in the government of the Roman Republic; d) sequencing events leading to Roman military domination of the Mediterranean basin and Western Europe and the spread of Roman culture in these areas; e) assessing the roles of Julius and Augustus Caesar in the collapse of the Republic and the rise of imperial monarchs; f) explaining the economic, social, and political impact of the Pax Romana; Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 87

2 Essential Understandings of Roman Republic and Empire 1) The city of Rome, with its central location on the Italian peninsula, was able to extend its influence over the entire Mediterranean Basin. 2) The Italian peninsula was protected by the sea and an arc of mountains, the Alps. 3) Roman mythology, like Greek mythology, was based upon a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics, and art. 4) Many of Western civilization s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Roman mythology. 5) Although women, most aliens (non-romans living in the Republic), and slaves were excluded from the governing process, the Roman Republic made major strides in the development of representative democracy, which became a foundation of modern democracy. 6) After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the Mediterranean basin, leading to the diffusion of Roman culture. 7) The Roman Republic, in the face of changing social and economic conditions, succumbed to civil war and was replaced by an imperial regime, the Roman Empire. Augustus Caesar established the Roman Empire by instituting civil service, rule by law, a common coinage, and secure travel and trade throughout the Empire. 8) Following Augustus Caesar, the Roman Empire enjoyed 200 years of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. Essential Questions about Roman Republic and Empire 1) How was geographic location important to economic, social, and political development of ancient Rome? 2) What was the source of Roman mythology? 3) What impact did Roman mythology have on later civilizations? 4) How did the government of the Roman Republic become more democratic in its decision making? 5) Why was Rome able to conquer Carthage and then go on to extend its influence across the entire Mediterranean basin and much of Western Europe? 6) Why did the Roman Republic fail to survive challenges by Julius Caesar? 7) How did military conquests alter economic and social life in Rome? 8) How did an imperial monarchy come to rule Rome? 9) What was the Pax Romana? 10) What was the impact of the Pax Romana on the Roman Empire? Why do I need to know this? 1) Some of the most fundamental values and institutions of Western civilization began in the Roman Republic. 2) The Roman Empire has served throughout history as a model of political organization and control. Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 88

3 Roman Republic Beginnings of Rome Romulus and Remus Geography Original Settlers of Rome Outside Influences Becoming a Republic Early Republic 1. patricians 2. plebeians 3. tribunes Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 89

4 The Roman World, 265 B.C. A.D. 117 Roman Republic Roman Empire Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 90

5 0 Early Republic continued 4. The Twelve Tables Roman Republic 5. consuls 6. dictators 7. Senate 8. Centuriate Assembly 9. Tribal Assembly Roman Army Rome Conquers Italy Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 91

6 Comparing the Roman Republic to the republic of the United States Directions: Open up the textbook to page 143 and copy the chart into the blank chart below. Then answer the questions at the bottom of this page. Comparing Republican Governments Rome United States Executive Legislative Judicial Legal Code Citizenship 1. What is the supreme law of the United States? Rome? 2. How long did Rome s judges serve? The US? 3. How many more Senate members did the Roman Republic have than the US? 4. Which government seems more democratic? Why? Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 92

7 Punic Wars Punic Wars First Punic War ( B.C.) Second Punic War ( B.C.) Third Punic War ( B.C.) Results of the Punic Wars Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 93

8 Changes in Rome During the Pax Romana Rome becomes an. The empire. Roman spreads to provinces Roman trade reaches to. increases trade Women have freedom Gap between rich and poor. 1. What happened to the gap between the rich and poor? 2. Which changes do you consider to be negative? Why? Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 94

9 The Republic in Crisis The Republic in Crisis Gap between Rich and Poor Spartacus Reformers and Generals Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Generals Julius Caesar Background Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 95

10 Gaius Julius Caesar 315 Piazza del Colosseo Rome, Italy Objective To become of the Roman Empire. Familial 1. Father s family was from the family of the Julii. The Julii traced its History lineage to the mythological first king of Rome, Romulus, and the goddess Venus. 2. Was related to a military reformer and 7-time consul Gaius Marius. Military Experience 1. Served in one of the armies that crushed Spartacus revolution. 2. Hunted down pirates who had held him for ransom when he was younger and had them all crucified. 3. Defended Roman territory in. 4. Conquered all of for the Roman Empire. 5. Conquered most of modern Germany. 6. Invaded in 54 BC. 7. In a civil war with Pompey, crushed his enemies and unified Rome. Political Experience BC, appointed governor of Spain 2. Served as the pontifex maximus, the chief priest of Rome. 3. Served as praetor of Spain. Put in charge of the military and judicial systems of Spain. 4. Elected in 59 BC. 5. Appointed of Gaul in 58 BC. 6. Appointed in 49 BC. Political 1. Cancelled taxes for farmers. Accomplishments 2. Gave land to fathers of three or more children. 3. to territories outside of Italy loyal to him and allowed them to be represented in the Senate 4. Set up public works projects to 5. Distributed, but reduced the number of people eligible for it Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 96

11 Julius Caesar Caesar s Military Campaigns Military Genius Crossing the Rubicon Caesar s Reforms Helping the Poor Caesar s Death The Ides of March Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 97

12 The Roman Republic Becomes and Empire Illustrated Timeline DIRECTIONS: Using the pages indicated next to the dates on the timeline, fill in the important events that trace Rome s transformation from a Republic to an Empire. Then pick one of the events and draw a picture to represent that event at the bottom of the page. 509 BC (p. 142) BC (p. 144) 44 BC (p. 147 two things happened) 27 BC (p. 148) Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 98

13 End of the Republic The First Emperor The Second Trimvirate The Republic becomes and Empire The Roman Empire Pax Romana Pax Romana Pax Romana Economic Impact The Government Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 99

14 The Colosseum The Colosseum was on e of the greatest feats of Roman engineering and a model for the ages. The name comes from the Latin word colossus, meaning gigantic. Its construction was started by the Emperor Vespasian and was completed by his sons, emperors Titus and Domitian. For centuries after its opening in 80 AD, excited spectators, both rich and poor, cheered a variety of free, bloody spectacles presented for their entertainment. Gladiator fought gladiator to the death. Wild animals were hunted and slaughtered. Christians were devoured by lions. The poor sat in the higher seats, the rich and powerful sat closer to the action. Velarium a retractable canvas awning that shielded spectators from sun and rain Exits giant staircases that allowed the building to be emptied in minutes Entrances 80 in all Statues honoring gods and emperors. Elevators and ramps led from the cells and animal cages in the Colosseum basement to trapdoors concealed in the arena floor. Passageways walkways that led to seats Facts about the Colosseum Built AD Capacity 50,000-55,000 Materials stone and concrete Size 157 feet high, 620 feet long Arena 287 feet long, 187 feet wide 1. What do the kind of spectacles the Romans watched tell us about them as a people and their leaders? 2. The Colosseum has been the model for sports stadiums worldwide. How is the design of modern stadiums patterned after that of the Colosseum? What are the similarities.? Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 100

15 The Roman Empire Pax Romana The Government continued 3. Life in the Empire Family Life Gods and Goddesses Slaves, Bread and Circuses Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 101

16 Summary DIRECTIONS: Choose one of the following: a) write a summary (25-75 words) of what you believe was the most important aspect of the notes/lecture b) write what you believe to be the most interesting or memorable part of the notes/lecture (25-75 words) c) draw something that symbolizes the notes/lecture to you (has to be different than your title page) Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 102

17 Name: WHI.05 (1): Ancient Greece DIRECTIONS: Check the agenda slide for the bellringer at the beginning of class and the closer at the end of class. You do not have to copy down the question, but you do have to write in complete sentences. If you are absent on a day we do a bellringer and closer, please write in the word ABSENT for that day. Date: Bellringers Closing Activity Date: Date: Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 103

18 Name: WHI.05 (1): Ancient Greece DIRECTIONS: Check the agenda slide for the bellringer at the beginning of class and the closer at the end of class. You do not have to copy down the question, but you do have to write in complete sentences. If you are absent on a day we do a bellringer and closer, please write in the word ABSENT for that day. Date: Bellringers Closing Activity Date: Date: Notes WHI.06, Part 1: Roman Republic and Empire 104

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