Introduction to C++ Programming

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1 Introduction to C++ Programming 1 Outline Introduction to C++ Programming A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers Memory Concepts Arithmetic Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators

2 Introduction 2 Programs we will study in this book process information and display results. Some simple examples to introduce you to simple programming: display information on the screen obtain information from the user perform simple decision-making

3 A C++ Program 3 #include <iostream> // Use the iostream library int main () // The main part of the program { return 0; }

4 4 { A C++ Program (2) /* Declaration of three float variables float means real numbers */ float cost, price, tax; data type variables // Display the message (stream) on the screen std::cout << "This is a tax calculation program." << endl;

5 5 A C++ Program (3) // get output: Tell the user what to enter std::cout << Enter the price \n"; // get input: Insert what is entered into the variable std::cin >> price; // Calculate tax = price * 0.145; cost = price + tax;

6 6 A C++ Program (4) // Display the content of cost // on the monitor and end the line std::cout << "The cost is " << cost << endl; } // Program end return 0;

7 7 C++ Language Elements Comments Document programs Improve program readability Ignored by compiler Single-line comment e.g. { } Begin with // You can also use /* */ /* */

8 8 Compiler Directives Processed by preprocessor before compiling Begin with # #include Compiler directive Processed at compilation time Instructs compiler on what you want in the program #include <iostream> Adds library files to program Used with < > Also for user defined

9 9 Declarations Direct the compiler on requirements Based on data needs (data identifiers) Each identifier needed must be declared (before it is being used) Comma used to separate identifiers cin and cout are undeclared identifiers Special elements called streams cin -input stream cout - output stream (usually screen) Included with the iostream not declared

10 10 Executable Statements cout get output cout << Enter the fabric size in square meters: ; cin get input cin >> sizeinsqmeters; Assignment sizeinsqyards = meterstoyards * sizeinsqmeters;

11 1 // Fig. 2. 1: fig02_01.cpp 2 // A first program in C++. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 std::cout << "Welcome to C++!\n"; 9 10 return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully } // end function main Outline fig02_01.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_01.cpp output (1 of 1) 11 Welcome to C++! 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

12 Executable Statements 12 -Every program MUST contain ONE main -C++ programs begin executing at function main, even if it was not the first function in the program. - int indicates that the main function returns an integer - main (): indicates that the main function does not take any argument (variable) to execute int main () // The main part of the program { return 0; }

13 A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text Standard output stream object std::cout Connected to screen << Stream insertion operator Value to right (right operand) inserted into output stream Namespace std:: specifies using name that belongs to namespace std std:: removed through use of using statements Escape characters \ Indicates special character output 13

14 A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text 14 Escape Sequence Description \n Newline. Position the screen cursor to the beginning of the next line. \t Horizontal tab. Move the screen cursor to the next tab stop. \r Carriage return. Position the screen cursor to the beginning of the current line; do not advance to the next line. \a Alert. Sound the system bell. \\ Backslash. Used to print a backslash character. \" Double quote. Used to print a double quote character.

15 1 // Fig. 2.3: fig02_03.cpp 2 // Printing a line with multiple statements. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 std::cout << "Welcome "; 9 std::cout << "to C++!\n"; return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully } // end function main Outline fig02_03.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_03.cpp output (1 of 1) 15 Welcome to C++! 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

16 1 // Fig. 2.4: fig02_04.cpp 2 // Printing multiple lines with a single statement 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 std::cout << "Welcome\nto\n\nC++!\n"; 9 10 return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully } // end function main Outline fig02_04.cpp (1 of 1) fig02_04.cpp output (1 of 1) 16 Welcome to C++! 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

17 Data Types and Declarations 17 Variables Location in memory where value can be stored Common data types int - integer numbers (4 bytes) char represent characters (1 bytes) double - floating point numbers (Positive or negative decimal numbers) bool (Boolean) true or false Declare variables with name and data type before use int integer1; int integer2; int sum; Can declare several variables of same type in one declaration Comma-separated list int integer1, integer2, sum;

18 18 Data Types and Declarations (2) The basic integer type is int The size of an int depends on the machine and the compiler On PCs it is normally 16 or 32 bits Other integers types short: typically uses less bits (2 bytes) long: typically uses more bits (4 bytes) Different types allow programmers to use resources more efficiently Standard arithmetic and relational operations are available for these types

19 19 Data Types and Declarations (3) Floating-point types represent real numbers Integer part Fractional part The number breaks down into the following parts integer part fractional part C++ provides three floating-point types Float (4 bytes) Double (8 bytes) long double (8 bytes)

20 Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers 20 Variables Variable names Valid identifier Series of characters (letters, digits, underscores) Cannot begin with digit Case sensitive

21 Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers 21 Input stream object >> (stream extraction operator) Used with std::cin Waits for user to input value, then press Enter (Return) key Stores value in variable to right of operator Converts value to variable data type = (assignment operator) Assigns value to variable Binary operator (two operands) Example: sum = variable1 + variable2;

22 1 // Fig. 2.5: fig02_05.cpp 2 // Addition program. 3 #include <iostream> 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 int integer1; // first number to be input by user 9 int integer2; // second number to be input by user 10 int sum; // variable in which sum will be stored std::cout << "Enter first integer\n"; // prompt 13 std::cin >> integer1; // read an integer std::cout << "Enter second integer\n"; // prompt 16 std::cin >> integer2; // read an integer sum = integer1 + integer2; // assign result to sum std::cout << "Sum is " << sum << std::endl; // print sum return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully } // end function main Outline fig01_06.cpp (1 of 1) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

23 Enter first integer 45 Enter second integer 72 Sum is 117 Outline fig01_06.cpp output (1 of 1) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

24 24 Memory Concepts Variable names Correspond to actual locations in computer's memory Every variable has name, type, size and value int X; When new value placed into variable, overwrites previous value Reading variables from memory nondestructive (variable retains its value)

25 25 Memory Concepts std::cin >> integer1; Assume user entered 45 integer1 45 std::cin >> integer2; Assume user entered 72 integer1 45 integer2 72 sum = integer1 + integer2; integer1 45 integer2 72 sum 117

26 Arithmetic Most programs perform arithmetic calculations Arithmetic calculations * Multiplication / Division Integer division truncates remainder 7 / 5 evaluates to 1 % Modulus operator returns remainder 7 % 5 evaluates to 2 All arithmetic operators are binary operators (takes two operands) % operator cannot be used with non-integer operands (compilation error!) 26

27 Arithmetic 27 Rules of operator precedence Operators in parentheses are evaluated first Nested/embedded parentheses Operators in innermost pair first (e.g., ((a + b) + c)) Multiplication, division, modulus applied next Operators applied from left to right Addition, subtraction applied last Operators applied from left to right Operator(s) Operation(s) Order of evaluation (precedence) () Parentheses Evaluated first. If the parentheses are nested, the expression in the innermost pair is evaluated first. If there are several pairs of parentheses on the same level (i.e., not nested), they are evaluated left to right. *, /, or % Multiplication Division Modulus + or - Addition Subtraction Evaluated second. If there are several, they re evaluated left to right. Evaluated last. If there are several, they are evaluated left to right.

28 Arithmetic 28 e.g., second degree polynomial: y = ax 2 +bx+c C y = a * x * x + b * x + c

29 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 29 if structure Allows a programmer to make decision based on truth or falsity of condition: If condition met, body executed Else, body not executed Equality and relational operators Equality operators Same level of precedence Relational operators Same level of precedence Operators associate left to right

30 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 30 Standard algebraic equality operator or relational operator Relational operators C++ equality or relational operator Example of C++ condition Meaning of C++ condition > > x > y x is greater than y < < x < y x is less than y >= x >= y x is greater than or equal to y <= x <= y x is less than or equal to y Equality operators = == x == y x is equal to y!= x!= y x is not equal to y

31 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 31 A syntax error will occur if any of the operators appear with spaces between its pair of symbols Reversing the order of the pair of symbols (e.g., =!, =>, =<) is a syntax error Do not confuse the equality operator (= =) with the assignment operator (=) (= =) reads is equal to (=) reads gets or gets the value of

32 Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 32 using statements Eliminate use of std:: prefix (avoid repetitions in the program) Write cout instead of std::cout

33 1 // Fig. 2.13: fig02_13.cpp 2 // Using if statements, relational 3 // operators, and equality operators. 4 #include <iostream> 5 6 using std::cout; // program uses cout 7 using std::cin; // program uses cin 8 using std::endl; // program uses endl 9 10 // function main begins program execution 11 int main() 12 { 13 int num1; // first number to be read from user 14 int num2; // second number to be read from user cout << "Enter two integers, and I will tell you\n" 17 << "the relationships they satisfy: "; 18 cin >> num1 >> num2; // read two integers if ( num1 == num2 ) 21 cout << num1 << " is equal to " << num2 << endl; if ( num1!= num2 ) 24 cout << num1 << " is not equal to " << num2 << endl; 25 Outline fig02_13.cpp (1 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

34 26 if ( num1 < num2 ) 27 cout << num1 << " is less than " << num2 << endl; if ( num1 > num2 ) 30 cout << num1 << " is greater than " << num2 << endl; if ( num1 <= num2 ) 33 cout << num1 << " is less than or equal to " 34 << num2 << endl; if ( num1 >= num2 ) 37 cout << num1 << " is greater than or equal to " 38 << num2 << endl; return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully } // end function main Enter two integers, and I will tell you the relationships they satisfy: is not equal to is greater than is greater than or equal to 12 Outline fig02_13.cpp (2 of 2) fig02_13.cpp output (1 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

35 Enter two integers, and I will tell you the relationships they satisfy: is equal to 7 7 is less than or equal to 7 7 is greater than or equal to 7 Outline fig02_13.cpp output (2 of 2) Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

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