# CS-201 Introduction to Programming with Java

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1 CS-201 Introduction to Programming with Java California State University, Los Angeles Computer Science Department Lecture I: Introduction to Computers, Programs, and Java

2 Basic Computer Architecture: Binary Data Representation and Memory

3 Memory An ordered sequence of bytes for storing programs and the data that the program is working with. bytes of memory can be access randomly (RAM Random-Access Memory) programs and data moved into memory before execution by CPU Every byte in the memory has a unique address memory is volatile: Data is lost when the power is lost (reboot, shutdown, or other power interruptions)

4 Memory

5 Bits and Bytes Computers are just a series of switches. switches can be on or off on = 1, off = 0 0s and 1s are interpreted as digits in the binary number system and are called bits. By using the different combinations of on and off switches (bit configurations) in a byte, any letter, character, or number on the keyboard can be represented in binary. Do you know which number is represented by the switches in this picture?

6 Bits and Bytes byte: the minimum storage unit of a computer. memory is organized according to bytes 8 bits = 1 byte 16 bits = 2 bytes = 1 word 32 bits = 4 bytes = 2 words = 1 dword (double word)

7 Bits and Bytes Storage capacity is measured as follows: kilobytes (KB) = 1,000 bytes megabytes (MB) = 1 million bytes gigabytes (GB) = 1 billion bytes terabytes (TB) = 1 trillion bytes

8 Binary to Decimal Conversion Every computer scientist should know how to convert between the Binary number system and the Decimal (Base 10) Number system. Each digit of a binary number represents a power of 2 starting from the right at 20 To find the Decimal representation, simply add up the powers of two where ever there is a 1 in the binary number Example: = = 216

9 Decimal to Binary Conversion To convert from Decimal to Binary divide the original value by 2 keep track of the quotient and the remainder. Continue to divide each new quotient by 2 until the quotient is 0. Keep track of the remainders each time. The binary number will be the remainders going backwards NOTE: If you have less than 8 remainders pad the left side of the binary number with 0s until the number of binary digits is 8.

10 Decimal to Binary Conversion The binary number will be the remainders in reverse. 216 = **Remember to add (pad) 0s to the left if necessary.

11 Software and Programming Languages

12 Software (Programs) Instructions to the computer that tell the computer exactly what to do. Without programs a computer is just a large paperweight! Software is written in computer languages computers don't understand human languages.

13 Programming Languages A language a computer can understand. makes writing programs easier programming in pure machine code is tedious Languages come in three general categories: Machine Languages Assembly Languages High-Level Languages

14 Machine Language (Machine Code) Built-in primitive instructions in the form of binary code. Instructions are unique to the hardware configuration The native language of computers. the instruction that works on one may not work on another computer. Instructions are in binary: Example: To add two numbers you might have a piece of binary code which looks like:

15 High-Level Languages First developed in the 1950s. Platform-independent, you can write a program in a high-level language on one computer and run it on different types of machines. English-like, easier to learn and use. Instructions in a high-level programming language are called statements. Example, Compute the area of a circle with radius of 5: area = 5 * 5 *

16 Popular High Level Languages

17 Translate High-Level Language to Machine Language A high-level language program is called a source program or source code. Source programs are not directly understood by computers. source code must be translated into machine code.

18 Translate High-Level Language to Machine Language Translation is done using one (or both) of the following techniques: interpreting: performed by software called an interpreter reads one statement at a time from the source code at a time, translates it into machine code then executes it right away. compiling: performed by software called a compiler. translates the entire source code into a machine-code file. the machine-code file is then executed. NOTE: Some languages use a combination of compiling and interpreting (Java and Python are examples).

19 First Java Program

20 The Task Display the following message on the screen: *** hello, world! *** *** Welcome to CS 201! *** Why hello, world? Common first time programming example for beginning programmers See the article about Hello, World under the reading assignments for this week.

21 Writing and Editing a Java Program It doesn't take anything fancy to write a simple program. You can use something a mundane as a text editor: Notepad Notepad++ (Recommended for Windows Users) Some Mac Equivalent Text Editor NetBeans or Eclipse IDE (We will be using this after the midterm) As long as you have the JDK (Java Development Kit) installed, you can compile and run (execute) Java programs using the Windows Command Line or the Mac Terminal. (More on this later) All source code files (the files you will be writing) should be saved with the.java file extension. Don't save the file as.txt by accident or else your program will not work correctly.

22 The Source Code of Our Program /* Author: Keenan Knaur Purpose: Display a welcome message to the console. */ public class Hello { // method main(): application entry point public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("*** Hello, everybody! ***"); System.out.println("*** Welcome to CS 201!***"); } }

23 Comments /* Author: Keenan Knaur Purpose: Display a welcome message to the console. */ public class Hello { // method main(): application entry point public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("*** Hello, everybody! ***"); System.out.println("*** Welcome to CS 201!***"); } } Comments

24 Comments Notes put into the source code by the programmer. Document what the program does and how sections of the program work. Ignored by the Java compiler Three types of comments: Single Line comments: preceded by two slashes (//) Paragraph comments: A paragraph comment is enclosed between /* and */ over one or multiple lines Javadoc comments: Multi-line comment between /** and */. They are used for documenting classes, data, and methods. They can be exported to an HTML file.

25 Classes /* Author: Keenan Knaur Purpose: Display a welcome message to the console. */ Class Header public class Hello { // method main(): application entry point public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("*** Hello, everybody! ***"); System.out.println("*** Welcome to CS 201!***"); } } Class

26 Classes Generally there is one class per.java file and every program needs at least one class. Class Header (declaration) public (an access modifier, will learn more about these later) class keyword used to identify where the class begins classname User specified all classes must have a name must be the same as the file name Class Body Enclosed in a pair of { }

27 Naming Rules for Classes Rules Must start with a letter Cannot conflict with any language keywords or symbols Case-sensitive Conventions Class names start with an upper-case letter Multiple words are concatenated and each subsequent word has its first letter in upper-case. The class name has to match exactly the name of the java file that contains the class Example: if I have a class called WelcomeToJava then it should be saved in a file called WelcomeToJava.java

28 Methods /* Author: Keenan Knaur Purpose: Display a welcome message to the console. */ Method Header public class Hello { // method main(): application entry point public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("*** Hello, everybody! ***"); System.out.println("*** Welcome to CS 201!***"); } } Method

29 Methods Each class can contain one or more methods A method is a named piece of code that performs some action Method header (declaration) public access modifier static void (the return type of the method) Method name User specified Arguments enclosed in a pair of ( ) Method body Enclosed in a pair of { }

30 The main() Method main() is a special method in Java Every program MUST have a main method inside one of its classes in order for the program to execute. Programs can only have ONE main method The header of the main method always looks like: public static void main(string[] args) { }

31 Statements /* Author: Keenan Knaur Purpose: Display a welcome message to the console. */ public class Hello { // method main(): application entry point public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("*** Hello, everybody! ***"); System.out.println("*** Welcome to CS 201!***"); } } Statements

32 Statements Statements are the sentences in a programming language. They are an action or sequence of actions. Methods can contain many many statements. Ends in a semicolon (;) called the statement terminator May consist of other statements

33 Printing to the Console

34 Reserved Words (Keywords) /* Author: Keenan Knaur Purpose: Display a welcome message to the console. */ public class Hello { // method main(): application entry point public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("*** Hello, everybody! ***"); System.out.println("*** Welcome to CS 201!***"); } } Reserved Words

35 Reserved Words (Keywords) Reserved words or keywords are words that have a specific meaning to the compiler and cannot be used for any other purpose in the program. For example, when the compiler sees the word class, it understands that the word after class is the name for the class. Also note that Java source programs are case sensitive, so it would be wrong to write Main instead of main.

36 Blocks of Code /* Author: Keenan Knaur Purpose: Display a welcome message to the console. */ public class Hello { // method main(): application entry point public static void main(string[] args) { System.out.println("*** Hello, everybody! ***"); System.out.println("*** Welcome to CS 201!***"); } Main } Block Class Block

37 Blocks of Code A pair of curly braces in a program forms a block that groups together components of a program. Every class has a class block that groups the data and methods of the class. Every method has a method block that groups the statements in a method. Blocks can be nested i.e. one block can be placed within another. All opening braces MUST have a matching closing brace. When you type an opening brace immediately press the enter key a few times then type the closing brace to prevent a missing-brace error.

38 Brace Style next-line style: aligns braces vertically making programs easy to read end-of-line style: saves space may avoid some subtle programming errors both styles are acceptable, but once you pick a style you should be consistent. I prefer end-of-line style because it looks nicer

39 Proper Spacing and Indentation Good indentation makes a program easier to read, debug, and maintain. Proper spacing between statement components should be used to also make reading the program easier System.out.println(3+4*4); is ok System.out.println(3 + 4 * 4); is better

40 Why the JVM (Java Virtual Machine)? The Java Virtual Machine is what makes Java programs platform-independent Write Once, Run Anywhere: easy to run the same Java code in UNIX/OSX/Windows/ etc. reduces the amount of knowledge the programmer needs to have about the specific platform. adds long-term robustness. Your Java code will still run in Windows 18.7 as long as there is a JVM that can run it.

41 Translating Java to Machine Code Java uses both an interpreter and a compiler. The Java source code is compiled before runtime into an intermediate language called Java bytecode. The Java Virtual Machine interprets bytecode to machine language at runtime. Each platform (operating system or hardware type) requires a different type of JVM, but all forms of the JVM run the same bytecode.

42 Translating Java to Machine Code

43 Translating Java to Machine Code

44 Introduction to Command Line Compiling

45 Where to Save Your Programs To make things incredibly easy for you, save all of your programs for this class in a folder at the root of your C: drive or the root of your USB flash drive. This will make navigating to your files through the terminal much much easier.

46 Opening a Terminal / Console Window Varies between different versions of windows. Demonstrate in class.

47 Directories In DOS, folders are known as directories directories hold files you can create or delete them at will All directories are organized in a hierarchical way The topmost directory is called the root directory c:\> The root directory contains many sub-directories Each sub-directory may contain many sub-sub-directories

48 Viewing the Contents of a Directory To view the contents of the current directory that you are in, use the dir command

49 Changing Directories to change directories used the cd command change to a sub-directory of the current directory Command: cd sub-directory-name Example: Change to the parent directory cd myjava Command: cd.. Change to the root directory from any directory Command: cd \

50 Changing Directories

51 Further Reading For more on DOS commands see the supplementary material on the course website.

52 Compiling Your First Java Program Navigate to the directory (folder) where your java files are located. For Example: lets say your directory structure looked something like this: c:> my_programs MyProgram.java navigate into my_programs cd my_programs once in the folder use the javac command to compile your program javac MyProgram.java notice that the extension must be part of the file name when you are using the javac command After you compile the program you will either see some errors, or the compiler will generate a.class file with the same name as your program i.e. myprogram.class. To run your program use the java command java MyProgram notice that you DO NOT add the file extension when running your program.

53 Programming Errors "It's hard enough to find an error in your code when you're looking for it; it's even harder when you've assumed your code is error-free." ~Steve McConnell

54 Syntax Errors (Compile Errors) Errors detected by the compiler which result from incorrect code construction. Prevent the compiler from properly compiling the program and the program will not execute. Examples include: mistyping a keyword, omitting some necessary punctuation, missing matching braces, etc.

55 Run-time Errors Errors that cause a program to terminate abnormally. The compiler is able to compile and execute the program, but during execution the program will stop unexpectedly if the JVM detects an operation that is impossible to carry out. Examples include input mistakes, or division by zero

56 Logic Errors Errors that occur when a program does not perform the way it was intended to. Can be hard to detect because the fault lies in the user s logic (thought processes) behind the program. For example: Suppose you write a program to calculate the area of a circle and instead of using the formula 2 * π * r you mistakenly use 3 * π * r. This would cause a logic error because the program will execute and finish and the compiler will give no errors but the logic behind the formula is faulty which results in the incorrect output.

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