1 Formulating a Research Question Pathways to Careers in Clinical and Translational Research (PACCTR) Curriculum Core
2 What is a Research Question? The uncertainty that you want to resolve Defines the area of interest to be addressed in your study Forms the foundation of your study Must be specified before you begin your analysis
3 What is a Research Question? Often begins with a general concern: Should women take hormones to prevent bone loss? Can a vegetarian diet reverse cardiovascular disease? Can diabetic patients be taught to control their blood glucose levels?
4 What is a Research Question? Must be narrowed to something measurable and researchable Is taking estrogen associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in women 60+? Does a plant-based diet reduce serum cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular disease? Can a structured intensive diabetes education program help patients with type 2 diabetes control their blood glucose levels?.
5 How to generate a research question Literature Your previous research Mentor Conferences Patients
6 Searching the Literature Good scholarship is key -- no need to reinvent the wheel Conduct a meta-analysis or systematic review to evaluate the existing literature Consult The Cochrane Library and other sources for systematic reviews
7 Searching the Literature
8 Previous Research If you ve been working in a particular area, your own work may generate new research questions In a study you published in the Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, you reported that a pharmacist-led education program increased medication compliance 2-months posthospitalization in transplant patients. Now you wonder if a similar program might help diabetic patients control their blood glucose levels. Can a structured intensive diabetes education program help patients with type 2 diabetes control their blood glucose levels?.
9 Mentor Your mentor is a good source for possible research questions In addition to the ideas generated through conversations and collaboration, your mentor may be able to help with grant-writing, office space, lab facilities, etc.
10 Conferences Conferences are a great source of new ideas Attend sessions, read through abstracts, contact researchers
11 Patients Jerry Smith, a 64-year-old patient with serum cholesterol levels of comes to you with an article from Vegetarian Times magazine touting the health benefits of a vegetarian diet. He asks you if a vegetarian diet might help him reduce his need for daily statins. You search the literature and find little research in this area. You decide to design a study to answer the question: Does a plant-based diet reduce serum cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular disease?
12 Criteria for Research Questions FINER: Feasibility Sample size (link: how to calculate; BREAD) Technical expertise Affordability (link to budget description/worksheet) Manageability Interesting Novel Ethical Relevant
13 Another way of looking at it Importance: Effects on patients, caregivers, society Severity - mortality, morbidity, QOL Duration Financial costs - to the individual and society Ability to change practice Feasibility of the assessment Other - innovative, timely, social/political concerns
14 What goes in the research question? Disease or condition of interest Population and setting Intervention to be tested Comparison group(s) -- placebo? Existing treatment? Outcome measures
15 Sample research question Interest: Should women take hormones to prevent bone loss? Research question: Does taking estrogen after menopause reduce the likelihood of bone density loss in women over 60 years of age, compared to women not taking estrogen?
16 Sample research question Interest: Can a vegetarian diet reduce cardiovascular disease? Research question: Does an entirely plantbased (vegan) diet reduce blood serum cholesterol levels in men over 50 years old with lipid levels > compared to a meatbased diet?
17 Sample research question Interest: Can diabetic patients be taught to control their blood glucose levels? Research question: Can a structured intensive diabetes education program help adult patients with Type 2 diabetes control their blood glucose levels, compared to patients receiving standard instructions?
18 Common problems/obstacles Question too broad Reduce variables of interest; narrow focus Not enough subjects available Expand inclusion criteria; lengthen time frame; modify exclusion criteria Too expensive Consider less costly study designs -- fewer subjects; shorter duration; fewer follow-ups
19 Common problems/obstacles Methods beyond your skills Collaborate with experts in those areas Not interesting, relevant, novel Unethical Consult with mentors; review literature Consult with IRB; revise research question
20 What next? Designing a protocol After you have a well-conceived, well-written research question, the human subjects protocol is next
21 References Cummings SR, Browner WS, and Hulley SB. Conceiving the research question. In Hulley SB, Cummings SR, Browner WS, Grady D, Hearst N, and Newman TB. Designing Clinical Research. 2nd edition.philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Fletcher RH, Fletcher SW, Wagner EG. Clinical Epidemiology: the essentials. 3rd edition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, Sackett DL, Haynes RB, Guyott GH, Tugwell, P. Clinical Epidemiology: a basic science for clinical medicine. 2nd edition. Boston: Little,Brown and Company, 1991.
22 PACCTR* Curriculum Core Jennifer Cocohoba, PharmD, School of Pharmacy Roberta Oka RN, ANP, DNSc, School of Nursing George Sawaya MD, School of Medicine Rebecca Jackson MD, School of Medicine Susan Hyde DDS, MPH, PhD, School of Dentistry Joel Palefsky MD School of Medicine * Pathways to Careers in Clinical and Translational Research
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