What You Should Know. Session Overview. Communication is Key. Session Objectives. Terminology

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1 Session Overview What You Should Know About Your Product Dwight Loveday Associate Professor Food Science & Technology April 17, 2013 VA Beef 101 Anticipate potential consumer questions about buying beef Factors affecting quantity of product Factors affecting quality of product Explain terminology used in marketing beef Session Objectives Communication is Key Increase the beef product knowledge of to: Communicate with customers Understand the market for your product Communicate with beef processors Develop marketing strategies for your product Consumer Producer Market Success Processor Live Weight Slaughter weight Weight of animal at time of purchase or harvest lbs. Live Value Weight of the animal x live price/lb. Example: 1000 lbs. x $1.25/lb. = $1250 Carcass Weight: weight of carcass after all dressing procedures are completed Hot Carcass Weight: weight obtained immediately after harvest and prior to entering coolers Cold (Chilled) Carcass Weight: carcass weight after postmortem chill but before carcass fabrication 1

2 Hanging Weight : used to describe the weight used for determining value lbs. May be hot or chilled % difference Carcass Value: carcass price/lbs. x hanging weight 625 lbs. x $2.00 = $1250 Dressing Percent : proportion of live wt. that remains in the carcass; Yield (Carcass Wt./Live Wt.)*100 Wide range: 55 65% due to differences in intestinal contents, carcass fatness, muscle to bone ratio Anything that increases Live Wt., will decrease Dressing Percent (i.e. gut fill) Anything that increases Carcass Wt., will increase Dressing Percent (i.e. fat) Beef Carcass Beef Side Beef Side Beef Quarters Hind Quarter Fore Quarter Wholesale Cuts Primal Cuts same as wholesale cuts Major carcass division Round, Loin (sirloin + short loin), Rib, Brisket, Shank, Short Plate and Flank Primal Cut Beef Round Sub Primal Division of a Primal cut Top Round Bottom Round Tip or Knuckle 2

3 Primal/Sub primal Retail Cuts How do I know when my cattle are ready for harvest? Depends: What is your target market? Are you in a lean market? Are you targeting a fatter, more marbled beef? What type of cattle are you raising large frame, medium frame or small frame? Ribeye Roll Ribeye Steaks How do I know when my cattle are ready for harvest? Type of animal Small frame, earlier maturing finish ( of fat) around lbs. Medium frame around 1100 lbs. Large frame around 1300 lbs. Animal shape Muscle is round Fat is flat Fat fills into the curvature How do I know when my cattle are ready for harvest? Steer with.40 fat and average muscling How do I know when my cattle are ready for harvest? Over finished heifer with.90 fat and below average muscling 3

4 Variable several factors affect the take home product 1. Carcass fatness fatter carcass tend to yield less product 2. Muscling heavier muscled cattle yield more retail cut weight 3. Trim level most consumers prefer about ¼ external fat; closer trim, less yield Variable several factors affect the take home product 4. Bone in vs. boneless cutting style less retail cut weight with boneless cuts; more cuts put into ground beef will lower yield (i.e., short ribs boned out and put into ground beef) 5. Leanness of ground beef the leaner the ground beef, less take home product 6. Trimming losses bruises, abscess, or trimming due to aging 1200 lb. steer with average fat and muscle 750 lb. Carcass 490 lbs. boneless trimmed beef 150 lbs. fat trim 110 lbs. bone From: Rentfrow, University of Kentucky 1200 lb. steer with average fat and muscle 750 lb. Carcass 490 lbs. boneless trimmed beef 150 lbs. fat trim 110 lbs. bone 185 lbs. ground beef 90 lbs. chuck roasts and steaks 85 lbs. round roasts and steaks 80 lbs. rib and loin steaks 50 lbs. other cuts (brisket, flank, short ribs, skirt steak) How much will the meat cost? Most carcasses will be sold on a live weight or a hanging weight basis Price/pound x weight (either live or carcass) Plus processing charges Harvest charge Processing charge Other charges (offal disposal, further processing) Retail cuts would be same as grocery store 4

5 How much will the meat cost? Example: 1200 lb. Live $1.25/lb. or 750 lb. $2.00/lb. = $1500 Animal charge = $1500 Plus $40 0harvest fee Plus $0.40/lb. processing fee (750 x.40 = $300) Total charges = $1500+$40+$300=$1840 If yield of take home meat is 490 lbs., then cost/lb. is $3.76/lb. ($1840/490 lbs.) What is meant by custom cutting? How would you have it cut? Cut to your family needs Package for family size Preparation time for meals Steaks/package Specify the cuts you prefer T Bone/Porterhouse vs. Tenderloin & Strip Steaks Trim to or Short ribs or Specify the size of cuts Steak thickness Roast size Weight of ground beef/stew packages What cuts do I get? Many consumers are not aware of the animal locations for many cuts Opportunity to assist your customer To answer this question, we will review the beef wholesale cuts and the potential retail cuts each produces Separate tender from less tender Separate thick from thin muscles Separate fat from lean Work with processor to know cutting styles they are capable of performing Principles of Meat Cutting BeefWholesale Cuts Chuck and Round o Tend to be less tender muscles o Good source of roasts Rib and Loin o Tender muscles o Produces steaks Thin cuts o Specialty cuts o Ground beef o Beef Wholesale Cuts 5

6 Arm Roast Chuck Pot Roast Beef Chuck Flat Iron Steak Beef Rib Ribs Rib Roast Rib Eye Steak Rib Steak Blade Roast Mock Tender Roast Chuck Eye Roast Beef Loin Beef Loin Short Loin Section Sirloin Section Short Loin Section T Bone Steak Tenderloin Steak OR Porterhouse Steak Top Loin or Strip Steak Whole Loin Tenderloin Roast Short Loin Section Beef Loin Short Loin Section Beef Loin Sirloin Section Top Sirloin Steak Short Loin Section T Bone Steak Sirloin Section Ball Tip Roast/Steak Tenderloin Steak Top Loin or Strip Steak Tri Tip Steak Kabobs 6

7 Beef Round Beef Round Top Round Top Round Steak Beef Round Top Round Bottom Round Top Round Top Round Roast Tip or Knuckle Cube Steak Beef Round Bottom Round Beef Round Sirloin Tip (Knuckle) Bottom Round Eye Round Roast and Steak Sirloin Tip Roast and Steak Cube Steak Cube Steak Bottom Round Roast and Steak Rump Roast Sirloin Tip (Knuckle) Kabobs Tri Tip Steak Beef Brisket Thin Cuts Short Plate, Flank & Shank Mostly for & Brisket Brisket (Whole) Short Plate Skirt Steak Flank Flank Steak Brisket (Point) Brisket (Flat) Short Ribs 7

8 Tongue Liver Variety Meats Heart Has the meat been aged? Oxtail Sweetbreads Has the meat been aged? How will the meat be packaged? Aging is time from harvest till cut into retail cuts Aging has a tenderizing effect Aging time usually 7 14 days Little tenderizing effect after days Ai Aging can enhance beefy flavor Long aging times can: Reduce yield due to surface dehydration, especially thinly fat covered carcasses Can develop off flavors Extended aging times take up processor cooler space How will the meat be packaged? Options usually vacuum packaged or freezer paper o Prevent dehydration (freezer burn) o Protect meat Vacuum Packaged o Longerstorage times o Look for leakers o Higher cost Freezer Wrap o Tears o Double wrap ( Waxed inside paper or use plastic wrap How much storage space will I need? 8

9 How much storage space will I need? How long will the meat keep? Recommendation: 1 cubic foot per lbs cubic foot per 50 lbs. For the 1200 lbs. steer yielding 490 lbs. of take tk home meat, need ft 3 freezer space For a side of beef, need 5 7 ft 3 How long will the meat keep? Is this beef USDA Choice? Fresh beef steaks and roasts: 9 12 months Ground beef: 3 4 months Colder the better; keep freezer at 0 o F or lower Longer storage is generally a meat quality problem rather than meat safety Is this beef USDA Choice? Most likely your carcasses will not be officially graded by an USDA Grader You may know someone that knows how to apply beef USDA grade standards DO NOT use grading information in marketing unless the carcasses have been officially graded Nutritionally, what are beef s good and bad qualities? Most foods have good nutritional value but most are lacking in some nutrients Beef is nutrient rich good to excellent source of 10 essential nutrients while providing low calories B vitamins Minerals: Iron, Zinc, Phosphorus and Selenium Approximately ½ of the fats are unsaturated & Approximately 1/3 beef s saturated fat is Stearic acid which is neutral effect on blood cholesterol 29 cuts meet government guidelines for lean BOLD study lowered LDL 9

10 How does the nutritional value differ between grass and grain fed beef? Grass fed is leaner (less fat) than grain fed Cholesterol does not differ in grain or grass fed beef Grass fed has slightly more omega 3 fatty acids, but beef is a poor source regardless of diet Little difference in Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) of cooked beef Even though grass fed has more Vitamin E, neither is a good source What about the new beef value cuts from the round and chuck? How are they selling? Take Home Messages Knowledge about your product is a key marketing tool Good communication with both the customer and processor is important to your success Educate your customer Provide information sheets about farm, label claims, cutting instructions, receipes, etc. Questions Dwight Loveday

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