The British in North America. How did British imperialism impact Aboriginal societies?

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1 Chapter Three The British in North America Big Ideas: How did British imperialism impact Aboriginal societies? How was imperialism responsible for the creation of British settlements? Who were the key people in British exploration and settlement of North America? What role did the British government play in colonizing North America?

2 You already know why the French wanted to colonize the New World. What motivated Britain to expand into North America? Economy France, Spain, and Portugal had made a lot of money from colonies in the New World. Britain was hoping they could too.

3 Competition Britain wanted to be the most powerful nation in Europe and was competing with France and Spain for resources in the New World. Quality of Life Britain was overpopulated and there was very little land left to farm. Moving to the New World offered British citizens a chance at a better life.

4 Religious Freedom Many religious groups in Britain were treated poorly because of their beliefs. Puritans, Quakers, Baptists and others, wanted to find a place to live where they could practice their faith freely. The Thirteen Colonies were far more successful than New France and Acadia. Why? New France The Thirteen Colonies

5 Different Goals While France wanted to have new colonies, the King thought it was too expensive to pay for the creation and protection of the colonies. Britain had a different goal when it came to colonies. Britain invested a lot of money because they wanted to have huge settlements so they would be more powerful militarily and economically than the other imperial countries. The Climate The climate along the St. Lawrence where New France and Acadia were established was better suited to collecting furs then to farming. Winters were long and bitterly cold and the growing season was very short so the settlers in New France had a much harder time making a living. The climate in The Thirteen Colonies was a lot warmer and it was possible to farm nearly all year long, giving colonists a better quality of life.

6 Employment Because the economy in New France was based mainly on the fur trade, there were not many opportunities for colonists to make money. In the British colonies however, the economy included farming, fishing and logging, giving settlers more opportunity to earn a living. Religion France encouraged only Catholics to come to New France whereas The Thirteen Colonies encouraged settlers of ALL faiths, and even people from other countries to come and be a part of the new colony.

7 Trade As you recall from chapter two, we learned that the French King handed out monopolies to merchants for the fur trade. The Thirteen Colonies were allowed to trade with other countries outside of Britain and the colonists were free to start business and grow a large variety of crops. Social Studies 7 Chapter Three The Thirteen Colonies and New France Compared Your assignment is to create a poster illustrating ONE of the five different reasons why The Thirteen Colonies were more successful than New France. You may use a combination of words, computer graphics, and/or hand drawings to create an 8 ½ by 11 poster. You must also include a short paragraph ON THE FRONT of your poster (4-7 sentences) that explains the reason you have chosen to illustrate. Your poster MUST: Have a CREATIVE title Be completely coloured Attract attention meaning it must be neat and able to be seen clearly from about six feet away (not the paragraph, just the drawings). Show the characteristic you have chosen in New France AND in the Thirteen Colonies.

8 The Impact of British Imperialism on Native Americans A Look at the Beothuk The Beothuk lived in Newfoundland. During the summer, they lived on the coast where they fished and gathered shellfish. In the Winter, this group moved inland where the weather was less severe, to hunt caribou. When the British arrived, they set up settlements along the coast disrupting the Beothuk way of life. The Beothuk no longer had access to the ocean AND they had massive competition for the resources the ocean provided. The Beothuk people were afraid of the British and tried to avoid them at all costs... even if it meant starving. When the British left for the winter, the Beothuk would raid supplies left behind in an attempt to catch enough fish to survive. When the British returned in the spring, they were angry at the thefts and often engaged in violence. The British actually started using guns to hunt down and kill Beothuk men, women and children. On top of this, Beothuk people also suffered from diseases like influenza and tuberculosis which were brought over by the British. By 1830, the entire population of Beothuk people had gone extinct, completely wiping out a unique culture.

9 Mi'kmaq Perspective The Beothuk were not the only people who were affected by the arrival of Europeans. The Mi'kmaq had managed to live in relative cooperation with French settlers in New France, however the arrival of British settlers at Halifax caused the Mi'kmaq people great concern. Halifax had traditionally been one of the Mi'kmaq people's preferred coastal camp. When the British arrived, the Mi'kmaq people lost access to this site. The Mi'kmaq considered the French settlers to be allies and listened to them when the French suggested the Mi'kmaq make life difficult for the British. In response, the British retaliated with orders to "annoy, distress, take, or destroy Mi'kmaq people wherever they are found." Knowing that France and Britain were enemies in Europe, and that they were both competing with each other to gain more and better colonies in North America, do you think the advice of the French was good advice for the Mi'kmaq people or not? Important British Explorers and Settlers

10 John Cabot John Cabot made the journey to the new world in 1497, arriving in what is known today as Newfoundland. When he went back to England, he told them there were so many fish, they could be caught by lowering a basket into the water. Cabot claimed Newfoundland for Great Britain, even though the British were only really interested in the fish. Eventually, the British began to colonize the island and in 1729, the island was granted its own governor. Henry Kelsey Kelsey worked for the Hudson Bay Company. In the late 1600's he went with a group of Cree people to try and meet other aboriginal groups and convince them to trade with the British, not the French. Kelsey made it as far West as present day Saskatchewan, creating alliances with many First Nations groups and ensuring they would trade with the British.

11 Anthony Henday Henday also worked for the Hudson Bay Company. He made it even further West than Kelsey, all the way to present day Red Deer, on foot. Henday wanted to meet with Aboriginal groups in the West and convince them to bring their furs to Eastern Canada to trade with the British. Henday tried to convince the Siksika nation to adopt a lifestyle where they would trade furs for profit, rather than only kill what they needed. The Siksika were not interested in this proposal and needed to think about what the consequences would be for their people if they adopted this "European" way of life. Matonabbee Matonabbee was raised at a furtrading post and had knowledge of both European and Aboriginal ways of life. He spoke at least three languages and was a very skilled diplomat. Matonabbee was also a successful fur trader, negotiator, and guide. He was also a very close ally of the British, bringing in more furs than any other member of his tribe.

12 Sir John Franklin One of the most famous British Explorers, Franklin was charged with the task of trying to find a Northwest Passage to Asia. That meant he was to look for a route around North America, through the Arctic Circle. This was extremely dangerous as the summer melt was so short and the ice was a very real danger to ships. Franklin was unsuccessful in his attempt to find the passage. He and his crew were discovered with the help of Inuit people. Everyone had died. James Cook James Cook sailed his ship Resolution to Vancouver Island in 1778 in an attempt to locate an entrance to the Northwest Passage from the Pacific. He was unsuccessful in discovering a route that would lead east back to England, so he sailed West to Asia. When he reached China, he discovered that Sea Otter furs his crew had traded for near Vancouver were worth a lot of money, so much that they were nicknamed "soft gold."

13 George Vancouver Yet another British explorer hoping to discover an entrance to the Northwest Passage along the coast of BC. Vancouver spent three summers exploring the entire coast of British Columbia and many of the islands around it. He and his crew drew the first accurate map of this shoreline. Vancouver Island and Vancouver are named after George Vancouver.

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