THE EFFECTS OF MOVIE AND MIND MAPPING ON THE STUDENTS WRITING ABILITY OF NARRATIVE TEXT AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA MUHAMMADIYAH PALANGKA RAYA

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1 THE EFFECTS OF MOVIE AND MIND MAPPING ON THE STUDENTS WRITING ABILITY OF NARRATIVE TEXT AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMA MUHAMMADIYAH PALANGKA RAYA Oleh : Ilham * Abstract The study is conducted in order to see the significant and interaction effect of the ability of the students in writing narrative text after watching movie and using mind mapping. Movie used in this study was as a media to increase students interest in writing narrative text. Besides, mind mapping was also used as a technique in writing narrative text. The population of this study the tenth grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah Palangka Raya. The number of sample was thirty students. Writing test of narrative text was used as the instrument in order to collect the data needed. The research method that used in this study was experimental method. The research design was quasi experimental and there were two groups in the study: Experimental and Control Groups. The data were processed and analyzed according to the following steps: Assigning the groups, Giving pre-test to both Experimental and Control groups, giving the treatments, Giving post-test, and analyzing the data by using Paired Sample T Test by IBM SPSS Version 22. The writer made experiment or treatment to compare the result of pre-test and post-test and taking conclusion based on statistical result. The result of this study showed value of the data of post-test in the Control Group was 0.681; as > 0, 05 then H a was rejected. The significant value of the data of post-test in the Experimental Group for Movie was 0.013; as < 0, 05 then H a was accepted. The significant value of the data of post-test in the Experimental Group for Mind Mapping was 0.012; as < 0, 05 then H a was accepted. In the Experimental Group for movie and mind mapping the significant value for post-test was 0.014; as < 0.05 then H a was accepted. Therefore, at the significant level of 0.05, there is a significant effect on the ability of the students in writing narrative text after watching movie and using mind mapping. Keywords: Movie, Mind Mapping, Narrative Text INTRODUCTION Language is one of tools to communicate to other people beside internet, , etc. In Indonesia, English language is as a foreign language which is used as communication media in the office, business, and education. In education, English becomes one of the important subjects taught in school which has its full attention from the government and ministry of education in improving the quality of students ability. In case of teaching English in Indonesia, English is the first foreign language in Indonesia which is important for special purposes such as to absorb and develop science, art and technology (Depdikbud, 1994:1)This condition could be found from the first level of elementary school until the university level, even English also taught in some play groups and kindergartens in Indonesia. The tenth grade students of SMA Muhammadiyah Palangka Raya also have problems in writing, they feel difficult in writing especially when they should write a text based on generic structure of narrative text. The writer already asked for the teacher about the problem what *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 75

2 Movie is one medium in which people can record image events, organize them, and then communicate them to others. Movie as audiovisual medium gives students an opportunity to extend their ability and to explore their talent. Most of audiovisual media make students easily understand and enjoy the lesson in the writing class. By using movies as media for the teaching of narrative text, students will be more interested and more active in learning. As the technique in this study, the writer takes mind mapping the technique to help students to write narrative text based on generic structure of narrative text. Mind mapping is a graphic representation of ideas, it shows the ideas which are generated around a central theme and how they are interlinked. It is a tool primarily used for stimulating thought. It is very useful for educational system especially for writing, to encourage their skill ability and brainstorming. In this research, the writer used movie and mind mapping as the media. The writer chooses movie and mind mapping as medium in the teaching of narrative writing. Movie is a form of entertainment that make a story by sound. Movie can tell a story clearly by showing clear expression of characters, clear plots, and clear description of situation in the story. The writer also uses mind mapping for writing narrative text to help the students to find and cooperate the ideas and make sequence. Therefore, most students will enjoy studying writing narrative text as an interesting genre that is very useful for students to explore and express ideas, opinions, and their experiences. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 1. Narrative Text Narrative text is a kind of genres that have social function to amuse, entertain and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways. It deals with problematic events which lead to crisis or turning point of some kinds, which in turn finds a resolution. Narrative is a text, which contains about a story like a story of a citizen (folktale), the story of animals (fable), legend, etc. 2. The Teaching Media There are many things the teacher can do to make the learning process more memorable and interesting. One way the teacher can use media to make it interesting. Brinton (2001:459) stated that media serve as an important motivator in the language teaching process because media can lend authenticity to the classroom situation, reinforcing for students the direct relation between the language classroom and the outside world. Teaching media means a tool that is used in teaching. Using this method will increase students learning motivation. 3. Movie Movie is cinema film (Hornby, 1987:473) or we can say a moving picture recorded with sound that tells a story, shown on television or at the cinema / movie theater. 4. Mind Mapping Mind Mapping is a technique that helps the teacher in teaching students with the grammar, vocabulary, the genre of the text (in organizing social function, generic structure, and language features), and also in organizing their idea or opinions.it helps students to organizing the topic so they can use it for writing narrative text. *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 76

3 Based on Eppler (2006), Mind mapping is a teaching technique that requires students to draw a diagram used to outline information represented by pictures and color. METHOD AND PROCEDURE 1. The Data In this study, the writer took the data from the students scores in writing narrative text before and after receiving treatments. Firstly, the treatment given to the students was movie and then the students gave responses to the movie in order to write narrative text by using mind mapping as the technique. The writer used movie and mind mapping to see the significant effect of the movie and mind mapping on the students writing narrative text. There were two groups of students score; (1) the achievement scores of students in the Control Group and (2) the achievement scores of students in the Experimental Group. 2. Research Methodology a. Research Method This research is a Quasiexperimental research. Quasiexperimental designs are not based on random assignment of subjects to experimental and control group (Toendan, 2009: 245). The writer made experiment or treatment to compare the result of pre-test and post-test. Here, the writer acted as an observer and the teacher conducted the teaching learning process to the students. The experimental research has been conducted in SMA Muhammadiyah Palangka Raya. b. Hypothesis Testing Using Paired Sample T Test In order to test the hypothesis, this study used Paired Sample T Test. The Sample used in this research had fulfilled the criteria mentioned in the quotation as the students has the same age, the same level and the same material of study, i.e. Narrative Text. Furthermore, Paired Sample T-Test can be used to test whether there is a progress made by students if we compare the means of the scores before and after a teaching learning process. In this study, Paired Sample T Test calculated the means of pre-test and post-test scores of Control and Experimental Groups and then we will have significance value (P value). If the significance value < 0.05, we can conclude that Hypothesis is accepted and the students make progress after the teaching learning process (treatment). The result can be generalized to the population. But, if the significance value > 0.05, it means that the students do not make any progress after the teaching learning process. In other words, hypothesis is rejected. RESULT OF THE STUDY The Result of the Data Analysis As the writer had found out from the tests that all the data were normally distributed and homogeneous, then the following explanation is about the results of hypotheses testing. The writer analyzed the data by using Paired Simple T Test in IBM SPSS version 22. The results were as the following. Hypothesis Testing for the Control Group *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 77

4 There are three main tables as the output of the analysis and they are explained one by one as following. T-Test Table 1. Paired Samples Statistics (Control Group) N Standard Deviation Standard Error PRE-TEST POST-TEST Table of Paired Samples Statistics of the Control Group shows the summary of and Standard Deviation of pre-test and post-test. The mean of pre-test is and the mean of post-test is If we compare the means of pre-test and post-test, we can see that the mean of pretest is higher than post-test which means that the students did not make any progress without helping by movie and Mind Mapping. Table 2. Paired Samples Correlations (Control Group) N Correlation Sig. PRE-TEST & POST TEST Output of the Paired Samples Correlations shows the correlation of the pre-test and post-test scores. The correlation is According to Djiwandono (2008:168), if the correlation is , it means the correlation degree of the samples are fair. Therefore, it can be concluded that the correlation degree of pre-test and post-test of Control Group was fair. Table 3. Paired Samples Correlations (Control Group) PRE-TEST POST TEST Deviation Paired Differences Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 78

5 t Df Sig. (2-tailed) The following are some steps used to test the hypothesis: 1. Determine the Hypothesis H: At the significant level of 0.05, there is significant effect on the ability of the students in writing narrative text after waching movie and applying mind mapping. 2. Determine the degree of significance. It is two-tailed test with the level of significance By having this level of significance, it means that the writer has 5 % (0.05) possibility of the risk of having the wrong decision to reject the correct hypothesis. This is the standard measurement that is often used in educational research. 3. Determine the t value. From the table, we can see that the t value is Determine the t table. From the table, we can see that the degrees of freedom (df) is 14 (n-1, 15 1 = 14). With 2 tailed test (significance value = 0.025), the result got for t table is H is accepted if t value < -t table. H is rejected if t table t value t table. Moreover, based on the probability value (P value), H is accepted if P Value < 0.05 and H is rejected if P Value > Based on the data in the Paired Samples Test of Control Group, - t table t value t table ( ) means that H is rejected, therefore, there is no significant difference between the means of pretest and post-test. It is the same result when the researcher checked the P Value. The P value > 0.05 (0.681 > 0.05) which means that the H is rejected. Hypothesis Testing for the Experimental Group (Movie) The same procedures used for the Control group were also used for the Experimental group. The results were as the following. T-Test Table 4. Paired Samples Statistics Experimental Group N Standard Deviation Standard Error Pair 1 PRE-TEST POST-TEST Table of Paired Samples Statistics of the Experimental Group shows the summary of and Standard Deviation of pre-test and post-test. The mean of pretest and the mean of post-test is If we compare the means of pre-test and post-test, we can see that the mean of post-test is higher than pre-test which means that the students make any progress helping by movie. *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 79

6 Table 5. Paired Samples Correlations (Experimental Group Movie) N Correlation Sig. PRE-TEST & POST TEST Output of the Paired Samples Correlations shows the correlation of the pre-test and post-test scores. The correlation is According to Djiwandono, (2008:168), if the correlation is , it means the correlation degree of the samples are fair. Therefore, it can be concluded that the correlation degree of pre-test and post-test of Control group was fair. Table 6. Paired Samples Correlations (Experimental Group - Movie) Paired Differences Deviation Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper PRE-TEST POST -TEST t Df Sig. (2-tailed) Hypothesis Testing for the Experimental Group (Mind Mapping) T-Test Table 6. Paired Samples Statistics Experimental Group N Standard Deviation Standard Error PRE-TEST POST-TEST *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 80

7 Table of Paired Samples Statistics of the Experimental Group shows the summary of and Standard Deviation of pre-test and post-test. The mean of pretest and the mean of post-test is If we compare the means of pre-test and post-test, we can see that the mean of post-test is higher than pre-test which means that the students make any progress helping by mind mapping. Table 7. Paired Samples Correlations (Experimental Group) N Correlation Sig. PRE-TEST & POST TEST Output of the Paired Samples Correlations shows the correlation of the pre-test and post-test scores. The correlation is According to Djiwandono, (2008:168), if the correlation is , it means the correlation degree of the samples are fair. Therefore, it can be concluded that the correlation degree of pre-test and post-test of Control group was fair. Table 8. Paired Samples Correlations (Experimental Group - Movie) Paired Differences Deviation Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper PRE-TEST POST -TEST T Df Sig. (2-tailed) Hypothesis Testing for the Experimental Group (Mind Mapping) T-Test *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 81

8 Table 9. Paired Samples Statistics Experimental Group N Standard Deviation Standard Error PRE-TEST POST-TEST Table of Paired Samples Statistics of the Experimental Group shows the summary of and Standard Deviation of pre-test and post-test. The mean of pretest and the mean of post-test is If we compare the means of pre-test and post-test, we can see that the mean of post-test is higher than pre-test which means that the students make any progress helping by mind mapping. Table 9 Paired Samples Correlations (Experimental Group) N Correlation Sig. PRE-TEST & POST TEST Output of the Paired Samples Correlations shows the correlation of the pretest and post-test scores. The correlation is According to Djiwandono, (2008:168), if the correlation is , it means the correlation degree of the samples are fair. Therefore, it can be concluded that the correlation degree of pre-test and post-test of Control group was fair. Table 10 Paired Samples Correlations (Experimental Group) Deviation Paired Differences Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper PRE-TEST POST -TEST *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 82

9 T Df Sig. (2-tailed) Hypothesis Testing for the Experimental Group (Movie and Mind Mapping) T-Test Table 11 Paired Samples Statistics Experimental Group N Standard Deviation Standard Error PRE-TEST POST-TEST Table of Paired Samples Statistics of the Experimental Group shows the summary of and Standard Deviation of pre-test and post-test. The mean of pretest and the mean of post-test is If we compare the means of pre-test and post-test, we can see that the mean of post-test is higher than pre-test which means that the students make any progress helping by mind mapping. Table 12 Paired Samples Correlations (Experimental Group) N Correlation Sig. PRE-TEST & POST TEST Output of the Paired Samples Correlations shows the correlation of the pre-test and post-test scores. The correlation is According to Djiwandono, (2008:168), if the correlation is , it means the correlation degree of the samples are fair. Therefore, it can be concluded that the correlation degree of pre-test and post-test of Control group was fair. *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 83

10 Table 13 Paired Samples Correlations (Experimental Group) PRE-TEST POST -TEST Deviation Paired Differences Error 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper t Df Sig. (2-tailed) There are some steps used to test the hypothesis as the following : 1. Determine the Hypothesis H: At the significant level of 0.05, there is significant effect on the ability of the students in writing narrative text movie and applying mind mapping. 2. Determine the degree of significance. It is two-tailed test with the level of significance By having this level of significance, it means that the writer has 5 % (0.05) possibility of the risk of having the wrong decision to reject the correct hypothesis. This is the standard measurement that is often used in educational research. 3. Determine the t value. From the table, we can see that the t value is Determine the t table. From the table, we can see that the degrees of freedom (df) is 14 (n-1, 15 1 = 14). With 2 CONCLUSION The teaching writing narrative text by movie and mind mapping can be concluded as in the following. tailed test (significance value = 0.025), the result got for t table is H is accepted if t value < -t table. H is rejected if t table t value t table. Moreover, based on the probability value (P value), H is accepted if P Value < 0.05 and H is rejected if P Value > Based on the data in the Paired Samples Test of Experimental Group, - t value - t table ( < ) means that H is accepted. Therefore, there is a significant difference between the means of pretest and post-test. It is the same result when the writer checked the P Value. The P value < 0.05 (0.014 < 0.05) which means that the H is accepted. Therefore it can be concluded that there is significant effect on the ability of the students in writing narrative text after watching movie and mind mapping. 1. Based on Table of Paired Samples Statisticsand Paired sampe correlations (Table 4.18 and Table 4.20) of the Experimental Group shows the summary of and Standard *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 84

11 Deviation of pre-test and post-test. The mean of pre-test and the mean of post-test is The significant value of the data of post-test in the Experimental Group for Movie was 0.013, this means that the hypothesis (H a ) was accepted, which states that there is significant effect of movie on the students writing ability in writing narrative text. 2. Based on Table of Paired Samples Statisticsand Paired sampe correlations (Table 4.21 and Table 4.23) of the Experimental Group shows the summary of and Standard Deviation of pre-test and post-test. The mean of pre-test and the mean of post-test is The significant value of the data of post-test in the Experimental Group for Movie was 0.012, this mean that the hypothesis (H a ) was accepted, which states that there is significant effect of movie on the students writing ability in writing narrative text. 3. Based on Table of Paired Samples Statisticsand Paired sampe correlations (Table 4.24 and Table 4.26) of the Experimental Group shows the summary of and Standard Deviation of pre-test and post-test. The mean of pre-test was and the mean of post-test was The significant value of the data of post-test in the Experimental Group for Movie was 0.014, this means that the hypothesis (H a ) was accepted, which states that there is significant effect of movie and mind mapping on the students writing ability in writing narrative text. REFERENCES A.S Hornby Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English. New York: Oxford University Press. Alwasilah, A Chaedar & Senny Suzzana Pokoknya Menulis :Cara Baru Menulis dengan Metode Kolaborasi. Bandung: PT.Kiblat Buku Utama. Annandale A Genre-Based Approach to Teaching Writing Years 3-6; An Approach to Writing K-12. Sydney: Common Ground Arifin, Z Evaluasi Pembelajaran, Prinsip Teknik Prosedur. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya. Bahing Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). Unpublished Teaching Material. Brinton, D. M The Use of media in language teaching.boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle. Brown H. Dauglas Teaching by Principles. New York: Longman Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. New York: Longman. Buzan, Tony The Mind Map Book. New York: Dutton What is Mind Mapping?http://www.tonybuzan.com/about/mindmapping/. Byrne, Donn Teaching Writing Skills. LongmanHandbookforLanguage Teacher. Singapore: Longman GroupLtd. *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 85

12 Creswell, John W Research Design. Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches.Second Edition. California: Sage Publications, Inc. DepartemenPendidikandanKebudayaan Kurikulum SLTA Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Jakarta: Depdikbud Djiwandono, M. Soenardi TesBahasa. PeganganBagiPengajarBahasa. Jakarta: PT. Indeks Eppler, Martin, J A comparison between Concept Maps, Mind Maps, Conceptual Diagrams, and Visual Metaphors as Complementary Tools for Knowledge Construction and Sharing. Information Visualization, (Online). Hamalik, Qemar Media Pendidikan. Bandung : PT. Citra AdityaBakti Harmer, Jeremy How to Teach Writing. London: Longman The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Pearson Education Limited. Kern, Richard Literacy and LanguageTeaching.NewYork:OxfordUniversityPress. Littlewood, William Foreign and Second Language Leaning. New York: Oxford University Press Communicative Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press. Richards J.C. and Rodgers, T.S.2001.Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Second Edition.Florida: Cambridge University Press. Ruseffendi, H. E. T Statistika Dasar Untuk Penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung: IKIP Bandung Press. Setiyadi, Bambang Ag Metode Penelitian untuk Pengajaran Bahasa Asing Pendekatan Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu Suyanto, Kasihani K. E Problem Solving Dalam Pembelajaran Guru SebagaiPeneliti. Malang: Universitas Negeri Malang Toendan, Wido, H Educational Research Method. Palangka Raya.Unpublished Teaching Material Practical Data Analysis. Palangka Raya. Unpublished Teaching Material. Wicaksono, Dirgantara Audio Visual Media. Zack Audio Media. *Ilham, M.Pd Dosen FKIP Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya 86

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