BECOMING A WORLD POWER

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1 BECOMING A WORLD POWER

2 OUR MANIFEST DESTINY

3 1. The United States became a leading industrial producer because of the industrial development of the late 19th century. This contributed to the nation s rise to world power. a. ECONOMIC growth led many Americans to support a larger role for America in the world in order to gain more RAW materials and increase markets for our products made in our factories overseas.

4 b. While the US was developing into a strong economic power at the end of the 19th century, it was also becoming more involved with INTERNATIONAL affairs. Part of becoming a big power and force in the world involved INCREASING our land/empire. c. Many believed it was our God-given right to expand across the seas like we had across our continent. This is called our MANIFEST Destiny.

5 d. This new Manifest Destiny was also motivated by the MISSIONARY spirit and the idea of American SUPERIORITY (Social Darwinism) as well as by economics which fueled this belief of expanding beyond our borders. e. All of these motivations would play a role in the US declaring war against Spain, being involved in the revolt in Panama leading to the building of the Panama Canal, and our involvement in WW1.

6 2. Back in 1867, the US bought Alaska from Russia for 7.2 million dollars ($7,200,000) with Secretary of State William Seward s insistence. a. Some called it the POLAR Garden because it was so far north. b. But GOLD was discovered, so many people flocked there. It was also full of natural resources such as COAL, timber, copper, and FISH.

7 Russia Alaska Canada

8 COPPER

9 3. Christian missionaries and business people began to settle in the Hawaiian Islands in order to convert people and make money.

10

11 a. The weather was good for SUGARCANE and pineapples. b. Kings and queens ruled Hawaii at that time. Queen LILI was a popular leader of the Hawaiian people and didn t want Americans to have so much control in Hawaii.

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13 c. But, we took control of the trade, annexed (took CONTROL of) the land, took over their government, and set up a republic in d. Hawaii is located in the PACIFIC OCEAN, and is a good FUELING stop on the way to trading with CHINA.

14 CHINA

15 4. People accused the US of imperialism or empire building after the acquisition of Hawaii and Alaska. This led to many conflicts with nations in Europe, especially Spain.

16 THAT SPLENDID LITTLE WAR AND THE PANAMA CANAL

17 5. Spain controlled Cuba and Puerto Rico. Many Cubans wanted their independence from Spain but failed in two revolutions. Many Americans supported their fight for independence. So what led the US to declare war on Spain?

18 FLORIDA CUBA PUERTO RICO

19 6. Yellow Journalism helped prepare the public for the decision to declare war against Spain. a. It is FALSE, exaggerated writing meant to SELL more newspapers and influence readers. This kind of writing is designed to just sell PAPERS (and therefore make $$ for the company).

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21 b. Yellow journalists appealed to the sentiments of its readers to save Cuba from the harsh rule of colonial Spain. They helped STIR UP the American people to save Cuba before and after the war. c. PULITZER AND HEARST sold many papers due to their yellow journalism.

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23 7. President McKinley asked Congress to declare war. They were willing do so for a few reasons. a. American ECONOMIC interests in Cuba, b. Humanitarian concerns for the Cuban PEOPLE, c. We wanted to show our STRENGTH in the world.

24 8. President McKinley sent the USS MAINE to Havana, Cuba to protect our citizens living there. a. On Feb. 15, 1898, it EXPLODED in the harbor. b. SPAIN was blamed for the explosion as 200 soldiers were killed. This was fueled, of course, by yellow journalism. [Much later, it was determined the explosion was set off by a spontaneous combustion fire.]

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26

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28 c. War [called the Spanish American War] was declared on Spain two months later (April 25, 1898) and lasted 3 months. d. It started with the takeover of MANILA harbor in the Philippines by our naval fleet in the Pacific led by Commodore DEWEY. [The Philippines would provide another great location physically for the US to get to Chinese markets.]

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31 e. Teddy Roosevelt s Rough Riders and the BUFFALO Soldiers (African American soldiers) helped fight in Cuba. f. An armistice, an agreement to STOP FIGHTING a war, was signed and led to the annexation (addition) of territories. It gave the US control of Cuba, GUAM, the Philippine Islands, and Puerto Rico. This armistice was called the TREAY OF PARIS.

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34 g. Guam and Puerto Rico are STILL properties of the U.S. today. The Philippine Islands were US properties until the end of WW2, even though there were armed protests for their independence prior to that war. Cuba was occupied (on and off) by US forces for more than 30 years, and today we have a permanent NAVAL BASE there (called Guantanamo Bay).

35

36 h. Many men died during this war, but most deaths were due to yellow fever and MALARIA. i. This war made the US a strong WORLD POWER.

37 Sensationalist headlines to sell newspapers Reporters wrote stories designed to tug at the heartstrings of Americans Today, historians point to the Spanish- American War as the first press-driven war

38 9. Teddy Roosevelt (TR) eventually became Vice President under McKinley, due in part to his popularity after the Spanish American War. After McKinley s assassination, he then became President.

39 a.he was born into a WEALTHY family but was a sickly child. He loved the outdoors and had a strong sense of FAIR play. b. TR is known for his saying: Speak softly and carry a big STICK. c. He helped bring peace during Russia and Japan s conflict and won a NOBEL Peace Prize in 1905 for his efforts.

40 d. He sent the GREAT WHITE FLEET around the world to show our military force.

41

42 10. The Panama Canal was a goal of TR in order to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as a quick route to expand trade in the Far East. a. It would cut across the ISTHMUS (a narrow strip of land that connects two larger land areas) that joined North and South America and allow commercial and military ships to travel from ocean to ocean more QUICKLY. b. This canal would help create our WORLD POWER image.

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44 c. But there was a problem: we didn t own the isthmus, and its owner (COLOMBIA) wouldn t sell it to us. d. A revolution occurred and formed a new nation called PANAMA, which gave permission to the US to lease the isthmus and build the canal. e. The Canal officially opened August 15,

45 ISTHMUS

46

47

48 Picture of the Panama Canal with Panama City and the Pacific Ocean in the background - Photo courtesy of ACP Panama Canal Operation at

49 f. It was found that MOSQUITOES carried diseases like YELLOW FEVER and malaria, so areas where they laid their eggs were drained to enable people to continue to build the canal. These diseases had caused many problems in the building of the canal. g. A TREATY with Panama gave the US full control of the canal until 2000.

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