Material Data Sheet. Transformers: - Wire Wrap - Lead Insulation - Core and Barrier Tubes - End Packout - Interphase - Layer

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1 Description: Nomex TM is a registered trademark of DuPont. This polymide product fills the need for a material that combines high temperature durability with the mechanical and electrical properties required for broad use in industrial applications. Nomex TM paper is produced from short length fibers called floc and small binder particles called fibrids of high temperature resistant aramid polymer. These constituents, floc and fibrids, are formed into a sheet structure on a Fourdrinier paper machine without the use of additional binders, fillers, or sizers. The product is then calendered with heat and pressure to densify it to a bulk specific gravity of 0.7 to 1.2 (depending on its thickness). The paper is available in rolls and sheets of various widths and in thickness of 2 to 30 mils (0.05 to 0.76 mm) Application: Because of its unique combination of excellent electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties, Nomex TM Type 410 aramid paper has been widely adopted by the electrical industry for use in: Motors and Generators: - Slot Cells - End Laminates - Phase Insulation - Bushings - Wire Wrap - Pole Pieces - Wedges - Mid-Sticks - Lead Insulation - V-rings Transformers: - Wire Wrap - Lead Insulation - Core and Barrier Tubes - End Packout - Interphase - Layer Electrical Properties: Important electrical properties of Nomex TM Type 410 paper at room temperature and 50% relative humidity are shown in Table I. The dielectric constant and dissipation factor of Type 410 paper increase slightly with temperature up to 225 C o (430 F o ). The dielectric strength is unaffected by temperatures up to 225 C o (430 F o ) and maintains about 95% of its room-temperature value at 250 C o (480 F o ). Nomex TM - Trademark of E.I. dupont de Nemours & Co., Inc.

2 Table I Electrical Properties of Nomex TM Type 410 (Tested at 23 C o /73 F o ) Thickness Mils (mm) (.05) (.08) (.10) (.13) (.18) (.25) Dielectric V/mil Strength (Kv/mm) (21) (23) (25) (27) (33) (34) (AC Rapid Rise) [ASTM D-149] Dielectric 1,000 Hz Constant [ASTM D-150] Dissipation 1,000 Hz Factor [ASTM D-150] Thickness Mils (mm) (.30) (.38) (.51) (.61) (.74) (.76) Dielectric V/mil Strength (Kv/mm) (34) (34) (30) (30) (29) (28) (AC Rapid Rise) [ASTM D-149] Dielectric 1,000 Hz Constant [ASTM D-150] Dissipation 1,000 Hz

3 Electrical Properties: Type 410 paper also retains good electrical properties at high relative humidity as shown in Table II. The dielectric strength is essentially the same for Type 410 paper conditioned at 0 and 95% relative humitidies. The dielectric constant, dissipation, and volume resistivity are affected only slightly over the same range. Like all other organic insulating materials, Nomex TM paper is gradually eroded by corona discharges. The degree of degradation is determined by the intensity and duration of the discharge. Corona intensity is a function of voltage stress which, in turn, depends almost entirely on design parameters such as spacing between circuit elements, smooth vs. sharp contours, etc. Most electrical equipment is designed so that corona is not present in normal operation, and the resistance to corona attack is therefore of secondary importance. However, even well-designed apparatus is subject to occasional overvoltages which produce brief corona discharges; and it is important that the insulation not fail prematurely under these conditions. The voltage endurance of Nomex TM Type 410 paper is superior to many commonly used organic insulations and compares favorably with some inorganic compositions. Table II Electrical Properties vs. Relative Humidity for 10 mil (.25 mm) Nomex TM Aramid Paper Type 410 Relative Dielectric Dielectric Dissipation Volume Humidity Strength Constant Factor Resistivity % V/mil kv/mm 1,000 Hz 1,000 Hz ohm-cm Dry Oven x x x 10 14

4 Thermal Stability: Nomex TM paper is fully suitable for continous operation at 220 C o (430 F o ). More than ten years of commercial experience with Nomex TM paper in a broad variety of high temperature electrical applications have verified these extrapolations. Measurements show, for example, that Nomex TM Type 410 paper will maintain 300 volts/mil (12kV/mm) dielectric strength for several hours at 400 C o (750 F o ), which is the perfomance predicted by extrapolating the Arrhenius curve. This means that Nomex TM paper offers outstanding protection against short-term high temperature excursions caused by stalled rotors or other overload conditions. Chemical Resistance: The molecular structure responsible for the excellent thermal stability of Nomex TM Type 410 aramid paper also results in outstanding chemical stability and resistance to most common acids and alkalines. Nomex TM Type 410 paper is fully compatible and used commercially with transformer oils, silicones, and refrigerants. Nomex TM paper is also compatible with common classes of electrical varnishes and adhesives as well as other components of electrical equipment. Performance in Oils: The impulse dielectric strength of Nomex TM Type 410 paper impregnated with mineral oil is significantly better than that of impregnated kraft paper of the same thickness when tested with a 125 kv impulse generator. Physical Properties: Typical physical properties of Nomex TM Type 410 paper at room temperature and 50% relative humidity, in both the machine direction (MD) and cross direction (XD), are listed in Table III. The high temperature properties and thermal stability of Nomex TM paper are outstanding. With increasing temperature there is a gradual decrease in tensile strength, such that at 225 C o (435 F o ) it retains about 2/3 of its room-temperature value. Break elongation remains relatively constant up to 200 C o (390 F o ). Nomex TM paper also retains good physical properties at very low temperatures. For example, at the temperature of liquid nitrogen -196 C o (-320 F o ), the tensile strength of 10-mil (0.25mm) paper of Nomex TM Type 410 increases 30-60% over is room-temperature value, while elongation to break exceeds 3% (better than most inorganic materials at room- temperature).

5 Physical Properties: Water acts much like a plasticizer on Nomex TM paper. The rate of moisture pick-up of Nomex TM Type 410 paper at a given relative humidity and temperature varies inversely with the paper's thickness, density, and basis weight. At equilibrium, the percentage of moisture absorbed by Nomex TM paper is approximately one-tenth the relative humidity. The effect of relative humidity on the dimensions of Nomex TM paper is indicated in Table IV. Table III Typical Properties of Nomex TM Type 410 Aramid Paper Electrical Properties Test Units.005".010".020".030" Dielectric Strength AC Rapid Rise D-149 V/Mil Full Wave Impulse D-3426 V/Mil Dielectric Constant D Dissipation Factor D Mechanical Properties Basis Weight D-646 Oz./yd Specific Gravity Tensile Strength D-828 Lb./in. MD XD Tear Resistance D-1004 Lb. MD XD Elmendorf Tear TAPPI-414 MD gm N/A XD gm N/A Shrinkage at 300 C o (570 F o ) MD % XD %

6 Table IV Effect of Relative Humidity on the Dimensions of Nomex TM Type 410 (MD = Machine Direction, XD = Cross Direction of Paper) % Increase over Oven Dry Conditions 3-mil (0.08 mm) 10-mil (0.25 mm) Relative Humidity Paper Paper % MD XD MD XD The optimum balance of properties of Nomex TM Type 410 paper is obtained at 3 to 5% moisture content which corresponds to equilibrium at 30 to 50% RH. Increasing the moisture content to 7% (based on dry weight) generally improves the paper's mechanical properties to the following extent: - Significant increases in elongation, toughness, fold endurance, and Finch and impact tear strength. - Minor improvement in Elmendorf tear strength.

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