1 Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^206 The felsic dikes of La Gomera (Canary Islands): identi cation of cone sheet and radial dike swarms E. Ancochea a;, J.L. Bra«ndle a, M.J. Huertas a, C.R. Cubas b, F. Herna n b b a Departamento Petrolog a y Geoqu mica, Facultad de CC.Geolo gicas, Instituto Geolog a Econo mica, CSIC ^ Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain Departamento Edafolog a y Geolog a, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain Received 24 July 2001; accepted 29 May 2002 Abstract On the northern part of La Gomera there exists a great abundance of trachytic^phonolitic dikes showing a broad diversity in dip and strike. Several methods have been applied in order to separate these dikes in different sets, localise the area from where they derive, and reconstruct the geometry of the swarms. The oldest dikes correspond to a radial swarm dated at 8 Ma. The felsic activity migrated then southwestwards and a second radial swarm and a cone sheet complex were developed between 7.5 and 6.4 Ma ago. The cone sheet complex is 10 km in diameter and shared its centre with that of the second radial structure. The cone sheets exhibit an outward decrease of dip angle whilst every individual sheet maintains a constant inclination. This geometry reflects the existence of an ancient single domeshaped shallow magma chamber situated some 1650 m below present sea level. The eastern radial swarm represents a felsic episode that could mark the ending of the Lower Old Basalts, the earlier subaerial activity of La Gomera. The two other dike swarms represent a younger episode coeval with the Upper Old Basalts. ß 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: felsic dikes; cone sheet swarms; radial dike swarms; La Gomera 1. Introduction Although intrusive episodes play an important roll in the growth of oceanic islands, references on this topic are not abundant. This is even more evident when referred to felsic magmatism. Schirnick et al. (1999) have recently commented how * Corresponding author. address: (E. Ancochea). important intrusive episodes are in the understanding of volcanic islands and have shown the importance of detailed studies on dike swarms as a useful tool for inferring the location and shape of relatively shallow magma chambers. Long-lasting volcanic constructions, such as those built up by the early subaerial activity on the Canary Islands, are often related to complex dike patterns re ecting the great diversity of episodes involved in their history. On the other hand, the deep erosion levels reached on some of them provide an exceptional opportunity to study the structure of dike swarms. Nevertheless, the complexity of / 02 / $ ^ see front matter ß 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S (02)
2 198 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^206 these dike patterns has made their identi cation di cult, and discrimination in general is only possible when a detailed study is carried out. Felsic dike swarms are common and are typi- ed on the Canary Islands by for example: the Tejeda cone sheet swarm on Gran Canaria (Schmincke, 1967; Herna n, 1975, 1976; Herna n and Ve lez, 1980; Schirnick et al., 1999), the Vega del R o de Palmas ring complex on Fuerteventura (Mun oz, 1969; Stillman et al., 1975) and the Las Can adas cone sheet swarm on Tenerife (De la Nuez et al., 1989; Ancochea et al., 1999). Rather less well known is the important felsic diking on La Gomera. Only Cendrero (1971) and Rodr guez Losada (1987, 1988) have cited the abundant felsic dikes near Vallehermoso on the northern part of La Gomera which are studied and described in the present paper. We present here new structural and geochronological data on these trachytic^phonolitic dikes. We also identify and reconstruct the geometry of the dike swarms and deduce the situation of their hypothetical feeding magma chambers. The present authors (Bra«ndle et al., 1991) developed a method for the identi cation of radial dike swarms and the localisation of their centres that has been applied successfully in the reconstruction of deeply eroded basaltic shields on Fuerteventura (Ancochea et al., 1993, 1996). In this method, each dike was considered to be a straight line which, in the case of radial swarms, would converge on the radial swarm centre. The area where the intersections of lines reach its maximum would represent this hypothetical centre. This method is applied in several steps: the rst step is the estimation of the hypothetical centre interpreted as the area where the number of intersections is maximum. Then, all dikes that could be assembled around this hypothetical centre are separated. A dike is considered to belong to the deduced centre only when the angle between the measured dike strike and the hypothetical radius (the line jointing the point of measurement to the centre) is smaller than a predetermined value (5 or 10 ) and else when the distance from the dike strike prolongation to the centre is less than a given value (in this case 1 km). Once all dikes matching these necessary conditions are separated, the rst step is reinitiated using only them, in order to obtain a more precise position of the centre. The process is repeated several times until the variations in the position of the centre and the number of dikes matching do not change signi cantly E 2 82 E 2 87 E 2 92 E CANARY ISLANDS LANZAROTE LA PALMA 29 TENERIFE FUERTEVENTURA GOMERA 28 N GRAN CANARIA HIERRO W N N Fig. 1. Geological sketch of the northern area of La Gomera and distribution of felsic dikes. 1: Basal Complex; 2: Tamargada syenite; 3: T-PhC; 4: Old Basalts; 5: Recent Basalts; 6: Recent Felsic Domes. In all gures: labeled coordinates refer to 5 km division of the UTM grid system (sector 28).
3 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^ E 2 77 E 2 82 E 2 87 E 2 92 E Vallehermoso Agulo Hermigua N N Fig. 2. Rose diagrams of felsic dikes on the di erent sectors. The rose diagram size is proportional to the number of dikes (all gures). 2. Geological setting La Gomera, one of the western Canary Islands, has an almost circular area of 380 km 2 and a maximum height of 1487 m (Fig. 1). The oldest unit, the Basal Complex, is formed of basic plutonic rocks and an isolated syenitic outcrop (Tamargada syenite), submarine sediments and volcanic materials, cut by a dense mainly basic dike network. Abdel Monen et al. (1971) obtained two ages from the Basal Complex (19.3 and 14.6 Ma) and Cantagrel et al. (1984) one from a gabbro (15.5 Ma) and another one from the syenite (9.1 Ma), all interpreted by these authors as minimum ages due to the existence of later thermal processes a ecting the rock. Resting unconformably over the Basalt Complex are the Old Basalts in which three subunits are distinguished: the Lower Old Basalts, the Polymict Volcanic Breccias and the Upper Old Basalts (Bravo, 1964; Cendrero, 1970, 1971). According to Cantagrel et al. (1984) and Cubas et al. (1994) the age of this unit is between 11 and 6 Ma. Another older unit is the trachytic^phonolitic complex (T-PhC) (Cendrero, 1971; Rodr guez Losada, 1988) which is composed of trachytic^ phonolitic lava ows, pyroclasts, breccias, dikes and domes. This unit lies unconformably over the Basal Complex. The stratigraphic relationship of the T-PhC with the Old Basalts is not clear since the units are never in direct contact (Fig. 1). The later units are a group of salic domes and ows (4.6^3.9 Ma after Cantagrel et al., 1984) and, nally, the Recent Basalts that spread southwards (5.3^2.8 Ma after Feraud (1981), Feraud et al. (1985) and Cantagrel et al. (1984)). No quaternary activity has been reported on La Gomera. 3. Felsic dikes Felsic dikes are ubiquitous in the northern area of La Gomera where they intrude into the older formations: the Basal Complex, the Old Basalts and the T-PhC (Bravo, 1964; Cendrero, 1970, 1971; Hausen, 1971; Cubas, 1978; Rodr guez Losada, 1988). Felsic dikes are not found in the younger basalts that overlay all the older materials (Fig. 1). Cendrero (1971) supposed that the felsic dikes formed a radial pattern around the T-PhC and suggested a genetic relationship between these salic dikes and the T-PhC. By contrast Rodr guez Losada (1987, 1988) advanced the idea of a conical pattern centred at the core of the T-PhC and, though he admitted that some of the dikes were not conical, this author denied the existence of a true radial pattern.
4 200 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^206 Fig. 3. Felsic dike swarms: (a) distribution of cone sheet dikes: 1: estimated CSC; 2: recent units; 3: age (Ma). (b) Dip^strike rose diagram of VCSS. (c) Dikes belonging to the WRS, associated with the cone sheet centre: 1: estimated CSC; 2: recent units. (d) Dikes belonging to the ERS: 1: dikes exclusively from the ERS; 2: dikes coherent with both radial dike-swarm focuses; 3: estimated CSC; 4: estimated ERC; 5: recent units; 6: Tamargada syenite; 7: age (Ma).
5 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^ Fig. 4. Rose diagram projected on La Gomera map. Representative histograms of the radial dikes. Histograms (frequency %): 1: dikes belonging to the ERS; 2: dikes belonging to the WRS; 3: dikes coherent with both radial dike-swarm focuses; 4: dikes not coherent with any of the centres Identi cation of the dike swarms Some 450 direction, dip angle, and thickness measurements were recorded throughout the entire area of dikes exposure, covering a total height of more than 600 m. At rst sight two di erent groups of dikes were easily distinguished: most (80% of the total amount of dikes) were vertical to near-vertical and converged inland forming an apparent radial pattern (Figs. 1 and 2). The rest of them (20% of the dikes) were clearly inclined. The plunge directions of this latter dike assembly allowed us to identify this group as a possible cone sheet swarm. On the other hand, the detailed analysis of the vertical and subvertical radial dike strikes has revealed the existence of a double radial pattern. All the dikes, felsic in composition, plot on the TAS diagram (IUGS) near the trachytes^phonolites eld boundary. Besides, no signi cant relationship between dike composition and dike structure or between dike composition and age has been appreciated The cone sheet swarm The inclined dikes constitute in fact (Fig. 3a,b) a cone sheet swarm intruding into the Basal Complex and into the T-PhC. No conical dikes are found, however, intruding into the Old Basalts, which is probably due to the fact that the Old Basalts are exposed too far from the cone sheet swarm centre (CSC; Fig. 1). Although many of them are individual conical dikes, some others crop out as packs of thick conical dikes forming structures denominated by Rodr guez Losada (1987) as dome-dikes, due to their prominent erosive shape resembling that of domes.
6 202 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^206 In order to locate the coordinates of the centre, in the case of a cone sheet swarm we must use dike plunge directions instead of dike strikes. According to this, the CSC (estimated from all the conical dikes measured in the eld) lies on a sector situated around the point N and E (UTM coordinates), 1.5 km south of Vallehermoso village (Fig. 3a), near the area suggested previously by Rodr guez Losada (1987, 1988). As we indicate later, cone sheets show di erent dip and thickness and are also di erently spaced. These features would seem typical of a multiple structure, the result of several episodes that were superimposed in space and time, and similar to some of the models described by Schirnick et al. (1999). We have estimated the location of the hypothetical centre by considering separately: 1: individual cone sheets, 2: packs of thick conical dikes, 3: cone sheet dikes from the core of the conical structure, 4: cone sheet dikes from the periphery, 5: steeply dipping cone sheet dikes and 6: gently dipping cone sheet dikes. The position deduced for the centre remains invariable regardless of the group of dikes used in the determination. This fact is more in agreement with a single structure and a xed emplacement of the feeding magma chamber Radial dike swarms The strikes of the vertical dikes follow a general radial pattern. Nevertheless, whilst their distribution is clearly uniform in some sectors (i.e. stations 1, 4, 14, or 15 in Fig. 4), it is more poorly de ned or even follows a double pattern in some others (i.e. stations 5, 7, 10 and 12). The existence of these sectors showing two di erent dike strikes (normally separated by 20^30 ) points to the presence of two di erent families of radial dikes. Given the very frequent association of radial dikes and cone sheets, we can suppose that one of the two radial dike families could proceed from a magmatic focus located close to that deduced for the cone sheet swarm. In our example, this is supported by the common association of cone sheets and perpendicular radial dikes in the eld, and also by some of the rose diagrams (i.e. sectors 10 and 11 in Fig. 2). If CSC is supposed to be the convergent centre of one of the radial swarms, we can discriminate, by using an inverse method, how many of the radial dikes really converge in that centre. Of the total amount of radial dikes, up to 43% converge in CSC, and so de ne a radial swarm that we have called as the western radial swarm (WRS). The remaining dikes de ne another radial pattern (Fig. 3d). The area where their imaginary prolongations show a higher number of intersections provides a centre located roughly at the point N and E (UTM coordinates), east of the CSC. Most (78%) of these remaining radial dikes are coherent with this centre (the eastern radial centre) around which what we have called the eastern radial swarm (ERS) extends. This centre is close to the area where the only existent syenites on La Gomera, the Tamargada syenites, are exposed. This fact could represent a sign of possible genetic relationship between this radial structure and the syenitic rocks. Table 1 K^Ar radiometric ages Sample Dike type UTM coordinates 40 Ar* 40 Ar* K Age ( þ 1c) (scc/gu10 35 ) (%) (%) (Ma) a Buenavista cone sheet dike pack ^ þ 0.55 G-78 a Garabato cone sheet dike pack ^ þ a La Parra cone sheet dike pack ^ þ 0.47 G-84 b Cone sheet dike ^ þ 0.40 G-85 b Radial dike ^ þ 0.40 G-1 b Radial dike ^ þ 0.30 a b Determinations made in Hungarian Science Academy. Determinations made by Teledyne Isotopes Lab (USA).
7 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^ Fig. 5. K/Ar radiometric ages from the felsic dikes and their chronological relationship with the Lower Old Basalts and the Upper Old Basalts. In sum, all radial dikes are essentially distributed in two di erent families, the WRS associated to the cone sheet swarm and an independent ERS. About 43% of the total amount of radial dikes might belong to the WRS and 66% to the ERS. Considering only these dikes, about 21% of them (those roughly W^E) could belong to either of the swarms, because the double structure cannot be evidenced in those sectors where all radial dikes are aligned with both the CSC and ERC centres (i.e. sectors 1, 2 and 13), and so follow a very similar trend that constrains their discrimination Age The extensive hydrothermal alteration of most dikes reduces considerably the geochronological study of the La Gomera felsic dike swarms. Nevertheless, six K/Ar radiometric determinations have been carried out from some laboriously selected unaltered or only slightly altered samples (Table 1 and Fig. 5). Some thick cone sheet dikes from the packs yield ages of 7.54, 7.18 and 6.39 Ma, and an individual cone sheet dike (G-84) a very similar one, of 6.9 Ma. Only two samples from radial dikes were suitable for geochronological analysis. One of them (G-85) belonging to the ERS yields an age of 7.9 Ma. Although on the basis of its eld location the other sample (G-1) could be ascribed to any of the centres (Fig. 3d), its resulting age (8.0 Ma) is very similar, and thus, it most likely belongs to the same swarm (ERS). No age from the other radial swarm (WRS) has been determined. Notwithstanding that they are associated with the conical swarm, the WRS dikes must be similar in age to the conical sheets, and so younger than the ERS. 4. Geometry of the cone sheet swarm Although the cone sheet dikes are more abundant in the northeastern and southwestern sectors, and less frequent in the northwestern area of the structure, they outline a complete annular Fig. 6. Distribution of cone sheet dikes versus distance to centre.
8 204 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^206 Fig. 7. Variation of cone sheet dip angles with distance at di erent altitudes. The mean value with standard deviation error bars is indicated for each one of the groups considered in the text. The distance represented in the gure is a mean distance for each group of dikes. pattern (Fig. 3a,b). This contradicts the assertion of Rodr guez Losada (1987, 1988) who alleged that the structure was open to the NW. In our opinion the existence of younger deposits can account for the lesser amount of conical dikes in this area. The cone sheet dikes are concentric around the CSC and describe a ring some 10 km in diameter at sea level. The packs concentrate between 400 and 2000 m from the CSC (Fig. 6). These structures are composed of dense packs of thick cone sheet dikes (20^30 or more metres) within which host rock screens are absent or scarce, the average dike density being about 20%. Individual 2^3-mthick cone sheets occur from 700 to 5000 m away from the centre (Fig. 6). They are especially evident in the outer part of the structure where they represent a dike density of about 1^2%. Dip angles range from 70 to 30. We have studied the variation of cone sheet dip angles distinguishing three arbitrary annular zones by distance from the CSC ( m, 1500^3000 m and s 3000 m) and three also arbitrary zones of di erent elevation (50^350 m, 350^600 m and s 600 m) (Fig. 7). Cone sheet dips measured along radial transects decrease gradually from core to rim of the structure. Cone sheet dikes in the inner part of the structure, less than 1500 m from the CSC, show dip angles v 55 ; the less inclined dikes (30^45 ) appear more than 3000 m distant from the centre. Conical dikes belonging to the packs of thick dikes dip between 45 and 70 (the mean dip angle being 64 ), whilst individual cone sheet dikes dip 30^70 (the mean being 47 ). The lack of any variation in cone sheet dip angles with elevation (Fig. 7) allows us to suppose that the inclination remains constant down to the swarm root, near the focus. In view of all this, the Vallehermoso cone sheet swarm (VCSS) corresponds to a single structure characterised by an outward decrease of dip angle, every individual dike maintaining a constant dip. Our model is thus similar to the classical one described by Anderson (1936) and di ers from curved inclined cone sheet swarm models like those of Phillips (1974) and Gudmundsson (1998). The model is also di erent from those maintaining an average dip angle from centre to rim such as the Tejeda cone sheet swarm on Gran Canaria described by Schirnick et al. (1999). One more aspect is the estimation of a depth for the focus. Herna n and Ve lez (1980) calculated a shallow depth (roughly 2000 m below sea level) for the Tejeda cone sheet swarm focus by taking the depth of the hypothetical plane on which intersections of dip directions showed a higher concentration. We have used a similar method to Fig. 8. Geometrical scheme of the Vallehermoso cone sheet complex.
9 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^ localise the depth of the VCSS focus, estimated as the plane that minimises the distance of the dip direction lines to the vertical located at the centre. If the overall amount of cone sheets is taken into account, the estimated depth for the focus is 2100 m below present sea level. This depth is a mean value, however; as shown in Fig. 8, the depth under the central core of the structure might be shallower. The latter could be roughly that of the plane where the convergence of the innermost cone sheet dikes is a maximum, about 1650 m below sea level. In sum, the VCSS developed a single complete structure and shared its centre (CSC) with the second radial structure. No variation of dip with elevation is observed; however an outward decrease is apparent in the conical structure. These facts reveal the presence of a shallow ancient dome-shaped magmatic body. 5. Discussion and conclusions As stated above, three di erent dike swarms, intruding possibly in two separated time episodes, are identi ed on the north of La Gomera. The oldest radial swarm, the eastern one (ERS), intruded at about 8 Ma, is centred in the vicinity of Tamargada and might be related to the syenites exposed in this area. About 7.5 Ma ago the activity migrated some 2.5 km SW giving rise to a second radial swarm (WRS) and a cone sheet swarm (VCSS). Since such intrusive episodes may have played an important roll in the volcanological evolution of the island, it can be of great interest to correlate them with the main e usive episodes that built up La Gomera. Although both of the felsic intrusive episodes are roughly coeval with the Old Basalts (11^6 Ma), the chronostratigraphy of this series is not known in su cient detail as to make an accurate correlation. Thus, neither the stratigraphical nor the chronological limit between the Lower Old Basalts and the Upper Old Basalts is clearly de- ned. Cantagrel et al. (1984) place the limit at 9 Ma on the basis of an age obtained for a sample collected at the bottom of a barranco in the south, that they interpret as early Upper Old Basalts. However the intense density of basic dikes and the high degree of weathering of the rocks in that area imply that the sample corresponds to the Lower Old Basalts. The limit between Lower and Upper Old Basalts must therefore be appreciably younger. The rocks undoubtedly interpreted as corresponding to the Upper Old Basalts yield ages of 7.5 Ma or younger (Cantagrel et al., 1984). The earlier felsic episode (ERS) would then be coeval with the late Lower Old Basalts, or else it might represent the ending of that magmatic cycle (Fig. 5). The later felsic episode (VCSS and WRS) has an age coinciding with the Upper Old Basalts. The felsic plugs from Serie de Los Roques (4.6^ 3.9 Ma) scattered all over the island (a few within the area studied here, Fig. 1) represent a third independent felsic episode in the evolution of the island coinciding in time with the Recent Basalts. If the age of 9.1 Ma obtained by Cantagrel et al. (1984) from the Tamargada syenite is accepted, it is possible to correlate it with the ERS, and therefore with the rst felsic episode. But if, on the contrary, the age is only a minimum age, as the authors themselves think, the syenite would represent a felsic episode prior to the dike swarms studied here. The rst episode, the ERS, is small and clearly less important in volume than the second one. E usive or explosive activity related to it is not known. The younger second episode comprising the VCSS and the WRS has a larger volume. In the particular case of the cone sheet swarm, from the observed dike density and the estimated depth of its focus, a bulk volume of at least 5^10 km 3 must be considered. In the eastern and southern parts of the island a few felsic pyroclastic levels are interlayered with the Upper Old Basalts. According to their stratigraphical position, they could be ascribed to the second felsic episode. Finally, the presence of a cone sheet swarm and a shallow magma chamber allow us to speculate that this second episode could be accompanied by some caldera formation process.
10 206 E. Ancochea et al. / Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 120 (2003) 197^206 Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Project PB The authors thank L. Wilson and an anonymous referee for their constructive remarks. References Abdel Monen, A., Watkins, N.D., Gast, P.W., Potassium^argon ages, volcanic stratigraphy, and geomagnetic polarity history of the Canary Islands: Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria and La Gomera. Am. J. Sci. 271, 490^ 521. Ancochea, E., Bra«ndle, J.L., Cubas, C.R., Herna n, F., Huertas, M.J., La Serie I de Fuerteventura. Mem. R. Acad. C. Exac., F s. y Natur. Madrid, 27, 151 pp. Ancochea, E., Bra«ndle, J.L., Cubas, C.R., Herna n, F., Huertas, M.J., Volcanic complexes in the eastern ridge of the Canary Islands: the Miocene activity of the island of Fuerteventura. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 70, 183^204. Ancochea, E., Huertas, M.J., Cantagrel, J.M., Coello, J., Fu ster, J.M., Arnaud, N., Ibarrola, E., Evolution of the Can adas edi ce and its implications for the origin of the Can adas Caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands). J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 88, 177^199. Anderson, E.M., The dynamics of formation of conesheets, ring dykes, and caldron-subsidences. Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 56, 128^157. Bra«ndle, J.L., Ancochea, E., Cubas, C.R., Herna n, F., Ana lisis de enjambres de diques radiales utilizando un me todo matema tico. Geogaceta 10, 97^100. Bravo, T., Estudio geolo gico y petrogra co de la isla de La Gomera. Est. Geol. 20, 1^56. Cantagrel, J.M., Cendrero, A., Fu ster, J.M., Ibarrola, E., Jamond, C., K^Ar chronology of the volcanic eruption in the Canarian Archipelago: Island of La Gomera. Bull. Volcanol. 47, 597^609. Cendrero, A., The Volcano-plutonic complex of La Gomera (Canary Islands). Bull. Volcanol. 34, 537^561. Cendrero, A., Estudio geolo gico y petrolo gico del Complejo Basal de la Isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias). Est. Geol. 27, 3^73. Cubas, C.R., Estudio de los domos sa licos de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias). I. Vulcanolog a. Est. Geol. 34, 53^70. Cubas, C.R., Herna n, F., Ancochea, E., Bra«ndle, J.L., Huertas, M.J., Serie Basa ltica Antigua Inferior en el sector de Hermigua. Isla de la Gomera. Geogaceta 16, 15^18. De la Nuez, J., Cubas, C.R., Herna n, F., Los domos sa licos del Parque Nacional del Teide. In: Aran a, V., Coello, J. (Eds.), Los volcanes y la caldera del Parque Nacional del Teide (Tenerife, Islas Canarias). Icona. pp. 177^185. Feraud, G., Datation de re seaux de dykes et de roches volcaniques sousmarines par les me thodes K^Ar et 40Ar^ 39Ar. Utilisation des dykes comme marqueurs de pale ocontraites. Thesis, Universite de Nice, 146 pp. Feraud, G., Giannerini, G., Campredon, R., Stillman, C.J., Geochronology of some Canarian dike swarms: contribution to the volcano-tectonic evolution of the archipelago. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 25, 29^52. Gudmundsson, A., Magma chambers modeled as cavities explain the formation of rift zone central volcanoes and their eruption and intrusion statistics. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 7401^7412. Hausen, H., Outlines of the geology of Gomera. Soc. Sci. Fen. Com. Phys. Math. 41, 1^53. Herna n, F., Estudio petrolo gico y estructural del complejo traqu tico^sien tico de Gran Canaria. Thesis Doctoral, Universidad Complutense, Madrid. Herna n, F., Estudio petrolo gico y estructural del complejo traqu tico^sien tico de Gran Canaria. Est. Geol. 32, 279^324. Herna n, F., Ve lez, R., El sistema de diques co nicos de Gran Canaria y la estimacio n estad stica de sus caracter sticas. Est. Geol. 36, 65^73. Mun oz, M., Estudio petrolo gico de las formaciones alcalinas de Fuerteventura, Islas Canarias. Est. Geol. 25, 257^ 310. Phillips, W.J., The dynamic emplacement of cone sheets. Tectonophysics 24, 69^84. Rodr guez Losada, J.A., Un complejo de diques co nicos en la isla de La Gomera, Islas Canarias. Est. Geol. 43, 41^ 45. Rodr guez Losada, J.A., El Complejo Traqu tico-fonol tico de La Gomera. Thesis Doctoral, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, 414 pp. Schirnick, C., Bogaard, P.D., Schmincke, H.U., Cone sheet formation and intrusive growth of an oceanic island. The Miocene Tejeda complex on Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Geology 27, 207^210. Schmincke, H.U., Cone sheet swarm, resurgence of Tejeda Caldera, and the early geologic history of Gran Canaria. Bull. Volcanol. 31, 153^162. Stillman, C.J., Fu ster, J.M., Bennell-Baker, M.J., Mun oz, M., Smewing, J.D., Sagredo, J., Basal complex of Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) is an oceanic intrusive complex with rift-system a nities. Nature 257, 469^471.
Journal of Volcanology and Geotherrnal Research, 44 (1990) 231-249 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Volcanic evolution of the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands) in the light of new K-Ar data
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Name: Date: 1. The road shown below was suddenly broken by a natural event. 3. The convergence of two continental plates would produce Which natural event most likely caused the crack in the road? island
Tectonics Assessment / 1 TECTONICS ASSESSMENT 1. Movement along plate boundaries produces A. tides. B. fronts. C. hurricanes. D. earthquakes. 2. Which of the following is TRUE about the movement of continents?
GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and your geology
The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything
A história geológica de FERNANDO DE NORONHA Umberto G. Cordani Instituto de Geociências - USP 1960 s - CONTINENTAL DRIFT and PLATE TECTONICS 1960 - Cox & Doell Earth s magnetic reversals 1961 - Hess History
Geological Visualization Tools and Structural Geology Geologists use several visualization tools to understand rock outcrop relationships, regional patterns and subsurface geology in 3D and 4D. Geological
Earth Materials: 1 The three major categories of rocks Fig 3.1 Understanding Earth 2 Intro to rocks & Igneous rocks Three main categories of rocks: Igneous Sedimentary Metamorphic The most common minerals
ARTICLES Boletín Fuerteventura s de la Asociación urban tourist de Geógrafos development: Españoles the search N.º 59 of - 2012, the sustainable págs. 391-393 development versus to the constructive I.S.S.N.:
GENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY 1110L Lab Experiment 9B: Tracking the Hawaiian Islands: How Fast Does the Pacific Plate Move? Background You know that the Earth s crustal plates are always moving, but how fast?
Vulcanism on Venus Venusian Structure Iron-Nickel rich core Mantle composed of magnesium-rich silicates and oxides Basaltic crust Venera 13 & 14 Tholeiitic basalt Tesserae From latin word for Tile Covers
DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which
Standards Addressed Lesson 13: Plate Tectonics I Overview Lesson 13 introduces students to geological oceanography by presenting the basic structure of the Earth and the properties of Earth s primary layers.
PLATE TECTONICS EXERCISE (Modified from North Seattle Community College online exercise) Introduction: As discussed in our textbook, the speed at which tectonic plates move has been calculated in several
Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 9 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors
Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Please fill in the missing labels. 2. Please fill in the missing labels. 3. How many large plates form the outer shell of the earth?
1. The climate that existed in an area during the early Paleozoic Era can best be determined by studying (1) the present climate of the area (2) recorded climate data of the area since 1700 (3) present
rom IRIS collection: Animations of eologic Processes www.iris.edu/educate/animations Stratigraphic ross Sections Why study old rocks? The earthquake potential of an area can be determined by studying the
Ongoing eruption, Kilauea Volcano, 1983 - present Eruptions on Hawaiian volcanoes occur at the summit caldera or along one of the two narrow rift zones. This is because magma moves upwards from a shallow
Tectonics Investigation 6: Teacher Guide Investigation 6: What happens when plates collide? In this activity, students will use the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes in a Web GIS to learn about
EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY- EES 1005 LABORATORY TWO GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES Introduction Structural geology is the study of the ways in which rocks or sediments are arranged and deformed
QUATERNARY DATING METHODS 1: RELATIVE DATING TECHNIQUES Objectives: In this lab we will examine relative dating methods used to date Quaternary glacial deposits. After this lab you should be able to: 1)
Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Continental Drift Alfred Wegener (1880-1930) Proposed that all of the continents were once part of a large supercontinent - Pangaea Based on: Similarities in shorelines
Chapter Overview CHAPTER 3 Marine Provinces The study of bathymetry charts ocean depths and ocean floor topography. Echo sounding and satellites are efficient bathymetric tools. Most ocean floor features
Lecture 7 Plates and Mantle Plumes Transform Boundaries Transform boundaries occur where one segment of rigid lithosphere slides horizontally past another in response to stresses in the lithosphere. The
Igneous Rocks Geology 200 Geology for Environmental Scientists Magma Compositions Ultramafic - composition of mantle Mafic - composition of basalt, e.g. oceanic crust. 900-1200 o C, 50% SiO 2 Intermediate
Grade 6 Mathematics, Quarter 2, Unit 2.1 Measurement with Ratios Overview Number of instructional days: 15 (1 day = 45 minutes) Content to be learned Use ratio reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical
Geologic Site of the Month February, 2002 The Geology of the Marginal Way, Ogunquit, Maine 43 14 23.88 N, 70 35 18.36 W Text by Arthur M. Hussey II, Bowdoin College and Robert G. Marvinney,, Department
Plate Tectonics: Ridges, Transform Faults and Subduction Zones Goals of this exercise: 1. review the major physiographic features of the ocean basins 2. investigate the creation of oceanic crust at mid-ocean
1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were
HB 11-26-07 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 1 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 Equipment- coil apparatus, BK Precision 2120B oscilloscope, Fluke multimeter, Wavetek FG3C function generator,
Page 1 of 13 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Continental Drift, Sea Floor Spreading and Plate Tectonics This page last updated on 26-Aug-2015 Plate Tectonics is a theory
What happens when plates diverge? Plates spread apart, or diverge, from each other at divergent boundaries. At these boundaries new ocean crust is added to the Earth s surface and ocean basins are created.
Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior
Geologic time and dating Most figures and tables contained here are from course text: Understanding Earth Fourth Edition by Frank Press, Raymond Siever, John Grotzinger, and Thomas H. Jordan Geologic time
The Oceans Major Ocean Basins: Pacific Ocean largest and deepest Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean S. Hemisphere Arctic smallest and most shallow Ocean Floor Geologic Provinces Continental Margin Continental
El Hierro La Palma La Gomera Tenerife Gran Canaria Fuerteventura Lanzarote In these islands coloured with a different paintbrush, any event held here is assured of success. Aquí, en estas islas dibujadas
The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones
Plate Tectonics Lab Continental Drift Take a look at a globe sometime and observe the remarkable fit between South America and Africa. Could they have, in fact, been connected? During the 19th and early
Agreement on Cooperation in Astrophysics The Government of the Kingdom of Spain, the Government of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and
Name: Laboratory 6: Topographic Maps Part 1: Construct a topographic map of the Egyptian Pyramid of Khafre A topographic map is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional space. Topographic
This website would like to remind you: Your browser (Safari 7) is out of date. Update your browser for more security, comfort and the best experience on this site. Encyclopedic Entry hot spot For the complete
An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges - Sui, Sun & Wang (eds) 2014 China University of Mining and Technology Press, Xuzhou, ISBN 978-7-5646-2437-8 Treatment Practice for Controlling Water
Plate Tectonics Chapter 2 Does not include complete lecture notes. Continental drift: An idea before its time Alfred Wegener First proposed his continental drift hypothesis in 1915 Published The Origin
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS MAP 2-D REPRESENTATION OF THE EARTH S SURFACE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP A graphic representation of the 3-D configuration of the earth s surface. This is it shows elevations (third dimension). It
NORMAL DISTRIBTIONS MEASURES OF VARIATION In statistics, it is important to measure the spread of data. A simple way to measure spread is to find the range. But statisticians want to know if the data are
GEOLOGIC MAPS PURPOSE: To be able to understand, visualize, and analyze geologic maps Geologic maps show the distribution of the various igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks at Earth s surface in
BY RYAN O MAHONY INTRODUCTION This project is about volcanoes and how they form and how they function. It will also show you the different aspects of a volcano. MAP OF VOLCANOES AROUND THE WORLD DIAGRAM
Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature Summer REU Program Professor Tom Witten By Abstract There is a seasonal phase lag between solar heating from the sun and the surface
Geosystems G 3 AN ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF THE EARTH SCIENCES Published by AGU and the Geochemical Society Article Volume 1, Number 1 23 February 2000 1008, doi:10.1029/1999gc000018 ISSN: 1525-2027 The 40
Plate Tectonics: Big Ideas Our understanding of Earth is continuously refined. Earth s systems are dynamic; they continually react to changing influences from geological, hydrological, physical, chemical,
Geol 101: Physical Geology PAST EXAM QUESTIONS LECTURE 4: PLATE TECTONICS II 4. Which of the following statements about paleomagnetism at spreading ridges is FALSE? A. there is a clear pattern of paleomagnetic
Coastal Processes III 15 Spatial variability of wave energy resources around the Canary Islands H. Chiri, M. Pacheco & G. Rodríguez Departamento de Física, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,
Channel and fracture indicators from narrow-band decomposition at Dickman field, Kansas Johnny Seales*, Tim Brown and Christopher Liner Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston,
Boletín de la Ecological Asociación footprint de Geógrafos and social-environmental Españoles N.º 57 tourism - 2011, págs. pressure. 421-425 Application to the Canary Islands I.S.S.N.: 0212-9426 ECOLOGICAL
Name: Class: _ Date: _ Rocks and Plate Tectonics Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is a naturally occurring, solid mass of mineral or
17. Niseko Latitude: 42 53'07" N, Longitude: 140 38'26" E, Elevation: 1,116 m (Iwaonupuri) (Elevation Point - measured by JMA) Latitude: 42 52'30" N, Longitude: 140 39'32" E, Elevation: 1,308 m (Niseko
Plate Tectonics Web-Quest Part I: Earth s Structure. Use the following link to find these answers: http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/structure.html 1. Label the layers of Earth in the diagram
3.9 GEOLOGY, SOILS, AND SEISMICITY The Hawaiian Islands formed as the Pacific Plate moved over a relatively permanent hot spot in the mantle beneath the plate. The long chain of islands that stretch for
Math B, lecture 5: area and volume Nathan Pflueger 6 September 2 Introduction This lecture and the next will be concerned with the computation of areas of regions in the plane, and volumes of regions in
INTRODUCTION TO STORM SURGE Introduction to Storm Surge BOLIVAR PENINSULA IN TEXAS AFTER HURRICANE IKE (2008) What is Storm Surge? Inland Extent Storm surge can penetrate well inland from the coastline.
Minerals and Rocks Name 1. Base your answer to the following question on the map and cross section below. The shaded areas on the map represent regions of the United States that have evaporite rock layers
Illinois State Museum Geology Online http://geologyonline.museum.state.il.us Ride the Rock Cycle Grade Level: 5 6 Purpose: To teach students that the rock cycle, like the water cycle, has various stages
Name: Class: Date: Plate Tectonics Short Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The existence of coal beds in Antarctica
INTRODUCTION TO STORM SURGE Introduction to Storm Surge National Hurricane Center Storm Surge Unit BOLIVAR PENINSULA IN TEXAS AFTER HURRICANE IKE (2008) What is Storm Surge? Inland Extent Storm surge can
Surface Area of Rectangular & Right Prisms Surface Area of Pyramids Geometry Finding the surface area of a prism A prism is a rectangular solid with two congruent faces, called bases, that lie in parallel
Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections
Personality and Individual Di erences 28 (2000) 601±607 www.elsevier.com/locate/paid Testosterone levels as modi ers of psychometric g Helmuth Nyborg a, *, Arthur R. Jensen b a Institute of Psychology,
Joannea Geol. Paläont. 11: 132-136 (2011) Recent ostracods from the Azores archipelago Ricardo P. MEIRELES, Antonio FRIAS MARTINS & Sérgio ÁVILA The Azores is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean between
ABSTRACT Probability analysis of blended coking coals David E. Pearson DavidE. Pearson & Associates Ltd., Victoria, B.C, Canada, V8N3T2 (Received January 21, 1991; accepted in revised form March 26, 1991)
Composition Physical Properties Summary The Earth is a layered planet The layers represent changes in composition and physical properties The compositional layers are the Crust, Mantle and Core The physical
Relative Age Dating Comparative Records of Time Nature of the rock record principles of stratigraphy: deposition, succession, continuity and correlation Stratigraphic tools biological succession of life: