Multi-Layered DDoS Attacks. Joakim Sundberg Security Architect

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1 Multi-Layered DDoS Attacks Joakim Sundberg Security Architect

2 The evolution of attackers January 2008 Anonymous executes a series of high-profile DDoS attacks against the Church of Scientology. December 2010 WikiLeaks supporters hit PayPal, Visa, Mastercard, and other financial sites with DDoS attacks. April 2011 Attackers use a DDoS attack against Sony to mask the theft of millions of customer records. April 2012 Anonymous knocks down the sites of the U.S. Dept. of Justice, the CIA, and the British Secret Intelligence Service. September 2012 Syrian Cyber Fighters launch Operation Ababil with DDoS attacks on 13 U.S. banks to protest an anti-muslim video Script kiddies The rise of hacktivism Cyber war F5 Agility

3 Protecting against DDoS is challenging Webification of apps 71% of internet experts predict most people will do work via web or mobile by Device proliferation 95% of workers use at least one personal device for work. 130 million enterprises will use mobile apps by 2014 Evolving security threats 58% of all e-theft tied to activist groups. 81% of breaches involved hacking Shifting perimeter 80% of new apps will target the cloud. 72% IT leaders have or will move applications to the cloud. F5 Agility

4 More sophisticated attacks are multi-layer Application SSL DNS Network F5 Agility

5 DDoS hides the real threat DDoS Attack on Bank Hid $900,000 Cyberheist Feb 13, 2013 F5 Agility

6 Which DDoS technology to use? Cloud/Hosted Service On-Premises Defense Content delivery network Network firewall with SSL inspection Communications service provider Web application firewall Cloud-based DDoS service On-premises DDoS solution Intrusion detection/prevention F5 Agility

7 Answer: All of the above

8 Tools and Methods of Latest DoS Attacks Attackers are proficient at network reconnaissance They obtain a list of site URIs Sort by time-to-complete (CPU cost) Sort list by megabytes (Bandwidth) Spiders (bots) available to automate Though they are often known by the security community Can be executed with a simple wget script F5 Networks, Inc 8 CONFIDENTIAL

9 Attackers work to identify weaknesses in application infrastructure Network Reconnaissance Example Exploiting POST for Fun & DoS Determine: URL s accepting POST Max size for POST Bypass CDN protections (POST isn t cache-able) Fingerprint both TCP & app at the origin

10 BIG-IP ASM Heavy URL Detection F5 Agility

11 Layer 7 DoS Variations Attacks like SlowLoris are easily mitigated by signatures However, those signatures are often easily bypassed by variants Enforcing good requests at the protocol level is more effective GET /search.php?name=acme s&admin=1 HTTP/1.1 Host: foo.com\r\n Connection: keep-alive\r\n User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1)\r\n Accept:text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9\r Referer: Accept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,sdch\r\n Accept-Language: en-gb,en-us;q=0.8,en;q=0.6\r\n Accept-Charset: ISO ,utf-8;q=0.7,*;q=0.3\r\n Cookie: SESSION=0af2ec985d6ed a339ffef9226 F5 Agility

12 UDP Amplification Attacks Considerations DNS or NTP requests may seem well-formed IP-spoofing likely, so IP-blacklisting limited effectiveness Mitigations Highly scalable DNS infrastructure needed to absorb volume Refuse NXDOMAIN requests Clients DMZ Data Center DNS Servers LDNS Internet DNS Firewall in BIG-IP GTM Apps

13 How can F5 help me implement a DDoS Solution

14 DDoS protection reference architecture Next-Generation Firewall Corporate Users Tier 1 Tier 2 Multiple ISP strategy Network attacks: ICMP flood, UDP flood, SYN flood SSL attacks: SSL renegotiation, SSL flood Financial Services Legitimate Users DDoS Attacker ISPa/b Cloud Scrubbing Service DNS attacks: DNS amplification, query flood, dictionary attack, DNS poisoning Network and DNS IPS HTTP attacks: Slowloris, slow POST, recursive POST/GET Application E- Commerce Subscriber Threat Threat Feed Intelligence Feed Intelligence Scanner Anonymous Proxies Anonymous Requests Botnet Attackers Strategic Point of Control F5 Agility

15 DDoS reference architecture Next-Generation Firewall Corporate Users Tier 1 Key Features Legitimate Users DDoS Attacker Multiple ISP strategy ISPa/b Cloud Scrubbing Service Threat Threat Feed Intelligence Feed Intelligence Network attacks: ICMP flood, UDP flood, SYN flood DNS attacks: DNS amplification, query flood, dictionary attack, DNS poisoning Tier 1 Tier 2 The first tier at the Network and DNS IPS SSL attacks: perimeter SSL renegotiation, is layer 3 SSL flood and 4 network firewall services Simple load balancing Application to a second tier HTTP attacks: Slowloris, slow POST, recursive POST/GET IP reputation database Mitigates volumetric and DNS DDoS attacks Financial Services E- Commerce Subscriber Scanner Anonymous Proxies Anonymous Requests Botnet Attackers Strategic Point of Control F5 Agility

16 DDoS protection reference architecture Next-Generation Firewall Corporate Users Tier 1 Tier 2 Multiple ISP strategy Network attacks: ICMP flood, UDP flood, SYN flood SSL attacks: SSL renegotiation, SSL flood Financial Services Legitimate Users DDoS Attacker ISPa/b Cloud Scrubbing Service DNS attacks: DNS amplification, query flood, dictionary attack, DNS poisoning Network and DNS IPS HTTP attacks: Slowloris, slow POST, recursive POST/GET Application E- Commerce Subscriber Threat Threat Feed Intelligence Feed Intelligence Scanner Anonymous Proxies Anonymous Requests Botnet Attackers Strategic Point of Control F5 Agility

17 DDoS reference architecture Next-Generation Firewall Corporate Users Tier 2 Key Features The second tier is for application-aware, Multiple ISP CPU-intensive defense strategy Legitimate Users SSL termination ISPa/b DDoS Attacker mechanisms Web application firewall Mitigate Cloud asymmetric and Scrubbing SSL-based ServiceDDoS attacks Network attacks: ICMP flood, UDP flood, SYN flood DNS attacks: DNS amplification, query flood, dictionary attack, DNS poisoning Tier 1 Network and DNS IPS SSL attacks: SSL renegotiation, SSL flood HTTP attacks: Slowloris, slow POST, recursive POST/GET Tier 2 Application Financial Services E- Commerce Subscriber Threat Threat Feed Intelligence Feed Intelligence Scanner Anonymou s Proxies Anonymou s Requests Botnet Attacker s Strategic Point of Control F5 Agility

18 DDoS MITIGATION Increasing difficulty of attack detection OSI stack Physical (1) Data Link (2) Network (3) Transport (4) Session (5) Presentation (6) Application (7) OSI stack Network attacks Session attacks Application attacks F5 mitigation technologies SYN Flood, Connection Flood, UDP Flood, Push and ACK Floods, Teardrop, ICMP Floods, Ping Floods and Smurf Attacks BIG-IP AFM SynCheck, default-deny posture, high-capacity connection table, full-proxy traffic visibility, rate-limiting, strict TCP forwarding. Packet Velocity Accelerator (PVA) is a purpose-built, customized hardware solution that increases scale by an order of magnitude above software-only solutions. DNS UDP Floods, DNS Query Floods, DNS NXDOMAIN Floods, SSL Floods, SSL Renegotiation BIG-IP LTM and GTM High-scale performance, DNS Express, SSL termination, irules, SSL renegotiation validation OWASP Top 10 (SQL Injection, XSS, CSRF, etc.), Slowloris, Slow Post, HashDos, GET Floods BIG-IP ASM Positive and negative policy reinforcement, irules, full proxy for HTTP, server performance anomaly detection F5 mitigation technologies F5 Agility

19

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