CHEM 151 CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER Fall 2008

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1 CHEM 151 CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF COPPER Fall 2008 Fill-in!!! Pre-lab attached (p 9) Lecture Instructor Stamp Here Name Partner Date Before you begin, read the following section in your Laboratory Handbook: Ch. VII, Separations: read the section on Decantation. (pg 49) INTRODUCTION This experiment is designed to quantitatively test your laboratory skills in carrying out a series of chemical reactions. Reactions can be classified by two different schemes; one relying on the specific chemistry occurring and one based simply on the number and type of reactants and products. The first scheme breaks down in the following reaction types: precipitation, where a solid product is formed from two soluble reactants, reduction/oxidation (redox), where electrons are transferred between reactants, and acid/base, where a hydrogen ion is transferred between reactants. Gasforming reactions also occur, but fall under either redox or acid/base reactions. The second scheme relies on pattern matching: what are/how many reactants and products are there? Double displacement reactions swap partners (the anions and the cations) in the two starting materials, whereas single displacement reactions have only one set of partners swap (the anions or the cations). Combination reactions combine small molecules and/or elements into a larger molecule, and decomposition reactions break down larger molecules into smaller molecules and/or elements. Every reaction can be classified using both schemes given above. In this lab you will specifically investigate four types of chemical reactions: oxidation/ reduction (redox), double displacement, single displacement, and decomposition. You will begin with a known amount of copper metal which, after going through several chemical reactions, is regenerated. The efficiency with which you recover the regenerated copper metal will be a measure of your laboratory technique. You will also be expected to observe and record the various physical (e.g. color, heat) and chemical changes that occur. Discussion Most chemical reactions require that the desired product be separated from unwanted by-products. In today's experiment you will be expected to separate out the copper compounds produced in the following chemical reactions with the goal of recovering as much copper metal (and nothing else) as possible from the final reaction. [1] Cu (s) + 4 HNO 3 (aq) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 NO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (l) [2] Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) Cu(OH) 2 (s) + 2 NaNO 3 (aq) [3] Cu(OH) 2 (s) CuO (s) + H 2 O (l) [4] CuO (s) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) CuSO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) [5] CuSO 4 (aq) + Zn (s) ZnSO 4 (aq) + Cu (s) [6] H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Zn (s) Each of the reactions (1-5) is assumed to proceed 100% to completion if run correctly. It would, therefore, be theoretically possible to recover all of the copper with which you started (100% yield, or you obtain as many grams of Cu that you started with!). However, it is highly unlikely that you will obtain 100% yield in any reaction. The actual yield you obtain will be somewhat less. By #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 1 of 9

2 knowing the theoretical yield (the amount of copper you started with) and the actual yield (the amount of copper recovered) it is possible to calculate the percent yield as follows: actual yield of Cu grams of Cu obtained % yield = x 100% OR % yield = x 100% theoretical yield of Cu grams of Cu you should have obtained WARNING: You are using strong acids and bases in this experiment, use caution! Procedure Begin by heating about 300 ml of distilled water on a hot plate for use later, it does not need to boil. You will need this water in step [3]. Weigh approximately 0.5 g of copper pieces to the proper precision using an electronic balance. Write down your actual amount of copper below. Your Starting Mass of Cu grams Observations of initial starting material of copper: [1] BE SURE TO CARRY OUT THIS STEP IN THE HOOD. NO 2 is a toxic gas. Wear Gloves! Place the weighed copper wire in a 400 ml beaker and add 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (HNO 3 ). Use a glass rod to stir the reaction and make sure all the Cu is reacted. When the evolution of gas has ceased, vigorously stir the solution to remove any dissolved gas (note any color change). The solution will be greenish blue turning to blue with vigorous stirring. Touch the outside of the beaker and note any heating or cooling. While the beaker is still in the fume hood add ~100 ml of distilled water. Return to your lab station. a. Write balanced (names),, and net equations for this reaction. Be sure to include phase labels. REMEMBER THAT MOLECULAR REACTIONS ARE GIVEN TO YOU ON THE FIRST PAGE OF THE LAB!! net b. On addition of the acid, did the contents of the beaker heat up (exothermic reaction) or cool down (endothermic reaction)? c. When the nitric acid was added to the copper a gas formed. What is the formula and name for the gas? #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 2 of 9

3 What color was the gas? d. Record the color of the solution you have prepared. The color is due to which species (circle your answer)? Cu +2 (aq) NO 3-1 (aq) NO 2 (g) H 2 O (l) [2] Add 30 ml of 3 molar (M) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) while stirring. If no visible reaction occurs, add a little more NaOH. a. Write balanced,, and net equations for this reaction. Be sure to include phase labels. net b. Classify this reaction as a combination, decomposition, single displacement, or double displacement reaction. c. What precipitate (water insoluble compound) has been formed? d. What is the color of the compound? (be descriptive!) [3] Add two or three boiling chips to the solution and heat the contents to boiling. Stir the solution continuously using a glass rod to ensure even heating. Heat the solution, with gentle stirring, until no blue color remains. (Occasionally solutions will bump and spatter. Adding the boiling chips will prevent the spattering from happening) #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 3 of 9

4 a. Write balanced,, and net equations for this reaction. Be sure to include phase labels. net b. Classify this reaction as a combination, decomposition, single displacement, or double displacement reaction. c. What copper compound has been formed? d. What is the purpose of adding the boiling chips to the solution before heating?. Allow the black precipitate to settle (allowing the solution to cool helps!) and then pour off (decant) most of the liquid into another beaker. Be careful not to lose any of your product! To the remaining black solid, add approximately 200 ml of hot distilled water. Stir the resulting mixture, allow the black precipitate to settle, and decant again. The decanted solutions may go down the drain. e. The addition of the hot water is called a wash step. It "washes" the black precipitate. What chemical species are being removed by this wash? (hint: examine the reactions that have happened up to this point (rxn 1-3), [1] Cu (s) + 4 HNO 3 (aq) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 NO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (l) [2] Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) Cu(OH) 2 (s) + 2 NaNO 3 (aq) [3] Cu(OH) 2 (s) CuO (s) + H 2 O (l) Thinking about the reactant and products used and created, which species are still in the beaker that you would need to wash away from your sample? #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 4 of 9

5 [4] Add 15 ml of 6 molar (M) sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) to the black precipitate and stir well. Remove the boiling chips. (Try transferring the solution carefully to another beaker leaving behind the boiling chips. Rinse the original beaker with the boiling chips with a small amount of distilled water and add the rinse to the new beaker). a. Write balanced,, and net equations for this reaction. Be sure to include phase labels. net b. Classify this reaction as a combination, decomposition, single displacement, or double displacement reaction. c. What is the color of the resulting solution? d. What is responsible for the color of the solution? [5] Return your solution to the fume hood and slowly add about 2.0 g of zinc powder while stirring the solution gently. Continue to add small amounts of zinc until the solution is colorless (no blue remaining in solution) or nearly so. Do not add too much zinc. When the gas evolution ceases, move the solution to your lab bench and gently heat the suspension (solid and liquid) while stirring and then allow it to cool. a. Write balanced,, and net equations for this reaction. Be sure to include phase labels. net b. Classify this reaction as a combination, decomposition, single displacement or double displacement reaction. #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 5 of 9

6 c. Two reactions are actually taking place in this step, the fifth reaction and an additional 6 th reaction. Rewrite these two reactions ( equations). One of them is not listed on p. 1. (Hint: See the reactions of metals with acid for a reaction, also check out problem 2 on page 7 of this lab!) Reaction 1: Reaction 2: d. What happened to the color of the solution? e. What gas is being evolved? The reaction is not listed on p. 1. f. At this point is copper present as a compound or an element? After the suspension has cooled (remove the boiling chips if not already done), decant off the solution into a beaker and dispose of into the Product Collection Bottle labeled ZnSO 4. Transfer the precipitate to an accurately pre-weighed (to 0.01 g) porcelain evaporating dish. Starting mass of evaporating dish: grams Try using a few mls of distilled water and a rubber policeman to aid the transfer. Add approximately 5 ml of distilled water to the precipitate, stir the suspension and decant off the water into a clean beaker. Repeat this washing step. g. What are you removing with these washings? Next, wash the precipitate with 5 ml of methanol (two times) and then with 5 ml of acetone. Decant off the washes in each step. These two washings will remove most of the water. Remove the remaining liquid by placing the evaporation dish on a beaker of boiling water for five minutes. Dry the evaporating dish and weigh again on the balance. Put the methanol and acetone washes into the appropriate Product Collection Bottle. Put the solid copper in the solid copper waste container. Final mass of evaporation dish + dried copper solid: grams h. How many grams of copper did you recover? i. Calculate your percent yield of copper. (show your work!) % yield = Instructor initials: #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 6 of 9

7 Questions You must answer these before getting a final stamp. 1. Examine reactions 1 5 and the 6 th side reaction. Are any of the reactions redox reactions? Which ones? 2. Consider the reaction between zinc and sulfuric acid which react to form zinc sulfate and hydrogen gas a) Write chemical formulas for these two species, and write a balanced,,, and net- equation for this reaction. (hint: see your text for reactions of metals with acids) net b) Classify this reaction as a single displacement (SD), double displacement (DD), decomposition (D), or combination (C) c) If 6.55 grams of Zn reaction with excess sulfuric acid to produce 12.5 grams of zinc sulfate, what is the % yield for this reaction? (show your work!) work: % yield #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 7 of 9

8 3. If your % yield was low, what reason might you give to explain your low recovery of solid copper? 4. If your % yield was higher than 100%, what reason might you give to explain the fact that you have obtained more product than possible? #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 8 of 9

9 Pre-Lab Stamp: Show all of your work. 1. Do elements have charges? (circle your answer) yes no 2. Do molecules have charges? (circle your answer) yes no 3. Do ions have charges? (circle your answer) yes no 4. Consider the reaction between lead (II) nitrate and sodium chloride. a) Write chemical formulas for the two compounds, and write a balanced,, and net equation for the reaction. Be sure to include phase labels. net b) Classify this reaction as Single Displacement (SD), Double Displacement (DD), Decomposition (D) or Combination (C). c) Classify this reaction as Precipitation, acid/base or redox. d) What solid product could you isolate from this reaction? 5. The reaction is performed with 9.67 g of sodium chloride and an excess of lead (II) nitrate. a) What is the theoretical yield of the isolated product? b) g of the product are isolated. What is the percent yield for this reaction? #4 Chemical Reactions of Copper RevF08AEM Fall 2008 Page 9 of 9

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