The Milky Way Galaxy. Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Milky Way Galaxy. Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation"

Transcription

1 The Milky Way Galaxy Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation

2 The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night sky belongs to the Milky Way Galaxy. We see most of the Milky Way as a faint band of light across the sky. From outside, our Milky Way Galaxy probably looks very much like our cosmic neighbor, the Andromeda Galaxy.

3 First Studies of the Galaxy The first attempt to unveil the structure of the galaxy by William Herschel (1785) was based on optical observations. He believed the shape of the Milky Way to resemble a grindstone, with the Sun close to the center Unfortunately, he was not aware that most of the Galaxy, particularly the center, is blocked from view by vast clouds of gas and dust.

4 Determining the Structure of the Milky Way Galactic Coordinates +90 Galactic Plane Galactic Center The structure of our Milky Way is hard to determine because: 1) We are inside ) Distance measurements are difficult. 3) Our view towards the center and the far side of the galaxy is obscured by gas and dust.

5 Strategies to Explore the Structure of the Milky Way 1. Select bright objects that you can see throughout the Milky Way and trace their directions and distances. 2. Observe objects at radio and infrared wavelengths to circumvent the problem of optical obscuration, and catalog their directions and distances. 3. Trace the orbital velocities of objects in different directions relative to our position.

6 Measuring the Milky Way We have seen that measuring stellar parallaxes only measures the nearest stars. The spectroscopic parallax method enables us to measure far across our galaxy, but not far enough. However, there are bright, variable stars whose luminosity varies in a regular way depending on their size. These are called intrinsic variables. Three kinds of intrinsic variables have been found: RR Lyrae stars, and two types of Cepheid variables (classical and W Virginis).

7 Intrinsic Variables The upper plot is an RR Lyrae star. All such stars have essentially the same luminosity curve, with periods from 0.5 to 1 day. The lower plot is a classical Cepheid variable; Cepheid periods range from about 1 to 100 days.

8 The variability of these stars comes from a dynamic balance between gravity and pressure. Their radii oscillate and therefore their luminosities oscillate: L = 4 π R 2 σ T 4. Intrinsic Variables

9 The period of oscillation depends on the mass of the star. We have already seen that the luminosity of a star is related to its mass so it follows that the oscillation period of intrinsic variables will also depend on mass. Intrinsic Variables

10 The Intrinsic Variable Method We measure the period of the variable star and look up the star s absolute magnitude M v using these graphs. We must also measure the brightness m v, then (W Virginis) d = 10 (m v M v + 5)/5 pc. This method allows us to measure distances to stars throughout the Milky Way.

11 We have now expanded our cosmic distance ladder one more step. Measuring the Milky Way

12 Measuring the Milky Way Many RR Lyrae stars are found in globular clusters. These clusters are not all in the plane of the Galaxy, so they are not obscured by dust and can be seen and measured. These measurements yield a much more accurate picture of the extent of our Galaxy and our place within it.

13 Locating the Center of the Milky Way The distribution of globular clusters is not centered on the Sun, but on a location which is heavily obscured from direct (visual) observation. The center of the distribution is the center of the galaxy.

14 The Structure of the Milky Way 75,000 light years Disk Nuclear Bulge Sun Halo Open Clusters, O/B Associations Globular Clusters

15 Galactic Structure The galactic halo and globular clusters formed very early The halo is essentially spherical. All the stars in the halo are very old and there is no gas or dust. The galactic disk is where we find: The youngest stars Star formation regions Emission nebulae Large clouds of gas and dust. Surrounding the galactic center is the galactic bulge which contains a mix of : Old stars in globular clusters Young stars

16 Infrared View of the Milky Way Near-infrared image Nuclear bulge Galactic plane Interstellar dust (absorbing optical light) emits mostly infrared radiation. Infrared emission is not strongly absorbed and provides a clearer view throughout the Milky Way Far-infrared image

17 Orbital Motions in the Milky Way Disk stars: Nearly circular orbits in the disk of the galaxy Halo stars: Highly elliptical orbits; randomly oriented

18 Orbital Motions in the Milky Way Differential Rotation The Sun orbits around the galactic center at 220 km/s 1 orbit takes ~240 million years. Stars closer to the galactic center orbit faster. Stars farther out orbit more slowly (Kepler s 3 rd Law).

19 The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy The orbital speed of an object depends only on the amount of mass between it and the Galactic center.

20 The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy If all mass was concentrated in the center, the rotation curve would follow a modified version of Kepler s 3rd law. Rotation Curve = orbital velocity as function of radius The flattening of the rotation curve implies much mass near the galaxy s edge.

21 The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy Total mass of visible stars in the disk of the Milky Way: ~ 200 billion solar masses There is additional mass in an extended halo Total: ~1 trillion solar masses The excess ~800 billion solar masses is not emitting any radiation: dark matter!

22 The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy What could this dark matter be? It is dark at all wavelengths, not just the visible. Stellar-mass black holes? Probably not possible to create enough Brown dwarfs, faint white dwarfs, and red dwarfs? Currently the best star-like option Unknown subatomic particles? No evidence so far, but they are looking for them using the Large Hadron Collider

23 The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy A Hubble search for red dwarfs turned up very few; any that existed should have been detected.

24 The Mass of the Milky Way Galaxy The bending of space-time can allow a large mass to act as a gravitational lens: Observation of such events suggests that lowmass white dwarfs could account for about half of the mass needed. The rest is still a mystery.

25 Stellar Populations Population I: Young stars: metal rich; located in spiral arms and disk Population II: Old stars: metal poor; located in the halo (globular clusters) and nuclear bulge

26 Metal Abundances in the Universe All elements heavier than He are very rare. Logarithmic Scale Linear Scale

27 Metals in Stars Absorption lines almost exclusively from Hydrogen: Population II Many absorption lines also from heavier elements (metals): Population I At the time of formation, the gases forming the Milky Way consisted exclusively of hydrogen and helium. Heavier elements ( metals ) were produced only later in stars. Young stars contain more metals than older stars.

28 The History of the Milky Way Galaxy The traditional theory: Quasi-spherical gas cloud fragments into smaller pieces, forming the first, metal-poor stars (pop. II); Rotating cloud collapses into a disk-like structure Recently formed stars (pop. I) are restricted to the disk of the galaxy

29 Modifications of the Traditional Theory Ages of stellar populations may pose a problem for the traditional theory of the history of the Milky Way. Possible solution: a later accumulation of gas, possibly from mergers with smaller galaxies. Recently discovered ring of stars around the Milky Way may be the remnant of such a merger.

30 Exploring the Structure of the Milky Way with O/B Associations O/B Associations Sun O/B Associations trace out 3 spiral arms near the Sun. Distances to O/B Associations are determined using classical Cepheid variables

31 Radio Observations 21-cm radio observations reveal the distribution of neutral hydrogen throughout the galaxy. Sun Galactic center Distances to hydrogen clouds are determined using radial-velocity measurements (Doppler effect!) It is found that neutral hydrogen is concentrated in spirallike arms

32 The Structure of the Milky Way Revealed Distribution of stars and neutral hydrogen Distribution of dust Sun Bar Ring

33 Galactic Spiral Arms The spiral arms cannot rotate along with the Galaxy; they would wind up.

34 Galactic Spiral Arms Rather, they appear to be density waves, with star densities moving outward. Stars form in the regions of high density.

35 Density Waves The persistence of the spiral arms as density waves, rather than as structures made up of particular stars, may be understood using a traffic jam as an analogy. The jam persists even though particular cars move in and out of it, and it can persist long after the event that triggered it is over.

36 Star Formation in Spiral Arms Shock waves from supernovae, ionization fronts initiated by O and B stars, and the shock fronts forming spiral arms trigger star formation. Spiral arms are stationary shock waves, initiating star formation.

37 Star Formation in Spiral Arms Spiral arms are basically stationary shock waves. Stars and gas clouds orbit around the galactic center and cross spiral arms. Shocks initiate star formation. Star formation is selfsustaining by means of O/B ionization fronts and supernova shock waves.

38 The Nature of Spiral Arms Chance coincidence of small spiral galaxy in front of a large background galaxy Spiral arms appear bright (newly formed, massive stars!) against the dark sky background with dark (gas and dust in dense, starforming clouds) against the bright background of the large galaxy

39 Self-Sustained Star Formation in Spiral Arms Star forming regions get elongated due to differential rotation. Star formation is self-sustaining due to ionization fronts and supernova shocks.

40 The Galactic Center Our view (in visible light) towards the Galactic center (GC) is heavily obscured by gas and dust: Extinction by 30 magnitudes! Only 1 out of optical photons makes its way from the GC towards Earth! Galactic Center Wide-angle optical view of the GC region

41 The Galactic Center The galactic center appears to have: A stellar density a million times higher than near Earth. A ring of molecular gas 400 pc across Strong magnetic fields A rotating ring or disk of matter a few parsecs across, an accretion disk A strong X-ray source at the center from high velocity collisions in the accretion disk

42 Radio View of the Galactic Center Many supernova remnants; shells and filaments Arc Sgr A Sgr A Sgr A*: The center of our galaxy The galactic center contains a supermassive black hole of approx. 2.6 million solar masses.

43 Measuring the Mass of the Black Hole in the Center of the Milky Way By following the orbits of individual stars near the center of the Milky Way, the mass of the central black hole is calculated to be million solar masses.

44 X-Ray View of the Galactic Center Galactic center region contains many black-hole and neutron-star X-ray binaries. Chandra X ray image of Sgr A* The supermassive black hole in the galactic center is unusually faint in X rays, compared to those in other galaxies.

12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters

12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters Chapter 12 Quiz, Nov. 28, 2012, Astro 162, Section 4 12-1. Where in our Galaxy has a supermassive (or galactic) black hole been observed? a) at the outer edge of the nuclear bulge b) in the nucleus X c)

More information

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees.

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. A panoramic painting of the Milky Way as seen from Earth, done by Knut Lundmark in the 1940 s. The

More information

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

More information

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

More information

Modeling Galaxy Formation

Modeling Galaxy Formation Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages

More information

A Universe of Galaxies

A Universe of Galaxies A Universe of Galaxies Today s Lecture: Other Galaxies (Chapter 16, pages 366-397) Types of Galaxies Habitats of Galaxies Dark Matter Other Galaxies Originally called spiral nebulae because of their shape.

More information

Chapter 19 Star Formation

Chapter 19 Star Formation Chapter 19 Star Formation 19.1 Star-Forming Regions Units of Chapter 19 Competition in Star Formation 19.2 The Formation of Stars Like the Sun 19.3 Stars of Other Masses 19.4 Observations of Cloud Fragments

More information

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC The Hidden Lives of Galaxies Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC What is a Galaxy? Solar System Distance from Earth to Sun = 93,000,000 miles = 8 light-minutes Size of Solar System = 5.5 light-hours What is

More information

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation Faber-Jackson relation: Faber-Jackson Relation In 1976, Faber & Jackson found that: Roughly, L! " 4 More luminous galaxies have deeper potentials Can show that this follows from the Virial Theorem Why

More information

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D. 1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space

More information

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles,

More information

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date:

Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: Astro 130, Fall 2011, Homework, Chapter 17, Due Sep 29, 2011 Name: Date: 1. If stellar parallax can be measured to a precision of about 0.01 arcsec using telescopes on Earth to observe stars, to what distance

More information

Milky Way & Hubble Law

Milky Way & Hubble Law Milky Way & Hubble Law Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Happy Thanksgiving! Announcements 3rd midterm 12/3 I will drop the lowest midterm grade

More information

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision Roeland van der Marel (STScI) [based on work with a team of collaborators reported in the Astrophysical Journal July 2012] Hubble Science Briefing

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

1 A Solar System Is Born

1 A Solar System Is Born CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

More information

Cosmic Journey: Teacher Packet

Cosmic Journey: Teacher Packet Cosmic Journey: Teacher Packet Compiled by: Morehead State University Star Theatre with help from Bethany DeMoss Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Corresponding Standards 2 Vocabulary 4 Sizing up the

More information

The Messier Objects As A Tool in Teaching Astronomy

The Messier Objects As A Tool in Teaching Astronomy The Messier Objects As A Tool in Teaching Astronomy Dr. Jesus Rodrigo F. Torres President, Rizal Technological University Individual Member, International Astronomical Union Chairman, Department of Astronomy,

More information

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems

The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems The Origin of the Solar System and Other Planetary Systems Modeling Planet Formation Boundary Conditions Nebular Hypothesis Fixing Problems Role of Catastrophes Planets of Other Stars Modeling Planet Formation

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

Astronomy 100 Exam 2

Astronomy 100 Exam 2 1 Prof. Mo Exam Version A Astronomy 100 Exam 2 INSTRUCTIONS: Write your name and ID number on BOTH this sheet and the computer grading form. Use a #2 Pencil on the computer grading form. Be careful to

More information

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,

More information

Nuclear fusion in stars. Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars

Nuclear fusion in stars. Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars Nuclear fusion in stars Collapse of primordial density fluctuations into galaxies and stars, nucleosynthesis in stars The origin of structure in the Universe Until the time of formation of protogalaxies,

More information

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Hassen M. Yesuf (hyesuf@ucsc.edu) September 29, 2011 1 Lecture summary Protein molecules, the building blocks of a living organism, are made

More information

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to :

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to : 1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,

More information

1) The final phase of a star s evolution is determined by the star s a. Age b. Gravitational pull c. Density d. Mass

1) The final phase of a star s evolution is determined by the star s a. Age b. Gravitational pull c. Density d. Mass Science Olympiad Astronomy Multiple Choice: Choose the best answer for each question. Each question is worth one point. In the event of a tie, there will be a tie-breaking word problem. 1) The final phase

More information

Observing the Universe

Observing the Universe Observing the Universe Stars & Galaxies Telescopes Any questions for next Monday? Light Doppler effect Doppler shift Doppler shift Spectra Doppler effect Spectra Stars Star and planet formation Sun Low-mass

More information

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

More information

Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes

Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes European Southern Observatory reaching new heights in astronomy Exploring the Universe from the Atacama Desert, in Chile since 1964 ESO is the most productive astronomical

More information

Ellipticals. Elliptical galaxies: Elliptical galaxies: Some ellipticals are not so simple M89 E0

Ellipticals. Elliptical galaxies: Elliptical galaxies: Some ellipticals are not so simple M89 E0 Elliptical galaxies: Ellipticals Old view (ellipticals are boring, simple systems)! Ellipticals contain no gas & dust! Ellipticals are composed of old stars! Ellipticals formed in a monolithic collapse,

More information

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects

8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1 Radio Emission from Solar System objects 8.1.1 Moon and Terrestrial planets At visible wavelengths all the emission seen from these objects is due to light reflected from the sun. However at radio

More information

Introduction to the Solar System

Introduction to the Solar System Introduction to the Solar System Lesson Objectives Describe some early ideas about our solar system. Name the planets, and describe their motion around the Sun. Explain how the solar system formed. Introduction

More information

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster In In this Activity, we will investigate: 1. How to use photometric data for an open cluster to derive an H-R Diagram for the stars and

More information

Giant Molecular Clouds

Giant Molecular Clouds Giant Molecular Clouds http://www.astro.ncu.edu.tw/irlab/projects/project.htm Galactic Open Clusters Galactic Structure GMCs The Solar System and its Place in the Galaxy In Encyclopedia of the Solar System

More information

Populations and Components of the Milky Way

Populations and Components of the Milky Way Chapter 2 Populations and Components of the Milky Way Our perspective from within the Milky Way gives us an opportunity to study a disk galaxy in detail. At the same time, it s not always easy to relate

More information

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System

15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System 15.6 Planets Beyond the Solar System Planets orbiting other stars are called extrasolar planets. Until 1995, whether or not extrasolar planets existed was unknown. Since then more than 300 have been discovered.

More information

Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt

Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt Instructions: Answers are typed in blue. Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt Crab Nebula What is embedded in the center of the nebula? Neutron star Who first

More information

Black Holes & The Theory of Relativity

Black Holes & The Theory of Relativity Black Holes & The Theory of Relativity A.Einstein 1879-1955 Born in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany in 1879, Albert Einstein developed the special and general theories of relativity. In 1921, he won the Nobel

More information

Be Stars. By Carla Morton

Be Stars. By Carla Morton Be Stars By Carla Morton Index 1. Stars 2. Spectral types 3. B Stars 4. Be stars 5. Bibliography How stars are formed Stars are composed of gas Hydrogen is the main component of stars. Stars are formed

More information

Test 2 --- Natural Sciences 102, Professors Rieke --- VERSION B March 3, 2010

Test 2 --- Natural Sciences 102, Professors Rieke --- VERSION B March 3, 2010 Enter your answers on the form provided. Be sure to write your name and student ID number on the first blank at the bottom of the form. Please mark the version (B) in the Key ID space at the top of the

More information

The Expanding Universe

The Expanding Universe Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

More information

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Teacher s. Science Background. GalaxY Q&As

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Teacher s. Science Background. GalaxY Q&As National Aeronautics and Space Administration Science Background Teacher s GalaxY Q&As 1. What is a galaxy? A galaxy is an enormous collection of a few million to several trillion stars, gas, and dust

More information

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1

The Formation of Planetary Systems. Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 The Formation of Planetary Systems Astronomy 1-1 Lecture 20-1 Modeling Planet Formation Any model for solar system and planet formation must explain 1. Planets are relatively isolated in space 2. Planetary

More information

GENERAL RELATIVITY & the UNIVERSE

GENERAL RELATIVITY & the UNIVERSE GENERAL RELATIVITY & the UNIVERSE PCES 3.32 It was realised almost immediately after Einstein published his theory that it possessed solutions for the configuration of spacetime, in the presence of a homogeneous

More information

Activity: Multiwavelength Bingo

Activity: Multiwavelength Bingo ctivity: Multiwavelength background: lmost everything that we know about distant objects in the Universe comes from studying the light that is emitted or reflected by them. The entire range of energies

More information

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science Beginning of the Universe Classwork Name: 6 th Grade PSI Science 1 4 2 5 6 3 7 Down: 1. Edwin discovered that galaxies are spreading apart. 2. This theory explains how the Universe was flattened. 3. All

More information

The Universe. The Solar system, Stars and Galaxies

The Universe. The Solar system, Stars and Galaxies The Universe The Universe is everything. All us, the room, the U.S. the earth, the solar system, all the other stars in the Milky way galaxy, all the other galaxies... everything. How big and how old is

More information

Name Class Date. true

Name Class Date. true Exercises 131 The Falling Apple (page 233) 1 Describe the legend of Newton s discovery that gravity extends throughout the universe According to legend, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree and realized

More information

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System

Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System Summary: Four Major Features of our Solar System How did the solar system form? According to the nebular theory, our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant cloud of interstellar

More information

Other Planetary Systems

Other Planetary Systems Other Planetary Systems Other Planetary Systems Learning goals How do we detect planets around other stars? What have other planetary systems taught us about our own? Extrasolar planet search

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves

STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves TEK 8.8C: Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to

More information

The Size & Shape of the Galaxy

The Size & Shape of the Galaxy name The Size & Shape of the Galaxy The whole lab consists of plotting two graphs. What s the catch? Aha visualizing and understanding what you have plotted of course! Form the Earth Science Picture of

More information

TELESCOPE AS TIME MACHINE

TELESCOPE AS TIME MACHINE TELESCOPE AS TIME MACHINE Read this article about NASA s latest high-tech space telescope. Then, have fun doing one or both of the word puzzles that use the important words in the article. A TELESCOPE

More information

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe

More information

First Discoveries. Asteroids

First Discoveries. Asteroids First Discoveries The Sloan Digital Sky Survey began operating on June 8, 1998. Since that time, SDSS scientists have been hard at work analyzing data and drawing conclusions. This page describes seven

More information

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula

Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System. Nebular Theory. Origin of the Solar System. Origin of the Solar System. The Solar Nebula Origin of the Solar System Lecture 7 Formation of the Solar System Reading: Chapter 9 Quiz#2 Today: Lecture 60 minutes, then quiz 20 minutes. Homework#1 will be returned on Thursday. Our theory must explain

More information

Chapter 15. The Chandrasekhar Limit, Iron-56 and Core Collapse Supernovae

Chapter 15. The Chandrasekhar Limit, Iron-56 and Core Collapse Supernovae Chapter 15. The Chandrasekhar Limit, Iron-56 and Core Collapse Supernovae 1. The Equation of State: Pressure of an Ideal Gas Before discussing results of stellar structure and stellar evolution models

More information

Data Provided: A formula sheet and table of physical constants is attached to this paper. DARK MATTER AND THE UNIVERSE

Data Provided: A formula sheet and table of physical constants is attached to this paper. DARK MATTER AND THE UNIVERSE Data Provided: A formula sheet and table of physical constants is attached to this paper. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Autumn Semester (2014-2015) DARK MATTER AND THE UNIVERSE 2 HOURS Answer question

More information

Galaxies and the Universe

Galaxies and the Universe BIG Idea Observations of galaxy expansion, cosmic background radiation, and the Big Bang theory describe an expanding universe that is 13.7 billion years old. 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy MAIN Idea Stars

More information

13 Space Photos To Remind You The Universe Is Incredible

13 Space Photos To Remind You The Universe Is Incredible 13 Space Photos To Remind You The Universe Is Incredible NASA / Via photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov New ultraviolet images from NASA s Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows a speeding star that is leaving an enormous

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan. 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

More information

Ay 20 - Fall Lecture 17. Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions * * * * * History and Formation of Our Galaxy

Ay 20 - Fall Lecture 17. Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions * * * * * History and Formation of Our Galaxy Ay 20 - Fall 2004 - Lecture 17 Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions * * * * * History and Formation of Our Galaxy Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions Basic statistical descriptors of stellar populations:

More information

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin

Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin Chapter 6: Our Solar System and Its Origin What does our solar system look like? The planets are tiny compared to the distances between them (a million times smaller than shown here), but they exhibit

More information

Carol and Charles see their pencils fall exactly straight down.

Carol and Charles see their pencils fall exactly straight down. Section 24-1 1. Carol is in a railroad car on a train moving west along a straight stretch of track at a constant speed of 120 km/h, and Charles is in a railroad car on a train at rest on a siding along

More information

Newton s laws of motion and gravity

Newton s laws of motion and gravity Newton s laws of motion and gravity 1. Every body continues in a state of rest or uniform motion (constant velocity) in a straight line unless acted on by a force. (A deeper statement of this law is that

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe

Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Name: _Answer key Pretest: _2_/ 58 Posttest: _58_/ 58 Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Vocab/Matching: Match the definition on the left with the term on the right by placing the letter of the term

More information

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Gillian Wilson http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~gillianw/k12 A cosmologist is.... an astronomer who studies the formation and evolution of the

More information

Knox Academy, Haddington. Our Dynamic Universe. 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory

Knox Academy, Haddington. Our Dynamic Universe. 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory Knox Academy, Haddington Our Dynamic Universe 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory 2014 Our Dynamic Universe: The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory Contents Unit Specification... 2 Notes...

More information

Galaxy Formation. Leading questions for today How do visible galaxies form inside halos? Why do galaxies/halos merge so easily?

Galaxy Formation. Leading questions for today How do visible galaxies form inside halos? Why do galaxies/halos merge so easily? 8-5-2015see http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/ franx/college/ mf-sts-2015-c9-1 8-5-2015see http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/ franx/college/ mf-sts-2015-c9-2 Galaxy Formation Leading questions for today How do

More information

The Solar Journey: Modeling Features of the Local Bubble and Galactic Environment of the Sun

The Solar Journey: Modeling Features of the Local Bubble and Galactic Environment of the Sun The Solar Journey: Modeling Features of the Local Bubble and Galactic Environment of the Sun P.C. Frisch and A.J. Hanson Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of Chicago and Computer Science

More information

Lesson Plan G2 The Stars

Lesson Plan G2 The Stars Lesson Plan G2 The Stars Introduction We see the stars as tiny points of light in the sky. They may all look the same but they are not. They range in size, color, temperature, power, and life spans. In

More information

Ay 20 - Lecture 9 Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution. This file has many figures missing, in order to keep it a reasonable size.

Ay 20 - Lecture 9 Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution. This file has many figures missing, in order to keep it a reasonable size. Ay 20 - Lecture 9 Post-Main Sequence Stellar Evolution This file has many figures missing, in order to keep it a reasonable size. Main Sequence and the Range of Stellar Masses MS is defined as the locus

More information

Inside the Zodiac A 10-minute planetarium mini-show by Alan Gould 1, Toshi Komatsu 1, Jeff Nee 1, and Dr. Steve Howell 2

Inside the Zodiac A 10-minute planetarium mini-show by Alan Gould 1, Toshi Komatsu 1, Jeff Nee 1, and Dr. Steve Howell 2 Inside the Zodiac A 10-minute planetarium mini-show by Alan Gould 1, Toshi Komatsu 1, Jeff Nee 1, and Dr. Steve Howell 2 About this show In one Word... In one Sentence... In one Paragraph... Storyboard

More information

Neutron Stars. How were neutron stars discovered? The first neutron star was discovered by 24-year-old graduate student Jocelyn Bell in 1967.

Neutron Stars. How were neutron stars discovered? The first neutron star was discovered by 24-year-old graduate student Jocelyn Bell in 1967. Neutron Stars How were neutron stars discovered? The first neutron star was discovered by 24-year-old graduate student Jocelyn Bell in 1967. Using a radio telescope she noticed regular pulses of radio

More information

Determining the Sizes & Distances of Stars Using the H-R Diagram

Determining the Sizes & Distances of Stars Using the H-R Diagram Determining the Sizes & Distances of Stars Using the H-R Diagram Activity UCIObs 11 College Level Source: Copyright (2009) by Tammy Smecker-Hane & Michael Hood. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu with questions.

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation (including visible light)

Electromagnetic Radiation (including visible light) An expert is a man who has made all the mistakes, which can be made in a narrow field. Neils Bohr Electromagnetic Radiation (including visible light) Behaves like a particle. light particles are called

More information

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond

Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond Chapter 6 Formation of Planetary Systems Our Solar System and Beyond The solar system exhibits clear patterns of composition and motion. Sun Over 99.9% of solar system s mass Made mostly of H/He gas (plasma)

More information

Science@ESA vodcast series. Script for Episode 6 Charting the Galaxy - from Hipparcos to Gaia

Science@ESA vodcast series. Script for Episode 6 Charting the Galaxy - from Hipparcos to Gaia Science@ESA vodcast series Script for Episode 6 Charting the Galaxy - from Hipparcos to Gaia Available to download from http://sci.esa.int/gaia/vodcast Hello, I m Rebecca Barnes and welcome to the Science@ESA

More information

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science

An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology. 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science An Introduction to Astronomy and Cosmology 1) Astronomy - an Observational Science Why study Astronomy 1 A fascinating subject in its own right. The origin and Evolution of the universe The Big Bang formation

More information

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014

Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 1 Lecture 10 Formation of the Solar System January 6c, 2014 2 Orbits of the Planets 3 Clues for the Formation of the SS All planets orbit in roughly the same plane about the Sun. All planets orbit in the

More information

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals

More information

Modeling the Expanding Universe

Modeling the Expanding Universe H9 Modeling the Expanding Universe Activity H9 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: This activity is produced by the Universe Forum at NASA s Office of Space Science, along with their Structure and Evolution of the

More information

Solar System Formation

Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Solar System Formation Question: How did our solar system and other planetary systems form? Comparative planetology has helped us understand Compare the differences and similarities

More information

The Interstellar Medium Astronomy 216 Spring 2005

The Interstellar Medium Astronomy 216 Spring 2005 The Interstellar Medium Astronomy 216 Spring 2005 Al Glassgold & James Graham University of California, Berkeley The Interstellar Medium/Media (ISM) What is the ISM? Just what it says: The stuff between

More information

Evolution of Close Binary Systems

Evolution of Close Binary Systems Evolution of Close Binary Systems Before going on to the evolution of massive stars and supernovae II, we ll think about the evolution of close binary systems. There are many multiple star systems in the

More information

Adaptive Optics (AO) TMT Partner Institutions Collaborating Institution Acknowledgements

Adaptive Optics (AO) TMT Partner Institutions Collaborating Institution Acknowledgements THIRTY METER TELESCOPE The past century of astronomy research has yielded remarkable insights into the nature and origin of the Universe. This scientific advancement has been fueled by progressively larger

More information

Probes of Star Formation in the Early Universe

Probes of Star Formation in the Early Universe Gamma Ray Bursts Probes of Star Formation in the Early Universe Edward P.J.van den Heuvel Universiteit van Amsterdam &KITP-UCSB KITP, March 17, 2007 Age of the Universe: 13.7 billion years Age of our Milky

More information

Lecture 6: distribution of stars in. elliptical galaxies

Lecture 6: distribution of stars in. elliptical galaxies Lecture 6: distribution of stars in topics: elliptical galaxies examples of elliptical galaxies different classes of ellipticals equation for distribution of light actual distributions and more complex

More information

Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion

Lecture 7: Light Waves. Newton s Laws of Motion (1666) Newton s First Law of Motion Lecture 7: Light Waves Isaac Newton (1643-1727) was born in the year Galileo died He discovered the Law of Gravitation in 1665 He developed the Laws of Mechanics that govern all motions In order to solve

More information

The Expanding Universe. Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh

The Expanding Universe. Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh The Expanding Universe Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh Cosmology: The Study of Structure & Evolution of the Universe Small & Hot Big & Cold Observational Evidence for the Expansion of the Universe

More information

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey?

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? Simply put, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is the most ambitious astronomical survey ever undertaken. The survey will map one-quarter of the entire sky in detail, determining

More information

Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end?

Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end? Cosmology: Will the universe end? 1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe? a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Newton d. Hubble e. Galileo Ans: d 2. The big bang theory and

More information

So What All Is Out There, Anyway?

So What All Is Out There, Anyway? So What All Is Out There, Anyway? Imagine that, like Alice in Wonderland, you have taken a magic potion that makes you grow bigger and bigger. You get so big that soon you are a giant. You can barely make

More information

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Syllabus 4 tests: June 18, June 30, July 10, July 21 Comprehensive Final - check schedule Website link on blackboard 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Our goals for

More information