The New Congress and Leadership

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1 The New Congress and Leadership February 5, 2015

2 Congress» On Sunday, February 1 st, Congress held elections for the new Presidents (Speakers) of the House and Senate. The election took place on the same day that the new representatives and senators elected in October 2014 were inaugurated.» In the Senate, Renan Calheiros (PMDB-AL) was reelected. But, surprisingly, an independent opponent, with a campaign that lasted only a couple of days, received 40% of the vote, which demonstrates that Calheiros (even with the government s support) may not be in a very strong position.» In the House, Eduardo Cunha (PMDB-RJ), a personal adversary of President Rousseff, won the election against Arlindo Chinaglia (PT-SP), who despite having the full support of the Rousseff government, received only 136 out of 513 votes.» The Senate Speaker is also the President of the Brazilian Congress and the second in line of succession to the Presidency of Brazil.» The Speaker of the House has considerable power to set the congressional agenda, including control over impeachment procedures.» There was an increase in the number of political parties in both Houses of Congress, but the top five parties represent 50.1% of the House and the top five represent 67.9%in the Senate.» The results point to the problems President Rousseff faces with Congress over the next two years. Her party, the PT, for the first time since it came to power in 2003, will not chair any of the major committees or have any representative on the Executive Board of the House. This means that the PT will not have a say in the administrative decisions of the House. Although Rousseff s coalition still formally holds the majority in both Houses of Congress, Sunday s results show how thin it appears to be. If the economy does not perform well, as expected, Rousseff s position with Congress will likely be even more precarious. Senate House

3 Congressional Election Outcomes Senate» The Senate held national elections for 1/3 of its 81 members; 27 places were filled, with 22 new members and five reelected. Three senators became ministers and their elected alternates assumed their seats. The turnover rate corresponds to 29.6%.» Number of political parties represented increased from 16 to 18.» Women representation increased from 11 to 13.» PMDB, PT and PSDB are the three largest parties, in order.» At the end of 2014, there were 3,799 bills in the Senate, 1,606 of them will be archived. House» The entire House was up for reelection with 240 (46.8%) new members. Some elected representatives, however, have taken positions in federal and state governments and will be replaced by their elected alternates. Therefore, the turnover rate is actually 47.4%, with 243 new representatives and 270 reelected.» Number of political parties represented increased from 22 to 28.» Women representation increased from 47 to 51.» PMDB, PT and PSDB remain respectively the three largest parties; however, only the PSDB added seats.» At the end of 2014, there were 19,077 bills in the House, 11,272 of them will be archived.

4 Profile of an average House and Senate Representatives Entrepeneur 33%

5 President of the Senate Renan Calheiros Senate» Born: 09/16/ years» Base State: Alagoas» Political party affiliation: Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro PMDB» Most recent public offices: Minister of Justice (1998); Senator ( / / ); President of the Senate ( / )» He was reelected president with 49 votes compared to 31 for his opponent who is from the same party, Sen. Luiz Henrique (PMDB / SC);» This will be Calheiro s fourth term as President of the Senate. The first was in February He returned in 2007, but resigned amid allegations that he used lobbyist money to pay alimony for a daughter born out of wedlock. He was reelected to the senate and was again chosen its president in 2013;» In the last two years he had confrontations with the Supreme Court (STF), which he accused of interfering in the work of the Legislative Branch, and helped the Executive to ensure the approval of major projects, such as the Ports Law and the amendment of the 2014 surplus target;» The Calheiros are a longstanding political family in Alagoas state politics: Renan is father of the elected governor of the State, Renan Filho, and Remi Calheiros, his brother, is the current mayor of Murici. His other brother, Olavo Calheiros, is a state representative. Their father was former mayor and councilman of Murici (AL) Olavo Calheiros Novais (PMDB, who died in 1996). Government Leader» Senate s Government leader is still undefined; it will likely be a PMDB senator, linked to Renan Calheiros, a supporter of the Administration. Until now, the most favoured to occupy the spot is Senator Valdir Raupp from PMDB Rondônia.

6 Opposition Leader Alvaro Dias» Born: 12/07/ years» Base State: São Paulo» Political party affiliation: PSDB» Most recent public offices: Four terms as Senator ( ; ; ) and two as Federal Representative ( ; );» One of the main opponents of President Rousseff s Administration. Dias was reelected to his fourth term as senator with 77% of the votes;» During Dias campaign he stated that he will work for the approval of his bill (45/14), which would prohibit the use of animals in research for the development of health and personal care (HPPC) products. PT Leader» PT has not defined its leadership in the Senate and there are no signs of a favorite name so far. Their leadership will likely be defined during week of February, PMDB Leader Eunício Oliveira» Born: 09/30/ years» Base State: Ceará» Political party affiliation: PMDB represents 22.2% of the Senate» Most recent public offices: Federal Representative since 1999» Eunício Oliveira is in his first term as senator (2011/2019). He was Minister of State for Communications (2004/2005);» Oliveira, who was reappointed unanimously by his party to be leader in the Senate, was an ally to former President Lula s government and was in part responsible for President Rousseff s reelection in the State of Ceará.

7 PSDB Leader Cássio Cunha Lima» Born: 04/05/ years» Base State: Paraíba» Political party affiliation: PSDB represents 13.6% of the Senate» Most recent public offices: Campina Grande s Mayor (1996; 2000); Paraíba s Governor (2003; 2007);» In 2007, his term as governor was revoked for government malfeasance, and in 2009 he lost his position after several legal proceedings. He was prevented from taking office as Senator based on the Clean Record Law (Lei da Ficha Limpa), but he took office after the Supreme Court s ruled that the law can not be applied retroactively. PSB Leader João Capiberibe» Born: 05/06/ years» Base State: Amapá» Political party affiliation: PSB represents 7.4% of the Senate» Most recent public offices: Amapa s governour between 1995 and 2002; senator , 2011;» He was arrested during the military dictatorship and was exiled in Bolivia for 10 years;» Main political flags: human rights and public security;» He opposes Sarney s family in Amapá, a traditional political family in Brazil. PDT Leader Acir Gurgacz» Born: 02/25/ years» Base State: Rondonia» Political party affiliation: PDT represents 7.4% of the Senate» Most recent public offices: mayor of Ji-Paraná(RO) between 2001 and 2004; senator since 2007;» He is an entrepreneur with a family group with companies of transportation, mining, communications, education and livestock;» Is defendant in lawsuits of misconduct in public offices and irregularities in public biddings;» Main political flags: transportation, infrastructure, agribusiness, agriculture and Amazon s defense.

8 House of Representatives President of the House Eduardo Cunha» Born: 09/29/ years» Base State: Rio de Janeiro» Political party affiliation: PMDB» Most recent public offices: State Representative ( ) and Federal Representative since 2003» The President campaigned against him in his run for President of the House;» Wants to vote on the institution of the imposing budget, review of the federative pact and political reform;» Is against media regulation. Government Leader José Guimarães» Born: 02/13/ years» Base State: Ceará» Political party affiliation: PT» Most recent public offices: Federal Representative since 2011;» Voted with the Administration 95% of the time during President Rousseff s first term;» Guimarães (PT-CE) has stressed that one of his first acts will be to rebuild a dialogue with the President of the House. Opposition Leader Bruno Araújo» Born: 03/15/ years» Base State: Pernambuco» Political party affiliation: PSDB» Most recent public offices: Federal Representative since 2007;» Main political interests: communications, science and technology;» There is not a consensus on his leadership in the PSDB.

9 PT Leader Sibá Machado PMDB Leader» Born: 01/24/ years» Base State: Acre» Political party affiliation: PT represents 12.7% of the House» Most recent public offices: Senator ( ); Federal Representative since 2011» Works mainly in science, technology and environment;» Machado was appointed Secretary for Rural and Production Warranty Extension. In 2001 he was elected president of the state of the PT directory and in 2002 was elected first alternate to Senator Marina Silva;» Machado was elected President of the Board of Ethics of the Senate in June 2007 resigned a few days later due to internal disputes over which procedure to adopt on the analysis of the Renan Calheiros case, who was accused of breach of parliamentary decorum.» The PMDB will likely define its leadership on the House next Wednesday, February, 11 th. There are seven candidates for the spot: Manoel Júnior (PB), José Priante (PA), Marcelo Castro (PI), Alceu Moreira (RS), Danilo Forte (CE), Lúcio Vieira Lima (BA) and Leonardo Picciani (RJ). PSDB Leader Carlos Sampaio» Born: 03/31/ years» Base State: São Paulo» Political party affiliation: PSDB represents 10.3% of the House» Most recent public offices: São Paulo State Prosecutor; Representative since 2003;» Sampaio was legal coordinator of Aecio Neves presidential campaign in 2014, and was responsible for requesting an election audit of the Superior Electoral Court;» In the House, Sampaio was PSDB s leader for the first time in 2013, and chaired the Petrobras Inquiry Comission, which investigated the corruption charges related to misappropriation of state resources, and the Cachoeira Inquiry Comission, which investigated the relation of Carlinhos Cachoeira and corruption involving politicians and civil servants.

10 PSD Leader Rogério Rosso» Born: 08/30/ years» Base State: Distrito Federal» Political party affiliation: PSD represents 6.6% of the House» Most recent public offices: Secretary of Economic Development of Distrito Federal; president of the Planning Company of Distrito Federal; Indirect elected Governor of Distrito Federal, in 2010;» Rosso was indirected elect Governor of Distrito Federal, in 2010, after the corruption scandal of former governor José Roberto Arruda;» Rosso is PSD s president in the Federal District and is seen as a man of trust of Federal District current governor, Rodrigo Rollemberg. PP Leader Eduardo da Fonte» Born: 10/07/ years» Base State: Pernambuco» Political party affiliation: PP represents 7.8% of the House» Most recent public offices: Representative since 2007;» Fonte is Pernambuco s most voted represented and its local party president;;» His main political issue is consumer rights;» He was private secretary to Representative Severino Cavalcanti (PP-PE), former House President who resigned in 2005 to avoid being impeached on corruption charges.

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