Introduction in Water Treatment

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1 Introduction in Water Treatment Factors for selection of a treatment process 1. Characteristics of the wastewater - Form of pollutants suspension colloidal dissolved - Biodegradability - Toxicity of the components

2 2. Required effluent quality 3. Cost 4. Availability of treatment devices and area (land) 5. Consideration for future use

3 Water treatment process Effluent Pre- and Primary treatment Secondary Treatment runoff Tertiary treatment

4 Types of Water Treatment Mechanical Treatment Physical Treatment Chemical Treatment Biological Treatment Pretreatment & Primary treatment Secondary & Tertiary treatment

5 PRE- AND PRIMARY TREATMENT to prepare the wastewater for biological treatment Purpose Remove large solids, grit Remove oils, grease and suspended solids Adjust the ph Treatment Screening Flotation, Sedimentation Coagulation filtration Neutralization

6 SECONDARY TREATMENT - Biological degradation of organic compounds (aerobic / anaerobic) - Microorganisms and solids will be allowed to settle - Recycle of a fraction of sludge ** toxic residues have to be removed prior to biological treatment **

7 TERTIARY TREATMENT to remove specific types of residuals - Filtration : removal of suspended or colloidal solids - Adsorption, chemical oxidation : removal of organics - Ozonation, chlorination : disinfection ** all these processes have their place in overall Wastewater treatment scheme **

8 Pretreatment & Primary treatment technologies Oil separation Flotation Equalization Neutralization Coagulation and precipitation Sedimentation Spill basin Filtration Source control

9 EQUALIZATION To minimize or control fluctuations in wastewater characteristics in order to provide optimum conditions for subsequent treatment process Purposes of equalization for industrial treatment facilities : 1. To provide adequate dampening of organic fluctuations. To prevent shock loading of biological systems

10 Purposes of equalization for industrial treatment facilities : 2. To provide adequate ph control or to minimize the chemical requirements necessary for neutralization. 3. To minimize flow surges to physical-chemical treatment systems and permit chemical feed rates compatible with feeding equipment. 4. To provide continuous feed to biological systems over period when the manufacturing plant is not operating.

11 5. To provide capacity for controlled discharge of wastes to municipal systems. To distribute waste loads more evenly. 6. To prevent high concentrations of toxic materials from entering the biological treatment process.

12 Example Controlled discharge of an industrial wastewater to a municipal plants. Cumulative flow Cumulative volume (million gal) Maximum storage required Cumulative discharge Municipal rate of flow (gal/h) Industrial Municipal Industrial rate of flow (gal/h) Hours of the day Hours of the day

13 Equalization basin Example: Submerged mixers most common method Equalization basin may be designed with - a variable volume to provide a constant effluent flow or - constant volume and effluent flow that varies with influent

14 Flow Equalization - The cumulative flow is plotted versus time over the equalization period. - The maximum volume with respect to the constant Discharge line is the equalization volume required.

15 b b a empty basin b full basin a a

16 Application of flow equalization in the process in-line equalization off-line equalization

17 Application of flow equalization in the process In-line equalization: all the flow passes through the equalization basin. Off-line equalization: only the flow above some predetermined flow limit is diverted into the equalization Basin.

18 References 1. George Tchobanoglous, Franklin L. Burton, H. David Stensel, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. 4 th ed., Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., W. Wesley Eckenfelder, Jr. Industrial water pollution control. 3 rd ed., McGraw-Hill, 2000.

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