CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource

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1 CPI Links Content Guide & Five Items Resource Introduction The following information should be used as a companion to the CPI Links. It provides clarifications concerning the content and skills contained in the CPI Links. Remember that instruction should be much richer than assessment and that the examples contained herein do not represent the variety of instructional strategies and supports necessary for meaningful teaching and learning of academic content. The information and examples are intended to clarify the intentions of the CPI Links so that assessment activities can be developed or chosen appropriately for students who participate in the NJ APA, and are aligned to both the CPI links and the state standards. For each standard, you will find that this resource includes The Test Specifications followed by the corresponding CPIs and Links A Glossary of terms contained in the CPI Links Further Clarifications concerning specific content, skills, language, and/or activity development considerations Five Items examples that show what constitutes five items for certain links where that may not be clear as well as the semantic intent of the link language. How to Use This Resource 1) Review the Steps to Developing an Entry in Modules IV and V of the Fall Training. 2) Remember to make your decisions regarding which CPI Link you will use to assess your students based on the individual needs of your students. Just because a particular link may be best for one student does not mean it is best for another, especially given the diverse needs of the students who participate in the NJ APA. 3) Once you have selected a CPI Link, use the Glossary to look up the definitions of any/all content vocabulary terms contained in the language of the link. This will ensure your understanding of those terms is consistent with the understanding set forth by the NJ DOE for the NJ APA. 4) Check the Further Clarifications section to see if there is additional information about the CPI and/or CPI Link you have chosen that will be helpful as you choose or design the activities you will use as the assessment evidence in your students APA portfolios. 5) If the CPI Link has an asterisk at the end of the link statement, you will find an example of that link in the Five Items section to use as a guide/reference/model NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 1

2 High School APA Test Specifications - Biology The following are the required Strands for Standard 5.5: Characteristics of Life. The first CPI is from Strand A: Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems. The other CPI is from Strand B: Diversity and Biological Evolution. You must select a CPI Link from one of the CPIs in Strand A and a CPI Link from one of the CPIs in Strand B to develop entries for the APA portfolio. STRAND A: Matter, Energy and Organization in Living Systems (Portfolio Entry 1) You MUST CHOOSE the following CPI: CPI A2 Explain how plants convert light energy to chemical energy Essence of the CPI: Understand the process of photosynthesis Matched Link Near Link Far Link Demonstrate and explain the roles different parts of a plant cell have in converting light energy into chemical energy A1 Explain the transfer of light energy to chemical energy* Describe how the products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are recycled* Differentiate the role cell parts have in respiration and photosynthesis Identify the structure and function of plant cells* Identify the components of photosynthesis* STRAND B: Diversity and Biological Evolution (Portfolio Entry 2) You MUST CHOOSE the following CPI: CPI B1 Explain that through evolution that Earth s present species developed from earlier distinctly different species Essence of the CPI: Understand and explain the process of evolution Matched Link Near Link Far Link Compare and contrast individuals in a speciation event and explain the changes* Identify reasons for species extinction and provide examples* Compare and contrast modern animals traits to their ancestors using the fossil record Discuss how a change in habitat can affect the survival of a species Identify characteristics of speciation and provide examples* Explain how different species use their unique adaptations to survive* Recognize the connection between modern animals and their earlier ancestors* Demonstrate examples of evolution as the inheritance of favorable traits of a population over time Given an extinct species, identify the reason for its extinction* Please note: Always consult the Glossary and Further Clarifications sections of this resource when working with any of these Links. Additionally, an asterisk at the end of a Link statement denotes there is an example for that specific Link in the Five Items section of this resource NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 2

3 Glossary 5.5 Glossary 5.5 Adaptation - the evolutionary process by which a species develops certain traits over time that help the species survive in a changing environment (e.g., camels have developed broad feet, which help them walk on the soft sands of the deserts where they live) Cellular respiration- the process through which cells extract energy from food molecules; once the energy that was in sunlight is changed into chemical energy by photosynthesis, an organism has to transform the chemical energy into a form that can be used by the organism. Compare- examine (two or more objects, ideas, people, etc.) in order to note similarities Contrast- examine two or more objects or ideas in order to show differences or to note the opposite in nature or purpose Extinct species- a species that is no longer in existence; has died out completely Fossil record- a collection of fossils worldwide that have been deposited throughout Earth s history and are located most often in layers, or strata, of sediments Habitat- the natural conditions and physical environment in which an organism lives Individual- a single organism (e.g., single doe within a population of deer in the forest) Natural selection- the process by which members of a species that possess the best suited traits for success in their habitat survive and pass those traits to their offspring while individuals that do not have these traits tend to die off; natural selection is the mechanism, proposed by Charles Darwin, which drives evolution. Organelles- structures within a cell having specific roles or functions that contributes to the stability and survival of the cell Organism- an individual living thing such as a mouse, a hawk, a pea plant, a mushroom, or a person Population - group of the same species in an ecosystem; Examples include a population of squirrels in a forest or a population of people on an island NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 3

4 Glossary 5.5 Photosynthesis- the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the chemical bonds of glucose; Photosynthesis takes place primarily in a plant s leaves. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Reactions Photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon dioxide + water + sunlight glucose + oxygen gas Cellular Respiration 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 ATP + Carbon dioxide + water glucose + oxygen gas Energy for life Plant cell organelles and molecules involved in photosynthesis include: ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)- high energy molecule available for immediate use by cells for metabolic processes. Chlorophyll- molecule made of green pigment that captures radiant energy (sunlight). Chloroplast- an organelle in plant cells that contains chlorophyll; Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 4

5 Glossary 5.5 Other cell organelles and structures and their basic functions include: Cell membrane- surrounds an entire cell and regulates the movement of materials, such as waste, into and out of the cell. Cell wall- provides structural support for a plant cell only and controls the amount of water entering the cell. Cytoplasm- a solution inside a cell containing mostly water and dissolved materials such as oxygen and nutrients Golgi body- stores, packages, and distributes lipids (fats and oils) and proteins made in the endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion - converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP by the process of cellular respiration Nucleolus- manufactures ribosomes Nucleus- the control center of a cell, regulates all cell activities, and contains chromosomes composed of DNA Ribosome- makes proteins for the cell Rough endoplasmic reticulum- transports and exports proteins that are made in its membrane embedded with ribosomes (these ribosomes are what make the endoplasmic reticulum rough ) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum- packages proteins for transport, makes membrane phospholipids, and releases calcium Vacuoles- membrane sacks that store water, nutrients, waste, and other materials NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 5

6 Glossary 5.5 Speciation - the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise; Speciation may be characterized as allopatric, in which members of a species are separated by a geographical barrier such as a desert, sea, or river and canyon (the Grand Canyon); or sympatric, in which a new species arises without physical separation. For example, intense competition for resources within a population might force some members to eat different types of food. Species - a unique group of organisms that are so closely related that they are able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Stomata- openings on the underside of plant leaves through which gases are exchanged; The carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis enters through these openings, and the oxygen produced by photosynthesis exits through these openings NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 6

7 Further Clarifications 5.5 Further Clarifications 5.5 CPI Link Clarification A2 Matched Bullet 1 Demonstrate and explain the roles different parts of a plant cell have in converting light energy into chemical energy A1 Matched Bullet 2 Explain the transfer of light energy to chemical energy* Far Bullet 1 Identify the structure and function of plant cells* Far Bullet 2 Identify the components of photosynthesis* B1 Near Bullet 3 Identify characteristics of speciation and provide examples* Far Bullet 1 Explain how different species use their unique adaptations to survive* The student should create or choose the best representation of a plant cell and then explain the roles of the different organelles. While Standard 5.1 (Scientific Processes A1) is not assessed for APA purposes, this Matched Link references Scientific Process, which are a vital part of scientific thinking yet difficult to assess without also assessing understanding of science content. Therefore, Scientific Processes are to be assessed in the context of this Link. It is not reasonable to expect the student to provide five different explanations for the transfer of light energy to chemical energy. It is reasonable to ask the student to break down one explanation into five sentences. While the Essence of A2 is specifically about understanding the process of photosynthesis, it is acceptable to identify any (five or more) of a plant cell s parts and their functions. The parts and functions identified may include more than the ones that are specific to photosynthesis. Acceptable components of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, chlorophyll, glucose, oxygen, chloroplasts and ATP. Speciation events are either allopatric occurring in different places or sympatric occurring in the same place. This link is not exclusive to animals. Any species from the five kingdoms of living things is acceptable. This is not a matching link, so do not reduce activities to match a description of one species versus another NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 7

8 Five Items Examples The Five Items examples are samples of activities that may be used as models when choosing or developing activities for the APA. They include specific considerations and guidelines that if not followed will likely result in unscorable codes. However, they do not show the required markings for performance (+/-) or independence (I, V, G, M, P), nor do they include student names and collection dates. They are sample activities, not sample evidence. Evidence must include all of the requirements of the Universal Scoring Rules NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 8

9 CPI: A2 Explain how plants convert light energy to chemical energy Essence of the CPI: Understand the process of photosynthesis Matched Link, Bullet 2: Explain the transfer of light energy to chemical energy* Important Considerations for this Link: It is not reasonable to expect the student to provide five different explanations for the transfer of light energy to chemical energy. Therefore, one explanation broken into five parts (as shown in the example below) is acceptable. Directions to the student: Circle the sentence from each set that helps explain the transfer of light energy to chemical energy. This example constitutes five items. One explanation is broken down into five parts NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 9

10 CPI: A2 Explain how plants convert light energy to chemical energy Essence of the CPI: Understand the process of photosynthesis Near Link, Bullet 1: Describe how the products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are recycled* Important Considerations for this Link: It is not reasonable to expect the student to provide five different descriptions for photosynthesis and cellular respiration, but rather one description broken into five parts. Directions to the student: Based on the diagram, use your word strips to describe how the products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are recycled. This example constitutes five items. One description is broken down into five parts NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 10

11 CPI: A2 Explain how plants convert light energy to chemical energy Essence of the CPI: Understand the process of photosynthesis Far Link, Bullet 1: Identify the structure and function of plant cells* Important Considerations for this Link: This link requires two things: 1) Identify the structure and 2) Identify the function of at least five different plant cell organelles. For each organelle, the structure and the function must be identified. Any organelles in the plant cell may be used. The parts and functions identified may include more than the ones that are specific to photosynthesis. Directions to student: Paste the correct term for each organelle indicated on the diagram. Then paste the correct term next to its function. This example constitutes five items. Each item requires two student responses; identification of the organelle (structure) and its function. Each student response may be graded separately. There is a difference between the number of items and the way a teacher may choose to grade an activity. Although identifying both the structure and the function of an organelle is required for one item, it is acceptable to grade each response separately (i.e., the student gets one point for identifying the structure and one point for identifying its function). It is also acceptable to grade each structure/function holistically (i.e., in order to be counted correct the student must get both the structure and the function correct). Whichever way a teacher chooses, it must be consistent in both the initial and final activities to prevent artificially inflating and deflating the student s score NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 11

12 CPI: A2 Explain how plants convert light energy to chemical energy Essence of the CPI: Understand the process of photosynthesis Far Link, Bullet 2: Identify the components of photosynthesis* Important Considerations for this Link: The components include carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, chlorophyll, glucose, oxygen, chloroplasts and ATP. Directions to the student: Place the correct letter in the blanks. This example constitutes six items. The student identified six components of photosynthesis NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 12

13 CPI: B1 Explain that through evolution that Earth s present species developed from earlier distinctly different species Essence of the CPI: Understand and explain the process of evolution Matched Link, Bullet 1: Compare and contrast individuals in a speciation event and explain the changes* Important considerations for this link: This link contains two skills: 1) compare and contrast; 2) explain. Both skills; compare/contrast and explain, must be addressed. Although this link states compare and contrast, which indicates that both similarities and differences must be addressed, for this link it is acceptable if only the differences (contrasts) are addressed, as shown in this example. Provide the student with a diagram similar to the diagram of Darwin s Finches on this website: Note: Include the diagram as a part of the evidence in the student s portfolio. Directions to the student: Choose a pair of finches from the diagram. In the chart below, list at least four differences between the two finches. Physical Characteristic Large Ground Finch Small Insectivorous Tree Finch Beak size 1. Larger than tree finch 2. Smaller than ground finch Beak use 3. crushing 4. grasping Head size 5. Larger than tree finch 6. Smaller than ground finch Where they feed 7. ground 8. tree Food they eat 9. seeds 10. insects Directions to the student: Explain why each finch evolved differently with regard to the differences you identified in the chart. This example constitutes 14 items. The student completed the compare/contrast table (10 items) and explained the changes (4 items) NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 13

14 CPI: B1 Explain that through evolution that Earth s present species developed from earlier distinctly different species Essence of the CPI: Understand and explain the process of evolution Matched Link, Bullet 2 Identify reasons for species extinction and provide examples* Important Considerations for this Link: Notice the difference between this link and the fourth Far Link, Given an extinct species, identify the reason for its extinction. For this Matched Link, the student must provide the reasons for extinction and then also provide an example for each reason, whereas for the Far Link, the student is given the reasons for extinction and only has to provide an example for each reason. Directions to student: Research reasons for species extinction and list your reasons. Provide an example for each reason. Use the bank at the bottom of the page to help you. This example constitutes five items. The student identified five reasons for extinction and provided an example for each reason. There is a difference between the number of items and the way a teacher may choose to grade an activity. Although each reason and its example is an item, it is acceptable to grade each response separately (i.e., the student gets one point for identifying a reason for extinction and then another point for identifying an example for that reason). It is also acceptable to grade each reason and example holistically (i.e., in order to be counted correct the student must get both the reason and the example correct). Whichever way a teacher chooses, it must be consistent in both the initial and final activities to prevent artificially inflating and deflating the student s score NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 14

15 CPI: B1 Explain that through evolution that Earth s present species developed from earlier distinctly different species Essence of the CPI: Understand and explain the process of evolution Near Link, Bullet 3 Identify characteristics of speciation and provide examples* Important Considerations for this Link: Speciation events are either allopatric occurring in different places (e.g., the division of squirrel species as the Grand Canyon was formed) or sympatric occurring in the same place (e.g., the three-spined stickleback, a type of freshwater fish found in British Columbia that have developed into two different species within the same lake one with a wide mouth that feeds on larger prey near the shore and one with a smaller mouth that feeds on plankton in the open water). Directions to student: Answer the following questions and then complete the table below. This example constitutes six items. The student answered two questions about speciation. Then the student identified a characteristic of allopatric and a characteristic of sympatric, providing examples of each for an additional four items and a total of six NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 15

16 CPI: B1 Explain that through evolution that Earth s present species developed from earlier distinctly different species Essence of the CPI: Understand and explain the process of evolution Far Link, Bullet 1 Explain how different species use their unique adaptations to survive* Important Considerations for this Link: This link is not exclusive to animals. Any species from the five kingdoms of living things is acceptable. This is not a matching link, so do not reduce activities to match a description of one species versus another. Directions to student: For each species below, explain how they use their unique adaptations to survive. This example constitutes five items. The student used word strips to piece together explanations for five different animals NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 16

17 CPI: B1 Explain that through evolution that Earth s present species developed from earlier distinctly different species Essence of the CPI: Understand and explain the process of evolution Far Link, Bullet 2 Recognize the connection between modern animals and their earlier ancestors* Important Considerations for this Link: Be advised that the information below is an explanation of an example rather than an actual example. Actual student work is always required. Directions to student: Match the animal ancestor to the modern animal. Matching a Hyracotherium to a modern day horse would constitute as one item. At least four more matches are needed to fulfill the five items requirement NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 17

18 CPI: B1 Explain that through evolution that Earth s present species developed from earlier distinctly different species Essence of the CPI: Understand and explain the process of evolution Far Link, Bullet 4 Given an extinct species, identify the reason for its extinction* Important Considerations for this Link: Note the difference between the second Matched Link, Identify reasons for species extinction and provide examples and this Far Link. For this Far Link, the student must be given at least five extinct species. Then the student must determine the reason for each species extinction. For the Matched Link, the student must provide five reasons for extinction and examples for each reason. Directions to student: Highlight the correct answer. This example constitutes five items. The student was given five extinct species and asked to research each to identify the reason(s) each became extinct NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 18

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