# LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (LIC s) LABORATORY MANUAL III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (LIC s) LABORATORY MANUAL III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER"

## Transcription

1 LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (LIC s) LABORATORY MANUAL III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SIR C.R.REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ELURU

2 LINEAR IC s & PULSE CIRCUITS (LIC s) - LAB III / IV B.E (ECE), I - SEMESTER LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. LINEAR WAVE SHAPING 2. NON-LINEAR WAVE SHAPING 3. OP-AMP AS SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR 4. BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 5. MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 6. ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 7. SCHMITT TRIGGER 8. VOLTAGE REGULATOR 9. UJT RELAXATION OSCILLATOR TIMER AS ASTABLE & MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 11. OP-AMP AS ACTIVE INTEGRATOR &DIFFERENTIATOR 12. BOOT STRAP TIME BASE GENERATOR

3 LINEAR WAVE SHAPING

4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS: HIGH PASS RC CKT: High pass RC ckt acts as perfect differentiator when T >> Tilt: When square wave input of V volts peak is applied to a High pass RC ckt, percentage Tilt is given by P = [ ( V 1 V 1 1 ) / V] * Where V 1 and V 1 are voltages indicated in Fig. when T << is given by The approximate expression for % Tilt P = ( T / 2RC ) *100

5 LINEAR WAVE SHAPING AIM: To Design a High pass and Low pass RC circuits for an I/p time period of 1 m sec and Observe the conditions under which they respectively act as Differentiator and Integrator. APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 Resistors 1M, 10K Each 1 2 Capacitors 0.01 f 1 3 Function Generator 1 4 Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set PROCEDURE: HIGH PASS RC CKT: 1. Select the values of R & C in such away that the condition T >> is satisfied. 2. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.1 3. Apply 10V p-p Square wave at 1KHz from the Function Generator. 4. Observe the o/p waveform on CRO. 5. Sketch the waveform on graph sheet. 6. Now, Select the values of R & C in such away that the condition T << is satisfied. 7. Repeat steps 2,3, & Calculate % tilt from the observed o/p. 9. Compare this with the theoretical value. 10. Sketch the waveform on graph sheet. LOW PASS RC CKT: 1. Select the values of R & C in such away that the condition T >> is satisfied. 2. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.2 3. Apply 10V p-p Square wave at 1KHz from the Function Generator. 4. Observe the o/p waveform on CRO. 5. Find the Rise time t r from the observed o/p. 6. Compare this with the theoretical value. 7. Sketch the waveform on graph sheet. 8. Now, Select the values of R & C in such away that the condition T << is Satisfied. 9. Repeat steps 2,3, & Sketch the waveform on graph sheet.

6 LOW PASS RC CKT: Low pass RC ckt acts as a perfect Integrator when T << Rise time: Rise time t r is defined as the time it takes the voltage to rise from 10% to 90% of its final value. The approximate expression for rise time is given by t r = 2.2 RC

7 DESIGN: RESULT: T Time period of the input waveform Time constant of the circuit = RC T = 1m sec (i) When T >> Take T = 10 Choose C as 0.01 f, then R = T/10C So R = 10 K (ii) When T << Take T = /10 Choose C as 0.01 f, then R = 10T/C So R = 1M The responses of High pass & Low pass RC ckts are observed for a square wave input. Percentage tilt and rise time were calculated and compared with theoretical values. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is Linear Wave shaping? 2. What is the function of High pass RC ckt? 3. What is the function of Low pass RC ckt? 4. What is meant by Tilt? 5. What is meant by Rise time? 6. What is the condition for perfect differentiation in a High pass RC ckt? 7. What is the condition for perfect integration in a Low pass RC ckt? 8. What is the response of linear wave shaping when a sinusoidal input is applied? 9. How a high pass circuit acts as a Differentiator? 10. How a Low pass circuit acts as a Integrator? ***

8

9 NON-LINEAR WAVE SHAPING

10 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

11 NON-LINEAR WAVE SHAPING AIM: To Study the operation of some basic clipping and clamping circuits. APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 Regulated D.C Power supply 0 30 Volts 1 2 Diode BY Resistors 1K, 1M 1 4 Capacitors 0.1 f 1 5 Zener Diode ECZ Signal Generator ( 0 1MHz) 1 7 CRO Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set PROCEDURE: RESULT: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.1 2. Switch on the D.C power supply and set the reference voltage V R to 2V. 3. Apply I/P Voltage of 12V p-p Sine wave at 1KHz from the Signal Generator and observe the o/p on CRO. 4. Measure the clipping levels in the O/P waveform and compare them with the theoretical values. 5. Sketch the waveforms on graph sheets to the scale. 6. Repeat the above steps for the rest of the circuits. Various Clipping and Clamping circuits are constructed and their outputs are observed. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is Non-linear wave shaping? 2. What is the purpose of a Clipping circuit? 3. What are the other names of a Clipper ckt? 4. What are the applications of Clipper ckts? 5. What is a Clamping ckt? 6. What are the applications of Clamper ckts? 7. What is the difference between clipping and clamping circuits? 8. What is the need for a resistor across a diode in clamping circuits? 9. What is meant by comparator? 10. Draw the circuit diagram of a diode comparator? ***

12

13 OP AMP AS SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR

14 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: WAVE FORM: DESIGN: T=2RC ln (2Ra+Rb)/Rb F0=1/2RC ln (2Ra+Rb)/Rb If Rb =1.16Ra Let Ra=10K ohm,rb= 11.6 K ohm F0=1/2 RC F0 C =0.01µf R=1.2 F0C V1=(Ra/(Ra+Rb))*Vsat

15 OP-AMP AS SQUARE WAVE GENERATOR AIM: To design the square wave generator to operate at frequency F0=500Hz APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 D.C power supply volts 1 2 IC µa74ic 1 3 Resistors 11.6KΩ,10kΩ,100kΩ Each 1 4 Capacitors 0.01µf 1 5 Function generator CRO Bread Board & Connecting wires -- 1 Set PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig 1 2. Switch on the v DC power supply 3. Observed the o/p wave forms and capacitor voltage on CRO 4. Compare the wave on graph sheet to the scale RESULT: Wave forms are observed and measured values are compared with theoretical values and plotted on the graph sheets to the scale. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Draw the characteristics of ideal comparator and that of a commercially available comparator 2. What are the other application op amp 3. List the different types of comparator 4. What is meaning of voltage limiting?show how it is obtained? 5. Draw the circuit for converting a square wave in to a series of positive pulses? 6. What is hysteresis and What parameters determine the hystereis 7. Explain operation of a square wave generator by drawing capacitor and output voltage wave forms 8. Explain how non symmetrical square wave can be obtained? 9. How would recognize that positive feedback is being used in an op amp circuit 10. How two power supply +15v and -15v are required in an op amp circuit? 11. What are the internal blocks of an op amp? ***

16

17 BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

18 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: WAVEFORMS:

19 BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR AIM: To verify the stable states of Bistable Multivibrator and observe the base & Collector waveforms. APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 Dual Regulated D.C Power supply 0 30 Volts 1 2 Diode BY Resistors 15K, 2.2 K, 560 Each 2 4 Capacitors 0.01 f 1 5 Capacitors 10pf 2 6 Transistors 2N Signal Generator CRO Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as shown in Fig. 2. Switch on the D.C power supply and set the voltages to +6 V & -6V. 3. In the absence of steering diodes & Commutating capacitors, Verify the stable state of Multivibrator 4. After getting the stable state, connect the steering diodes and commutating capacitors 5. Apply trigger input of 5V p-p square wave at 1KHz from the function Generator. 6. Observe the waveforms at the collector and base of both the transistors. 7. Plot the waveforms on graph sheet to the scale. RESULT: Stable states of Bistable Multivibrator are verified and waveforms at the base & collector of the transistors are observed. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the principle of fixed-bias Binary? 2. What is a stable state? 3. What is the role of commutating capacitors in the Binary? 4. Explain the working of steering diode arrangement in the binary? 5. What are the different types of triggering? 6. What is the difference between symmetrical triggering and asymmetrical triggering? 7. What are the applications of Bistable Multivibrator? ***

20

21 MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

22 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: WAVEFORMS:

23 MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR AIM: To design a Monostable Multivibrator to produce a pulse of required width. APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 Regulated D.C Power supply 0 30 Volts 1 2 Resistors 1K, 10K Each 2 3 Resistors 5K, 20K Each 1 4 Capacitors 0.01 f, 0.1 f Each 1 5 Transistors 2N Signal Generator Diode BY CRO Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set DESIGN: T ---- Time period of the Quasi-stable state OR Pulse width of o/p waveform T = 0.69RC, Take T = 1m sec, Choose C as 0.1 f, then R = T/0.69C, So R = 10 K PROCEDURE: RESULT: 1. Connections are made as shown in Fig. 2. Switch on the D.C power supply and set the voltages to +6 V and 1.5V. 3. Verify the stable state of a Monostable Multivibrator, i.e. according to the ckt configuration Q 1 must be OFF & Q 2 should be ON. 4. After getting the stable state, Apply trigger input of 5V p-p square wave at 200 Hz from the function Generator. 5. Observe the waveforms at the collector and base of both the transistors. 6. Measure the o/p pulse width and compare it with the required value. 7. Plot the waveforms on graph sheet to the scale. Collector and Base waveforms of Monostable Multivibrator are observed and o/p pulse width is compared with the required value.

24 VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What are the other names of Monostable Multivibrator? 2. Explain the working of Monostable Multivibrator? 3. Monostable Multivibrator has how many stable states? 4. What is a quasi-stable state? 5. What are the applications of Monostable Multivibrator? 6. What are the initial states of a Monostable Multivibrator? 7. Which type of Triggering is used in Monostable Multivibrator? 8. What is the effect of temperature on Monostable Multivibrator? 9. Which type of feedback is present in Monostable Multivibrator? 10. Derive the expression for pulse width? 11. What is the difference between Monostable Blocking oscillator and Monostable Multivibrator? 12. Define Overshoot? ***

25 ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

26 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: DESIGN: T ---- Time period of the o/p waveform, F ---- Frequency of oscillations T = 1.38RC, Given F = 100 Hz, T = 1 / F Choose C as 0.33 f, then, R = T / 1.38 C So R = 22K, Choose R C such that h fe.r C > R WAVEFORMS:

27 ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR AIM: To design an Astable Multivibrator to produce a square wave of 100 Hz. APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 Regulated D.C Power supply 0 30 Volts 1 2 Resistors 1K, 22K Each 2 3 Capacitors 0.33 f 2 4 Transistors 2N Signal Generator CRO Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set PROCEDURE: RESULT: 1. Connections are made as shown in Fig. 2. Switch on the D.C power supply and set the voltage to +6 V. 3. Observe the waveforms at the collector and base of both the transistors. 4. Measure the frequency of oscillations from the observed waveform and compare it with the required value. 5. Plot the waveforms on graph sheet to the scale. Astable Multivibrator is designed and its o/p waveforms are observed. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is the other name of Astable Multivibrator? 2. Explain the working of Astable Multivibrator? 3. What is a quasi-stable state? 4. What are the applications of Astable Multivibrator? 5. Explain Hoe Astable Multivibrator can be used as a voltage to frequency converter? 6. For a symmetrical circuit how can you say that one transistor is on and one transistor if off? 7. Derive the equation for a time of an Astable Multivibrator? 8. Which type of biasing present in Astable Multivibrator? 9. How Astable acts as a free running oscillator? 10. Define time constant? ***

28

29 SCHMITT TRIGGER

30 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: WAVEFORMS: CALCULATIONS: UTP ---- Upper triggering potential, LTP ---- Lower triggering potential UTP is defined as the I/P voltage at which transistor Q 1 begins to conduct LTP is defined as the I/P voltage at which transistor Q 2 resumes conduction. Let UTP = V 1 & LTP = V 2 From the ckt, Initially Q1 is OFF & Q 2 is ON UTP = V 1 = V BE1 + V EN2 Where V EN2 = (V CC - V CEsat ) Re / (R C2 + Re), V BE1 is V Beoff When the I/P crosses UTP point, Q1 is ON & Q 2 is OFF LTP = V 2 = V BE1 + V EN1 Where V EN1 = (V CC - V CEsat ) Re / (R C1 + Re), V BE1 is V BEsat Find the UTP & LTP of the ckt using above expressions.

31 SCHMITT TRIGGER AIM: To study the operation of Schmitt Trigger ckt and calculate it s lower & upper triggering points. APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 Regulated D.C Power supply (0 30) Volts 1 2 Resistors 2K 2 3 Resistors 1K, 5.6K, 4K, 4.7K Each 1 4 Transistors SL Signal Generator CRO Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set PROCEDURE: RESULT: 1. Connections are made as shown in Fig. 2. Switch on the D.C power supply and set the voltage to +12 V. 3. Apply 12V p-p Sine wave at 1K Hz from the function Generator. 4. Observe the o/p square waveform on CRO. 5. Identify the amplitude of the I/p when the o/p rises suddenly, Which is called UTP 6. Identify the amplitude of the I/p when the o/p falls suddenly, Which is called LTP 7. Compare the identified UTP & LTP s with the theoretical values. 8. Plot the waveforms on graph sheet to the scale. Square wave o/p of a Schmitt Trigger ckt is observed for a Sinusoidal input. UTP & LTP s are compared with the theoretical values. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Define UTP & LTP? 2. What is the other name of a Schmitt Trigger ckt? 3. Explain the working of Schmitt Trigger ckt? 4. Explain Hysterisis with Schmitt Trigger? 5. What are the applications of Schmitt Trigger?

32

33 UJT RELAXATION OSCILLATOR

34 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM & WAVEFORMS: DESIGN: T1----charging time period T2 ----discharging time period F -----frequency of oscillations F=1/T F=1/[RC ln [ (1/(1- ή ))] ή =RB1/(RB1+RB2) RB1=3k Ω, RB2=2k Ω Vp=0.7+[(RB1+R1)V]/[RB1+RB2+R1] There fore Vp=8v

35 UJT RELAXATION OSCILLATOR AIM: To determine the frequency of oscillations of UJT relaxation oscillator. Given RBB =5K Ω,ή =.6Vv =1v and RB1=100Ω APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 Regulated D.C Power supply 0 30 Volts 1 2 Diode BY Resistors 50K Ω 100 Ω Each 1 4 Capacitors 0.1 f 1 5 Un-junction transistor 1 6 CRO Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as shown in fig. 2. Switch on the DC power supply and set the voltage to +12v 3. Observe the wave forms across capacitor and at base B1. 4. Measure the frequency of oscillations from the observed wave forms and compare it with the theoretical valve. 5. Plot the wave forms on graphs sheets to the scale. RESULT: Capacitor and base wave forms are UJT relaxation oscillator are observed and the frequency of oscillation is compared with theoretical value. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is an UJT? 2. What is difference between UJT and FET? 3. Explain the working of UJT relaxation oscillator? 4. what are the applications of UJT relaxation oscillator? 5. Can we use UJT as an amplifier? 6. Draw the inner circuit diagram of UJT? 7. Define peak voltage? 8. What are the methods or what is the correction for the circuit to improve linearity in the output wave forms? 9. Derive the equation for the time period of the output wave form. 10. Define intrinsic stand off ratio. ***

36

37 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

38 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

39 VOLTAGE REGULATOR AIM: To Study and Verify 3- terminal positive & negative voltage regulators APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 Regulated D.C Power supply 0 30 Volts 1 2 Voltage Regulator 7806, 7906 Each 1 3 Potentiometer 20K 1 4 Capacitors 0.33 f, 0.1 f Each 1 5 Multivibrator 6 Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as shown in Fig. 2. Keeping load resistance R L constant, vary the I/P voltage in steps (From 5 to 30V) and observe the o/p voltage. 2. Tabulate the readings in the form shown in table1. 3. Keeping I/P voltage Vin constant, vary the load resistance in steps and observe the o/p voltage. 4. Tabulate the readings in the form shown in table2. 5. Perform the above procedure for various regulators. TABULAR FORMS: TABLE1: RL = 20K S.No Vin (Volts) Vo (Volts)

40 TABLE2: Vin = 5V S.No. R L (K ) Vo (Volts) RESULT: Voltage Regulators are verified both by changing I/P voltage and load resistance VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is a Voltage Regulator? 2. What are the advantages of adjustable voltage regulators over the fixed voltage regulators? 3. What is voltage reference? Why it is needed? 4. What is the function of a series pass transistor? 5. What voltage options are variables in 78XX and 79XX voltage regulators? 6. Show the standard representation of IC voltage regulator? 7. List and explain the characteristics of three terminal IC voltage regulators? 8. Explain the important parameters of 78XX regulator? 9. Explain the protections used in 78XX? 10. What are the Limitations of three terminal voltage regulators? ***

41 555 TIMER AS ASTABLE & MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

42 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS: ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR: T --- Time period of the o/p waveform, F --- Frequency of Oscillations T = 0.69(R A + 2R B )C, F = 1.45 / (R A + 2R B )C, t p -- o/p pulse width, F = 1/ T % Duty Cycle = (R A + R B )/(R A + 2R B ) *100 t p = 1.1 R A C MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR:

43 555 TIMER AS ASTABLE & MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR AIM: To Verify the operations of Astable & Monostable Multivibrators using 555 timer APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity Timer IC Resistors 2.2K, 3.9K, 1K, 0.2M Each 1 3 Capacitors 0.01 f 2 4 Capacitors 0.1 f 1 5 Diode BY CRO Function Generator Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set PROCEDURE: ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.1 2. Switch on the D.C power supply and set the voltage to 5V. 3. Observe the o/p waveform at pin 3 using CRO & also observe the waveform across Capacitor (at pin 6). 2. Measure the frequency of oscillations from the observed o/p and compare it with theoretical value. 3. Measure the Duty Cycle (Ton/ (Ton + Toff)) from the observed o/p and compare it with theoretical value. 4. Sketch the waveforms on graph sheet. MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.2 2. Switch on the D.C power supply and set the voltage to 5V. 3. Apply trigger signal of 5V p-p Square wave at 100 Hz from the Function Generator. 4. Observe the o/p waveform at pin 3 using CRO & also observe the waveform across Capacitor (at pin 6). 5. Measure the o/p pulse width t p and compare this with the theoretical value. 6. Sketch the waveforms on graph sheet. RESULT: Monostable and Astable operations using 555 timer are verified.

44 VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Define Duty Cycle? 2. What are the other applications of 555 timer? 3. Draw the internal circuit diagram of 555 timer? 4. Explain the operation of 555 timer? 5. Explain the function of reset? 6. Derive the expression for time delay of monostable multivibrator? 7. Discuss the applications of timer in monostable multivibrator? 8. Give methods for obtaining symmetrical square wave? 9. what are the modes of operation of a 555 timer? 10. Discuss the operation of a FSK generator using timer? 11. Draw the circuit of Schmitt trigger using timer and explain its operation? ***

45 OP-AMP AS ACTIVE INTEGRATOR & DIFFERENTIATOR

46 CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

47 OP-AMP AS ACTIVE INTEGRATOR & DIFFERENTIATOR AIM: To Observe the Op-Amp as a Differentiator and Integrator. APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity PROCEDURE: 1 IC A741C 1 2 D.C Power supply Volts 1 3 Resistors 4.7K 2 4 Resistors 1K, 10K, Each 1 5 Capacitors 1 F, 0.01 F Each 1 6 CRO Function Generator Bread Board & Connecting wires - 1 Set INTEGRATOR: 5. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig.1 6. Switch on the V D.C power supply. 7. Apply 5V p-p Square wave at 1KHz from the Function Generator. 8. Observe the o/p waveform on CRO. 9. Sketch the waveforms on graph sheet to the scale. DIFFERENTIATOR: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig Switch on the V D.C power supply. 3. Apply 5V p-p Triangular wave at 1 KHz from the Function Generator. 4. Observe the o/p waveform on CRO. 5. Sketch the waveforms on graph sheet to the scale. RESULT: The waveforms of Differentiator and Integrator are observed and plotted on the graph sheets to the scale. VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is an Op-Amp? 2. What are the other applications of Op-Amp? 3. What are the ideal characteristics of an Op-Amp? 4. Why two power supplies +15 V and 15 V are required in an Op-Amp? 5. What are the internal blocks of an Op-Amp? 6. What is the origin for slew rate? 7. What is meant by virtual around? 8. Define CMRR? 9. Define offset voltage and offset currents for an OP-Amp? 10. What are the limitations of an ordinary OP-Amp Differentiator? 11. Explain why integrators are preferred over differentiator in analog computers? ***

48

49 BOOT STRAP TIME BASE GENERATOR CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

50 WAVE FORMS: BOOT STRAP TIME BASE GENERATOR

51 AIM: To observe the output waveform of bootstrap time base generator and determine the sweep time Ts and the restoration time Tr. APPARATUS: S.No Items Range Quantity 1 D.C power supply (0-30V) 1 2 Diode IN Transistors 2N2222 / SL Resistors 15kΩ, 100kΩ,10KΩ Each 1 4 Capacitors 47μf, 100μf Each 1 5 Function generator CRO Bread Board & Connecting wires -- 1 Set PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as shown in fig 2. Switch on the DC power supply and set the voltages to +20v and -10v 3. Apply gating input of 1v p-p square wave at 1.4KHz from the function generator 4. Observe the output wave forms 5. Measure the sweep time Ts and restoration time Tr and compare it with theoretical values 6. Plot the waveforms on graph sheet to the scale. DESIGN: Vs = Where vs =sweep speed Tg=half time period of gating waveform Ts=RC(sweep time) Tr = Where Tr =Resoration time RESULT: Output waveform observed and measured values are compared with Theoretical values VIVA QUESTIONS:

52 1. What are the different types of methods to generate linear sweep waveforms? 2. What is the condition to get an output which varies linearly with the time? 3. In a boot strap technique justly whether the charging current is maintained constant? 4. Explain the operation of boot strapping? 5. Define voltage and current time base generators? 6. What are the applications of time base generators? 7. Define recovery time in bootstrap technique? ***

### Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators

Generation of Square and Rectangular Waveforms Using Astable Multivibrators A square waveform can be generated by arranging for a bistable multivibrator to switch states periodically. his can be done by

### PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual

PH 210 Electronics Laboratory I Instruction Manual Index Page No General Instructions 2 Experiment 1 Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier 4 Experiment 2 Multistage amplifier: Cascade of two CE stages 7 Experiment

### The 555 timer: Waveform shaping

The 555 timer: Waveform shaping Introduction: Oscillators are ubiquitous not only in research environments but also in our modern, technology-oriented society. Oscillators are used for communication, timing

### Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit. Using a 555 Timer Chip

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) LED Dimmer Circuit Using a 555 Timer Chip Goals of Experiment Demonstrate the operation of a simple PWM circuit that can be used to adjust the intensity of a green LED by varying

### Notes. Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer NV6507. Operating Manual Ver 1.1

Notes Astable and Monostable Multivibrator Trainer Operating Manual Ver 1.1 Nvis Technologies 20 141-B, Electronic Complex, Pardeshipura, Indore- 452 010 India Tel.: 91-731- 4211500 Email: info@nvistech.com

### Operational Amplifier as mono stable multi vibrator

Page 1 of 5 Operational Amplifier as mono stable multi vibrator Aim :- To construct a monostable multivibrator using operational amplifier 741 and to determine the duration of the output pulse generated

### TUTORIAL QUESTION BANK

1 Course Name Course Code Class Branch TUTORIAL QUESTION BANK : PULSE AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS : 13A04401 : II - B. Tech Year : 2015 2016 Course Faculty : Electronics and Communication Engineering : M.Sravanthi,

### EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OP-AMP

1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical

### EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING

Department of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics EXERCISES in ELECTRONICS and SEMICONDUCTOR ENGINEERING Valery Vodovozov and Zoja Raud http://learnelectronics.narod.ru Tallinn 2012 2 Contents Introduction...

### Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-218

Analog & Digital Electronics Course No: PH-218 Lec-18: Multivibrators Course Instructor: Dr. A. P. VAJPEYI Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India 1 Multivibrators A MULTIVIBRATOR

### CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS

CHAPTER 16 OSCILLATORS 16-1 THE OSCILLATOR - are electronic circuits that generate an output signal without the necessity of an input signal. - It produces a periodic waveform on its output with only the

### ELECTRONIC DEVICES CIRCUITS (EDC) LABORATORY MANUAL FOR II / IV B.E (ECE) : I - SEMESTER

ELECTRONIC DEVICES CIRCUITS (EDC) LABORATORY MANUAL FOR II / IV B.E (ECE) : I - SEMESTER DEPT. OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING SIR C.R.REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ELURU 534 007 ELECTRONIC

### Chapter 12. Common Switching Functional Blocks

Chapter 12 Common Switching Functional Blocks Voltage Comparators In many applications, it is necessary to cause a digital switching action when an analog voltage rises above or drops below some value.

### The OpEL will close at 4:30PM on Thursday Nov 8. Week 9 is due next Wed (Nov 7) as usual. The make-up lab (photoflash) is due Wed Nov 14.

The OpEL will close at 4:30PM on Thursday Nov 8. Week 9 is due next Wed (Nov 7) as usual. The make-up lab (photoflash) is due Wed Nov 14. 1 As an Astable Multivibrator 2 3 An integrated chip that is used

### 1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver

Electronics Exercise 2: The 555 Timer and its Applications Mechatronics Instructional Laboratory Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Lab Director: I. Charles Ume,

### Page 2 CK K. Figure 3: JK Flip-flops with asynchronous PRESET and CLEAR inpu CK K. Figure 2: JK Flip-flops with different types of triggering

EGR 78 Digital Logic Lab File: N78L9A Lab # 9 Multivibrators A. Objective The objective of this laboratory is to introduce the student to the use of bistable multivibrators (flip-flops), monostable multivibrators

### Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors

Generating Common Waveforms Using the LM555, Operational Amplifiers, and Transistors Kenneth Young November 16, 2012 I. Abstract The generation of precise waveforms may be needed within any circuit design.

### Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment

3 class days 1. Differential Amplifier Source: Hands-On chapter 8 (~HH 6.1) Lab 9: Op Amps Lab Assignment Difference amplifier. The parts of the pot on either side of the slider serve as R3 and R4. The

### UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 5 - Gain-Bandwidth Product and Slew Rate Overview: In this laboratory the student will explore

### EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS

EXPERIMENT 6 CLIPPING AND CLAMPING DIODE CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES To understand the theory of operation of the clipping and clamping diode circuits. To design wave shapes that meet different circuits needs.

### A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters Topics Clocks & Oscillators LM 555 Timer IC Crystal Oscillators Selection of Variable Resistors Schmitt Gates Power-On Reset Circuits One Shots Counters

### LM 358 Op Amp. If you have small signals and need a more useful reading we could amplify it using the op amp, this is commonly used in sensors.

LM 358 Op Amp S k i l l L e v e l : I n t e r m e d i a t e OVERVIEW The LM 358 is a duel single supply operational amplifier. As it is a single supply it eliminates the need for a duel power supply, thus

### Rectifier: It is a circuit which employs one or more diodes to convert ac voltage into pulsating dc voltage. We will consider the following circuits:

Rectifier: It is a circuit which employs one or more diodes to convert ac voltage into pulsating dc voltage. We will consider the following circuits: (i) Half wave rectifier. (ii) Full wave rectifier.

### Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 8, 1997 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### EE320L Electronics I. Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #5. Clipping and Clamping Circuits. Angsuman Roy

EE320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #5 Clipping and Clamping Circuits By Angsuman Roy Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, Las Vegas Objective: The purpose

### R f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response

ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response

### CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9. Operational Amplifiers

CIRCUITS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 9 Operational Amplifiers 9.1 INTRODUCTION An operational amplifier ("op amp") is a direct-coupled, differential-input, highgain voltage amplifier, usually packaged in the

### LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

LABORATORY 2 THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER OBJECTIVES 1. To understand how to amplify weak (small) signals in the presence of noise. 1. To understand how a differential amplifier rejects noise and common

### A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters Topics Clocks & Oscillators LM 555 Timer IC Crystal Oscillators Selection of Variable Resistors Schmitt Gates Power-On Reset Circuits One Shots Counters

### Operational Amplifier - IC 741

Operational Amplifier - IC 741 Tabish December 2005 Aim: To study the working of an 741 operational amplifier by conducting the following experiments: (a) Input bias current measurement (b) Input offset

### OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS. o/p

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS 1. If the input to the circuit of figure is a sine wave the output will be i/p o/p a. A half wave rectified sine wave b. A fullwave rectified sine wave c. A triangular wave d. A

### Overview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode rectifier circuits used in DC power supplies.

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHARLOTTE Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Experiment No. 3 Diodes and Bridge Rectifiers Overview: The purpose of this experiment is to introduce diode

### Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation

Laboratory 4: Feedback and Compensation To be performed during Week 9 (Oct. 20-24) and Week 10 (Oct. 27-31) Due Week 11 (Nov. 3-7) 1 Pre-Lab This Pre-Lab should be completed before attending your regular

### Material and Equipment NI ELVIS 741 Op Amp, 5k pot, Assorted Resistors (10k, 100k, 220k (2), 100 (2), 560 )

Lab 8 Operational Amplifier Characteristics Purpose The purpose of this lab is to study the non-ideal characteristics of the operational amplifier. The characteristics that will be investigated include

### QUESTION BANK FOR. S. Y. B. Sc. ELECTRONICS

SCIENCE FACULTY NORTH MAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY, JALGAON QUESTION BANK FOR S. Y. B. Sc. ELECTRONICS (With effect from June, 28) 2 Board of Studies in Electronics Board of Studies in Electronics, in its meeting

### Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College. Lab Manual. Analog and Digital Circuits. For. SE(Rev)(EEP) Students. Author JNEC, Aurangabad

Jawaharlal Nehru Engineering College Lab Manual Analog and Digital Circuits For SE(Rev)(EEP) Students Author JNEC, Aurangabad PREFACE It is my great pleasure to present this laboratory manual for second

### Content Map For Career & Technology

Content Strand: Applied Academics CT-ET1-1 analysis of electronic A. Fractions and decimals B. Powers of 10 and engineering notation C. Formula based problem solutions D. Powers and roots E. Linear equations

### Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006

Physics 623 Transistor Characteristics and Single Transistor Amplifier Sept. 13, 2006 1 Purpose To measure and understand the common emitter transistor characteristic curves. To use the base current gain

### ECE 85L Digital Logic Design Laboratory. Fresno State, Lyles College of Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Spring 2015

ECE 85L Digital Logic Design Laboratory Fresno State, Lyles College of Engineering Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Spring 2015 Laboratory 10 Astable and Monostable Multivibrators 1. OBJECTIVES

### Op Amp Circuits. Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator

M.B. Patil, IIT Bombay 1 Op Amp ircuits Inverting and Non-inverting Amplifiers, Integrator, Differentiator Introduction An Operational Amplifier (Op Amp) is a versatile building block used in a variety

### Reading: HH Sections 4.11 4.13, 4.19 4.20 (pgs. 189-212, 222 224)

6 OP AMPS II 6 Op Amps II In the previous lab, you explored several applications of op amps. In this exercise, you will look at some of their limitations. You will also examine the op amp integrator and

### Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I

Lab 4: BJT Amplifiers Part I Objectives The objective of this lab is to learn how to operate BJT as an amplifying device. Specifically, we will learn the following in this lab: The physical meaning of

### SAULTCOLLEGE of AppliedArtsand Technology COURSEOUTLINE

SAULTCOLLEGE of AppliedArtsand Technology. ti SaultSte. Marie COURSEOUTLINE PULSE CIRCUITS ELN 211-3 revised June, 1982 by N. Barker.- - - - - -- "---- - -. --- ElN 211-3 PULSECIRCUITS' TEXTS: Semiconductor

### Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input

### Operating Manual Ver.1.1

Class B Amplifier (Push-Pull Emitter Follower) Operating Manual Ver.1.1 An ISO 9001 : 2000 company 94-101, Electronic Complex Pardesipura, Indore- 452010, India Tel : 91-731- 2570301/02, 4211100 Fax: 91-731-

### Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator. EE-100 Lab: Designing a Poor Man s Square Wave Signal Generator - Theory

EE-100 Lab: - Theory 1. Objective The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce nonlinear circuit measurement and analysis. Your measurements will focus mainly on limiters and clamping amplifiers. During

### Diode Applications. by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008. This note illustrates some common applications of diodes.

by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008 This note illustrates some common applications of diodes. Power supply applications A common application for diodes is converting AC to DC. Although half-wave rectification

### ENGR 210 Lab 11 Frequency Response of Passive RC Filters

ENGR 210 Lab 11 Response of Passive RC Filters The objective of this lab is to introduce you to the frequency-dependent nature of the impedance of a capacitor and the impact of that frequency dependence

### Unit/Standard Number. High School Graduation Years 2010, 2011 and 2012

1 Secondary Task List 100 SAFETY 101 Demonstrate an understanding of State and School safety regulations. 102 Practice safety techniques for electronics work. 103 Demonstrate an understanding of proper

### The R-C series circuit

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 4 The C series circuit 1 Introduction Objectives To study the

### Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor

Charge and Discharge of a Capacitor INTRODUCTION Capacitors 1 are devices that can store electric charge and energy. Capacitors have several uses, such as filters in DC power supplies and as energy storage

### The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The George Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Final Design Report Dual Channel Stereo Amplifier By: Kristen Gunia Prepared

### Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003

Op-Amp Basics Peggy Alavi Application Engineer September 3, 2003 Op-Amp Basics Part 1 Op-Amp Basics Why op-amps Op-amp block diagram Input modes of Op-Amps Loop Configurations Negative Feedback Gain Bandwidth

### Operational Amplifiers

Operational Amplifiers Introduction The operational amplifier (op-amp) is a voltage controlled voltage source with very high gain. It is a five terminal four port active element. The symbol of the op-amp

### FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. 2

Applications of the LM3524 Pulse-Width-Modulator The LM3524 Regulating Pulse-Width-Modulator is commonly used as the control element in switching regulator power supplies. This is in keeping with its intended

### Electronics. Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit. LD Physics Leaflets P4.2.1.1

Electronics Operational Amplifier Internal design of an operational amplifier LD Physics Leaflets Discrete assembly of an operational amplifier as a transistor circuit P4.2.1.1 Objects of the experiment

### DIODE CIRCUITS CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2 DIODE CIRCUITS As discussed in the previous section, diodes are essentially one-way valves. They carry current in one direction, but block current in the other. In addition, in the forward conduction

### The Class-D Amplifier

The Class-D Amplifier (From the book Introduction to Electroacoustics and Audio Amplifier Design, Second Edition - Revised Printing, by W. Marshall Leach, Jr., published by Kendall/Hunt, c 2001.) A class-d

### EE 320L Electronics I Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #4 Diode and Power Supply Circuit

EE 320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #4 Diode and Power Supply Circuit Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, at Las Vegas Objective: The purpose of this

### Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720. Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment.

Op-Amp Simulation EE/CS 5720/6720 Read Chapter 5 in Johns & Martin before you begin this assignment. This assignment will take you through the simulation and basic characterization of a simple operational

### Single Supply Op Amp Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller

ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING Single Supply Op Amp Circuits Dr. Lynn Fuller Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 146235604 Tel (585)

### Basic Op Amp Circuits

Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of

### EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP

1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENT-VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP Purpose: To demonstrate the relationship between the voltage and current of a capacitor. Theory: A capacitor is a linear circuit element whose

### Comparator and Schmitt Trigger

Comparator and Schmitt Trigger Comparator circuits find frequent application in measurement and instrumentation systems. Learning Objectives Understand the Op-Amp Comparator with and without an offset

### electronics fundamentals

electronics fundamentals circuits, devices, and applications THOMAS L. FLOYD DAVID M. BUCHLA Lesson 1: Diodes and Applications Center-Tapped Full-wave Rectifier The center-tapped (CT) full-wave rectifier

### CHAPTER 2B: DIODE AND APPLICATIONS. D.Wilcher

CHAPTER 2B: DIODE AND APPLICATIONS D.Wilcher 1 CHAPTER 2B: OBJECTIVES Analyze the operation of 3 basic types of rectifiers Describe the operation of rectifier filters and IC regulators Analyze the operation

### The OP AMP -, Figure 1

The OP AMP Amplifiers, in general, taking as input, one or more electrical signals, and produce as output, one or more variations of these signals. The most common use of an amplifier is to accept a small

### EE 2274 DIODE OR GATE & CLIPPING CIRCUIT

Prelab Part I: Diode OR Gate LTspice use 1N4002 EE 2274 DIODE OR GATE & CLIPPING CIRCUIT 1. Design a diode OR gate, Figure 1 in which the maximum current thru R1 I R1 = 9mA assume Vin = 5Vdc. Design the

### The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor

The 2N3393 Bipolar Junction Transistor Common-Emitter Amplifier Aaron Prust Abstract The bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is a non-linear electronic device which can be used for amplification and switching.

### Frequency Response of Filters

School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To

### Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors - Ohmic region

Physics 120 Lab 6: Field Effect Transistors - Ohmic region The FET can be used in two extreme ways. One is as a voltage controlled resistance, in the so called "Ohmic" region, for which V DS < V GS - V

### css Custom Silicon Solutions, Inc.

css Custom Silicon Solutions, Inc. CSS555(C) CSS555/ PART DESCRIPTION The CSS555 is a micro-power version of the popular 555 Timer IC. It is pin-for-pin compatible with the standard 555 timer and features

### Constant Current Add on card for Xgen platforms.

Constant Current Add on card for Xgen platforms. Abstract: The Xgen is designed to supply a constant voltage to the customer load. In recent times there has been a demand for using the Xgen platform as

### The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure

The Full-Wave Rectifier The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The transformer has a centre-tapped secondary winding. This secondary winding has a lead attached

### Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers

Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must

### Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong SAE 800

Programmable Single-/Dual-/Triple- Tone Gong Preliminary Data SAE 800 Bipolar IC Features Supply voltage range 2.8 V to 18 V Few external components (no electrolytic capacitor) 1 tone, 2 tones, 3 tones

### Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

### The Relaxation Oscillator

Explore More! Points awarded: Name: Net ID: The Relaxation Oscillator Laboratory Outline In Lab 5, we constructed a simple three-element oscillator using a capacitor, resistor, and a Schmitt trigger inverter.

### Operational Amplifiers

Module 6 Amplifiers Operational Amplifiers The Ideal Amplifier What you ll learn in Module 6. Section 6.0. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Understand Concept of the Ideal Amplifier and the Need

### Part 2: Receiver and Demodulator

University of Pennsylvania Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering ESE06: Electrical Circuits and Systems II Lab Amplitude Modulated Radio Frequency Transmission System Mini-Project Part : Receiver

### LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the i-v characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND

### Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals

Low Noise, Single Supply, Electret Microphone Amplifier Design for Distant Acoustic Signals Donald J. VanderLaan November 26, 2008 Abstract. Modern day electronics are often battery powered, forcing the

### AP331A XX G - 7. Lead Free G : Green. Packaging (Note 2)

Features General Description Wide supply Voltage range: 2.0V to 36V Single or dual supplies: ±1.0V to ±18V Very low supply current drain (0.4mA) independent of supply voltage Low input biasing current:

### LM139/LM239/LM339 A Quad of Independently Functioning Comparators

LM139/LM239/LM339 A Quad of Independently Functioning Comparators INTRODUCTION The LM139/LM239/LM339 family of devices is a monolithic quad of independently functioning comparators designed to meet the

### The output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out

What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input

### ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012. A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742

1.1. Differential Amplifiers ENEE 307 Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory Spring 2012 A. Iliadis Electrical Engineering Department University of Maryland College Park MD 20742 Differential Amplifiers

### Digital Fundamentals

Digital Fundamentals Tenth Edition Floyd Chapter 1 2009 Pearson Education, Upper 2008 Pearson Saddle River, Education NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Analog Quantities Most natural quantities that we see

### LINEAR INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT FUNCTION GENERATOR

~. c EXPERIMENT 9 Name: LINEAR INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT FUNCTION GENERATOR OBJECTIVES: INTRODUCTION: 1. To observe the operation of a linear integrated-circuit function generator. 2. To observe the frequency-versus-timing

### 12 Converting Between Digital and Analog

12 CONVERTING BETWEEN DIGITAL AND ANALOG 12 Converting Between Digital and Analog For many applications, it is necessary to convert analog signals from a circuit or sensor to digital signals that can be

### Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics

Operational Amplifiers - Configurations and Characteristics What is an Op Amp An Op Amp is an integrated circuit that can be used to amplify both DC and AC signals. One of the most common Op Amps available

### 9 2339A The Three Basics of Electric Circuits: Voltage, Current, and Resistance

PROGRESS RECORD Study your lessons in the order listed below. Electronics Technology and Advanced Troubleshooting I & II Number of Lessons: 118 Completion Time: 36 months 1 2330A Current and Voltage 2

### University of Alberta Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. EE 250 Laboratory Experiment #5 Diodes

University of Alberta Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EE 250 Laboratory Experiment #5 Diodes Objective: To introduce basic diode concepts. Introduction: The diode is the most fundamental

### Absolute Maximum Ratings

RC15 Voltage-to-Frequency Converters www.fairchildsemi.com Features Single supply operation Pulse output DTL/TTL/CMOS compatible Programmable scale factor (K) High noise rejection Inherent monotonicity

### Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier

Chapter 12: The Operational Amplifier 12.1: Introduction to Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) Operational amplifiers (op-amps) are very high gain dc coupled amplifiers with differential inputs; they are used

### Name Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA

Name Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA Objectives LAB 7: AC CIRCUITS To understand the behavior of resistors, capacitors, and inductors in AC Circuits To understand the physical basis of frequency-dependent

### MIC1555/1557. Features. General Description. Applications. Typical Application. IttyBitty RC Timer / Oscillator

/7 IttyBitty RC Timer / Oscillator General Description The IttyBitty CMOS RC timer/oscillator and MIC7 IttyBitty CMOS RC oscillator are designed to provide rail-to-rail pulses for precise time delay or

### Pulse Width Modulation

Pulse Width Modulation Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a technique in which a series of digital pulses is used to control an analog circuit. The length and frequency of these pulses determines the total

### Operational Amplifiers: Part 2. Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation

Operational Amplifiers: Part 2 Non-ideal Behavior of Feedback Amplifiers DC Errors and Large-Signal Operation by Tim J. Sobering Analog Design Engineer & Op Amp Addict Summary of Ideal Op Amp Assumptions