Performance Based Seismic Evaluation of Icon Hotel in Dubai

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1 Performance Based Seismic Evaluation of Icon Hotel in Dubai Farshad Berahman BSc MSc PhD Senior Structural Engineer WS Atkins Middle East Dubai, UAE

2 Burj Al Arab Dubai

3 Atkins Tall Buildings

4 Icon Hotel, Dubai

5 Icon Hotel Dubai Promenade

6 Icon Hotel Location

7 Icon Hotel The Site

8 Icon Hotel Building Geometry 34 th level-mechanical Floor Sky Lift 8 th level-mechanical Floor 160 m 96m 165m 78m Key Facts 203 Guest Hotel Room 172 Branded Service Apartments 42 storey wheel Total built up area 110,000 sqm Lift cores Atrium Elevation 10.8m 13.2 m 4.3m Plan

9 Icon Hotel Pre-Concept The areas with high shear stresses: 1. Thicken the wall - more weight and more concrete 2. Reduce the number of openings - Not favourable Architecturally 3. Use steel plates to reinforce the highly stressed concrete walls - Not standard practice Punched Concrete Walls

10 Icon Hotel Pre-Concept Permanent Composite Trusses Sketches Courtesy LERA Peer Review LERA s Proposed Alternative

11 Icon Hotel Concept Design - Functional Framing & Form Finding

12 Icon Hotel Pre- Construction Advisor - SAMSUNG Images Courtesy Samsung

13 Icon Hotel Preliminary Design Y X

14 Gravity Load Path

15 Icon Hotel Axial Forces Under Gravity Loads Axial Force Diagram

16 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

17 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

18 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

19 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

20 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

21 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

22 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

23 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

24 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

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61 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

62 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

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65 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

66 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

67 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

68 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

69 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

70 Icon Hotel Construction Sequence Images Courtesy Tekla

71 Icon Hotel Mega Frame LLRS Deformation has bending configuration and story drift increase with height Deformation has shear configuration with maximum inclination near the base

72 Icon Hotel

73 Steel Weight Trusses, Arches and vertical elements: ton Floor Beams: 7000 ton ICON HOTEL 29 th January 2009

74 Icon Hotel Modes of Vibration T1 = 4.3 Sec T2 = 3.3 Sec T3 = 3.0 Sec

75 Icon Hotel Specialist Studies Geotechnical Study Liquefaction Analysis Soil Improvement Seismic Hazard Study Wind Tunnel Study Pile Raft Settlement Analysis Floor vibration analysis Connections Detail Design Long Term Effect (Column Shortening) Performance Based Seismic Evaluation

76 Icon Hotel Wind Tunnel Studies Images & Data Courtesy RWDI Inter story drift less than H/1000

77 For more information please visit CTBUH website and search for CTBUH 2010 Mumbai Conference

78 Foundation Type Other areas are on pile groups or individual piles Piled Raft ICON HOTEL 29 th January 2009

79 Pile Raft Settlement Analysis-Predicted Settlement (DL+LL) by PIGLET Maximum Settlement: 90mm Maximum Settlement: 93mm ICON HOTEL 29 th January 2009

80 Pile Raft Settlement Analysis-Predicted Settlement (DL+LL) by FEAR CONTOURS OF VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT Cont our Legend E E E - 02 Maximum Settlement: 107mm E E E E E E E E E E - 01 Maximum Settlement: 112mm E - 01 I con Hot el Set t lement As sessment ICON HOTEL 29 th January 2009 Equivalent Raf t

81 Icon Hotel Design of Connections

82 Floor System Strength Deflection Vibration Acoustic 2hrs Fire 10.8m Density 400kg/m^ m 4.3m Density 560 kg/m^2

83 Design of Floor for Vibration Traditional approach F1>4 Hz

84 PDR Current Design SB kg/m 114 kg/m SB kg/m 100 kg/m

85

86 Icon Hotel Floor Vibration Analysis

87 Floor Vibration Analysis-In-house Program

88

89 R-Factor

90 Floor Vibration Analysis-MIDAS model

91 Walking Load

92 Vibration Mode Shapes-MIDAS model

93

94 PDR and Detail Design Cost Comparison More than 21 million AED SAVED ICON HOTEL 29 th January 2009

95 Icon Hotel Column Shortening ICON HOTEL MIDAS Model

96 Icon Hotel Differential Shortening Between Inner and Outer Walls ICON HOTEL 29 th January 2009

97 Icon Hotel ICON HOTEL 29 th January 2009

98 Icon Hotel Seismic hazard study Seismic Hazard Study Courtesy Fugro West Inc.

99 Magnitude Probability Density Function Seismic Hazard Study Courtesy Fugro West Inc.

100 The estimated equal hazard horizontal response spectrum at rock boundary set Earthquake Magnitude Distance (Km) Recording station Designation Northridge, USA Canoga Parl- Topanga Can Gazli, USSR Karakyr Landers, USA Palm Springs Airport CNP 106 CNP 196 GAZ000 GAZ090 PSA 000 PSA090 Seismic Hazard Study Courtesy Fugro West Inc.

101 Icon Hotel Performance Based Design Seismic Evaluation

102 Icon Hotel Performance Based Design Seismic Evaluation

103 Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Perform 3D

104 Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Material Behaviour Un confined C70 (70 Mpa) concrete Figure 18. Stress-Strain relationship for unconfined C70 concrete Steel S355(355 Mpa yield strength) built up section Reinforcement (460 Mpa yied strength)

105 Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Damping

106 Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Performance objectives Design Stage Design Stage I-A Design Stage I-B Design Stage III Earthquake Level E2 E2 E3 Performance objective LS/CD LS/CD CP/ED Analysis Type 3-D Linear Response Spectrum Analysis 2-D Nonlinear Time History Analysis 2-D Nonlinear Time History Analysis Earthquake load/time History Ductility Factor Story Drift Ratio Limit Member Strength Design Seismic Zone 2A UBC 97-Soil type Sc UBC 97-R=4.5-Bearing Wall System %2 for inelastic deformation=0.7*r*elastic deformation Member to be designed according to UBC 97 Time history obtained from Seismic Hazard Study-475 years return period N/A Time history obtained from Seismic Hazard Study-2475 years return period N/A 2.5% (DM 2009) 3.5% (DM 2009) Design to be verified Design to be verified Service load Service load Load Factors Factored load combinations combinations combinations Material strength Design Strength Expected strength Expected strength Acceptance Criteria Strength & Story drift ratio Strain & Story drift ratio Strain & Story drift ratio

107 Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Desired Behaviour

108 the envelope of inter-story drifts. Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Perform 3D Bhaviour under gravity load Concrete Coupling beams behave nonlinear Compression strain about

109 Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Perform 3D Envelope of the concrete compression strain at critical locations Coupling beams behave nonlinearly Concrete compression Lander 1992-scaled strain earthquake All the members remained elastic except coupling beams Building met the performance objectives.

110 Figure 28. The envelope of shear force and the capacity of central shear wall. Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Perform 3D The envelope inter-story drift ratios for MCE The envelope of shear force and the capacity of central shear wall.

111 Figure 28. The envelope of shear force and the capacity of central shear wall. Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Dissipated Energy

112 Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Usage Ratios

113 Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Perform 3D Scaled Lander 1992 increased 4x to see the extreme behaviour

114 Conclusions and observation Large gravity transfer structures can be used efficiently to mobilise frame action by coupling the core walls. Icon hotel Performance Based Design evaluation showed that this building will behave in a desired manner for future anticipated earthquake. Bearing wall system: Ductility?? Overstrength Minimum base shear from the code. Do we need to follow? Performance based design provides valuable information for the seismic design of geometrically complex structures which lie beyond the realms of established building codes.

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