Water and wastewater management in El Gouna, Red Sea, Egypt

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1 TU Berlin Campus El Gouna Department Water Engineering Water and wastewater management in El Gouna, Red Sea, Egypt In the frame of: Sustainable Use of Resources: Water and Energy for Egypt IWaTec winter school, Feb Dr. rer.nat. Nikolaos Tzoupanos

2 Outline Water resources Protection, preservation, control, etc. Water, wastewater quality Control, treatment Water, wastewater distribution Piping network, pumping stations Economical considerations Operation, maintenance, selling price, water losses Needs Drinking water, irrigation water 2 IWaTec Winter school

3 General El Gouna 22 km north of Hurghada. 7,010,486 m 2 of developed area, coastal length 10 Km, green area covers 945,000 m 2 Around 15-20,000 permanent residents. El Gouna Sharm El Sheikh Hurghada 1-2 Dec SWIM Regional Conference, Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt

4 Water management in El Gouna Water resources Available water resources in El Gouna Groundwater is the water that lies beneath the earth surface filling in the space between the rocks and the pores of the rocks, it moves under the influence of gravity and supplies wells and springs 4 IWaTec Winter school

5 Water management in El Gouna Water resources In total 31 wells 21 saline water 10 brackish water Depth: m Depth: m Groundwater quality can be affected by: Temporary, point or linear contaminations (e.g. accidents) Continual, point or linear contaminations (e.g. leaky pipelines, roads, landfills) Recurring diffuse inputs, e.g. fertilizers, biocides, sewage sludge, compost. Continual diffuse contaminations (e.g. city areas). 5 IWaTec Winter school

6 Water management in El Gouna Water resources Protection Χ Χ Χ Χ PVC pipes Χ The anthropogenic (possibly) negative impact is limited in El Gouna 6 IWaTec Winter school

7 Water management in El Gouna Water resources Protection Elementary protection standards of drinking water wells X ~ Fence around the well. No septic tank in a distance of 25 m. 50 m away any other construction or activity that could be a source of contamination The well itself should have a house or an underground box for the direct protection Most of the saline water wells protected Brackish water wells not protected Wells contain saline or brackish water Treatment is needed 6 IWaTec Winter school

8 Water management in El Gouna Water resources Brackish water wells TU Berlin Desalination plant El Gouna Bustan 8 IWaTec Winter school

9 Water management in El Gouna Water quality General Water treatment: view of filtration desalination techniques with Reverse Osmosis Microfiltration 0.1 μm Da Ultrafiltration μm Da Nanofiltration μm Da Reverse osmosis μm 100 Da Pore size Suspended solids Bacteria, cells Emulsions Colloids Viruses Proteins Macromolecules decreases Small organics Ions 9 IWaTec Winter school

10 Water management in El Gouna Water quality Water treatment: desalination with Reverse Osmosis Treatment procedure Byproduct (Brine): TDS min 40 g/l Chlorination Sand filtration Cartridge filtration RO membranes Inlet Seawater: Cond ms/cm, TDS g/l Brackish: Cond ms/cm, TDS 6-8 g/l Consumer Outlet: Cond ms/cm TDS g/l 1 IWaTec Winter school

11 Water management in El Gouna Water quality Water treatment: desalination with Reverse Osmosis In total 15 units Production: 9500 m 3 /d 8 for seawater 7 for brackish water Production: 5500 m 3 /d Production: 4000 m 3 /d 11 IWaTec Winter school

12 Water management in El Gouna Water quality Water treatment: desalination with Reverse Osmosis Efficiency: 3 L of brackish water produce 2 L of drinking water 3 L of saline produce 1 L of drinking water RO unit Cartridge filters RO modules 12 IWaTec Winter school

13 Water management in El Gouna Water distribution Water distribution network: Pipes from PVC Hotels, villas, restaurants, apartments: Pipes from PE and/or metallic Use of centrifugal pumps RO Main tank 1 st tank 2 nd tank 3 nd tank (Desalination plant) (Italian compound) (Marina) 1000 m m m m m 3 Other places (e.g. Bustan) Downtown Surrounding area Italian compound Downtown Marina 13 IWaTec Winter school

14 Water management in El Gouna Water distribution Water distribution network Branched network 3 rd tank 2 nd tank TU Berlin Marina Downtown Main tank 1 st tank WWTP Desalination Bustan units West Golf South Golf 14 IWaTec Winter school

15 Water management in El Gouna Water distribution Water losses Difference between water output in the piping system (Network feed-in) and the measured water delivery to the consumer (including waterworks own consumption) Actual losses / Apparent losses No detailed water loses study in El Gouna Relatively new distribution network low water losses should be expected ( 5%) Water losses in El Gouna estimated to be 10 % 950 m 3 /d or m 3 /a. Detailed water loses study should be conducted in El Gouna 15 IWaTec Winter school

16 Water management in El Gouna Water distribution Water losses in the Mediterranean region (2013) Source: World Bank calculations - draft study report IWaTec Winter school

17 Water management in El Gouna Economical considerations Drinking water production costs (for 1 m 3 ) Energy needed for producing 1 m 3 of drinking water: max. 5 KWh (2.5-5KWh) Energy cost: ca. 5 cent/kwh } Total energy costs: } Chemicals, workers, etc. (operational costs) 7.5 EGP or 0.86 (Maintenance costs not included) Selling price: 15 EGP or 1.73 / m 3 Water demand in downtown: m 3 /d 17 IWaTec Winter school

18 Water consumption (*10 5 m 3 ) Water management in El Gouna Drinking water consumption, Total 2,489,483 m 3 18 IWaTec Winter school

19 Water management in El Gouna Water quality Brine water management current status Fish farm 19 IWaTec Winter school

20 Waste water management in El Gouna Wastewater production Type of wastewater. Hotels, villas, homes, restaurants, etc. - domestic wastewater Brewery, central laundry industrial wastewater Downtown production: m 3 /d No pre-treatment on site. Sewage piping system centralized treatment Two waste water treatment plants (WWTP) WWTP of El Gouna (domestic wastewater) WWTP of Bustan (domestic and industrial wastewater) 20 IWaTec Winter school

21 Waste water management in El Gouna WWTP of El Gouna Consists of 3 separated units, each capable of treating 1000 m 3 /d Each unit consists of 3 separated streams Treatment method: conventional activated sludge Treated water used for irrigation purposes 21 IWaTec Winter school

22 Waste water management in El Gouna WWTP of Bustan Consists of 2 separated units 2 streams 750 m 3 /d 3 streams 1000 m 3 /d TU Berlin WWTP El Gouna Treatment method: conventional activated sludge Treated water used for irrigation purposes Desalination units Bustan WWTP 22 IWaTec Winter school

23 Waste water management in El Gouna Treatment procedure Screen Activated sludge COD = (504) mg/l BOD Fats = and (271) Balancing mg/l TN grease = trap (72) mg/l tank TP = (6.8) mg/l SS = (258) mg/l Aeration tank (biological treatment x3) Chlorination Dewatering Sludge Settlement tank Sand filters Rotary Final Sand press product filters for sludge dewatering Moving bed 1-2 Dec SWIM Regional Conference, Sharm El Sheik, Egypt Irrigation

24 Waste water management in El Gouna Economical considerations Wastewater treatment costs (for 1 m 3 ) Energy + Chemicals, workers, etc. (operational costs) } 3 EGP or 0.35 Selling price: 5 EGP or 0.58 / m 3 Irrigation water used in downtown, December 2013: m 3 24 IWaTec Winter school

25 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water (*10 3 m 3 ) Irrigation water consumption, year 2013 Monthly variation according to the use m m m 3 Golf Hotels Villas 25 IWaTec Winter school

26 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water (*10 5 m 3 ) 30.4 % 20.6 % 17.5 % 15.9 % 15.5 % Irrigation water consumption, year 2013 Total consumption according to the use m m m m m 3 Golf Hotels Nubia Villas Bustan Total m 3 26 IWaTec Winter school

27 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water (m 3 ) 37.1 % 19.7 % 18.5 % 13.1 % 11.6 % Irrigation water consumption, year 2013 Max daily according to the use m m m m m Golf Hotels Nubia Villas Bustan Total m 3 27 IWaTec Winter school

28 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water consumption, year 2013 Consumption year 2013, average daily Water use Water amount (m 3 /d) % of total Golf Hotels Nubia Villas Bustan Total Total max. treated wastewater production: 4750 m 3 Desalinated water and wastewater from Hurghada are used to cover the additional needs 28 IWaTec Winter school

29 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water consumption Desalination for irrigation RO units producing water with lower quality than drinking water Desalination units for irrigation TU Berlin 29 IWaTec Winter school

30 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water consumption Desalination for irrigation 2 RO units 5 wells of brackish water Max. production: 1500 m 3 /d (Lower quality than drinking water) Depth: m 30 IWaTec Winter school

31 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water (*10 3 m 3 ) Irrigation water consumption, year 2014 Total consumption, monthly variation m m SUM 2013 SUM 2014 Total m % Total m 3 31 IWaTec Winter school

32 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water (*10 3 m 3 ) Irrigation water consumption, year 2014 Consumption according to the water source m m m 3 WWTP Desalination Hurghada 32 IWaTec Winter school

33 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation Irrigation water water (*10 (%) 3 m 3 ) Irrigation water consumption, year 2014 Consumption according to the water source (%) m m m 3 WWTP Desalination Hurghada 33 IWaTec Winter school

34 Irrigation in El Gouna Irrigation water consumption, year 2014 Consumption according to the water source (%) 35.5 % 50.6 % 13.9 % WWTP Desalination Hurghada 34 IWaTec Winter school

35 Waste water management in El Gouna Challenge Water demand increases (mainly for irrigation purposes) Another desalination plant is planned to be constructed to cover the additional needs (production ca m 3 /d) Issues o Water source (brackish or seawater)? o Where to construct? o Quality of produced water? o Desalination method? o Brine water management? Costs 35 IWaTec Winter school

36 Considerations More efficient irrigation Irrigation technique (applied: sprinkler, drip) Time of irrigation Wastewater quality Irrigation water bad smell. Inefficient fats/grease removal Significant variation of WWTP s performance. Undesired components at the product water (e.g. ammonia, nitrites!) Cases with outlet parameters exceeding legislation limits for irrigation 36 IWaTec Winter school

37 Considerations Wastewater quality Improvement of wastewater treatment Performance monitoring - modifications and/or upgrading if necessary Relevant project Performance monitoring / response to seasonal variation of visitors number Improvement of fats/grease removal Investigation of aeration conditions - optimization Optimization of nitrification process Improvement of overall treatment performance 37 IWaTec Winter school

38 Considerations Nitrification Parameter Inlet Outlet Limits for irrigation NH 4 -N (mg/l) (av. 42.6) (av. 8) 5 NO 3 -N (mg/l) (av. 1.3) (av. 15) 10 NO 2 -N (mg/l) (av. 1.5) Responsible: Low DO (< 0.5 mg/l) Oxygen requirement: 4.57 g O 2 / g N oxidized Minimum requirement: DO of 1 mg/l NH O 2 NO H + + H 2 O NO O 2 NO 3 - NH O 2 NO H + + H 2 O Increase of DO: > 1 mg/l ph Buffer capacity? LOW! 1-2 Dec SWIM Regional Conference, Sharm El Sheik, Egypt

39 Considerations New project Alternative biofilm carrier material 69% Polyvinylidenchlorid filament 31% Polypropylen filament Weight: approx. 11 g/m 39 IWaTec Winter school

40 Considerations Wastewater quality (challenge) Considerable number of residents Hospital } Hazardous substances may end up in the wastewater (micropollutants) Investigation is needed and, if necessary, modification/upgrading of the treatment procedure 40 IWaTec Winter school

41 Thank you for your attention!

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