AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATES. Discovering who your bugs are:

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1 AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATES Discovering who your bugs are:

2 DEFINITION

3 MACROINVERTEBRATES USEFUL INDICATORS OF STREAM HEALTH: Occupy central role in the food chains of aquatic systems Shedders Scrapers Filter Feeders Predators

4 MACROINVERTEBRATES USEFUL INDICATORS OF STREAM HEALTH: Live for long periods of time in the water Some are sensitive to quite mild pollution or changes in Water Quality Relatively abundant, easily and inexpensively sampled

5 SAMPLING MACROINVERTEBRATES 10 m sweep maximum habitat diversity- 10 mins 2 habitat types Edge Riffle Equipment Waders 0.25mm mesh net bucket Sorting tray

6 Sorting and ID Live Sorting: Sort - 30mins placing one of each invertebrate into a ice cube tray. If at end of 30mins - find a new macro, sort for a further 10 mins. ( Maximum diversity) When finished sorting use reference texts and Keys to identify macroinvertebrate. The Waterbug Book Gooderham, J & Tsyrlin, E. A colour Guide to Macroinvertebrates of Aust. Inland Waters - Hawking, J. and Smith, F. Record on Results sheet: Circle the Order in column 1 and in column 2, estimating the number found.

7 Group Name: Survey site name/code: For further information refer to the Waterwatch Victoria Methods Manual Sample Collection: When collecting the sample work over an area of 10m for 10min. Live Sorting: Sort through the sample for 30mins removing one of each different aquatic invertebrate observed and place into a ice cube tray. If after 30mins you find an invertebrate that you haven t observed before, sort for a further 10 mins. When finished sorting use reference texts to identify each type of invertebrate. Circle the type in column 1 and in column 2, estimating the number found. Stream Condition Chart: From the total scores at the bottom of column 1 and 2 use the values to calculate a Stream Condition. From column 2 use the total no. of animals to find the abundance category. Use the scale on the side to rate abundance category (0-5) and the total in column 1 to find the matching box. Eg A sample with an abundance category of 4 and a total bug score of 40 will have a rating of Good. Group Size: Sample Type (circle): Edge or Riffle AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES NAME COMMON NAME ORDER Column 1 Column 2 Bug scores VERY SENSITIVE AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES Stonefly Nymph Plecoptera 8 Mayfly Nymph Ephemeroptera 7 Caddisfly Larvae Trichoptera 7 SENSITIVE AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES Toebiters/Dobsonflies Megaloptera 6 Damselfly Nymph Odonata 6 Dragonfly Nymph Odonata 6 Freshwater Mussel Bivalvia 5 Aquatic caterpillars Lepidoptera 5 Freshwater Shrimp/prawn Atyidae 5 Freshwater Yabby/Crayfish Decapoda 5 Water Mite Acarnia 5 Freshwater Slater Isopoda 5 TOLERANT AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES Hydra Hydrozoa 4 Beetle Larvae Coleoptera 4 True Bugs (Backswimmer, Water Hemiptera Boatman, Lesser Water Strider) 4 Side Swimmer/Scud Amphipod 4 AquaticBeetles (Diving Beetles, Coleoptera 3 Whirligig Beetles) Round worms Nematodes 3 Leech Hirudinea 3 Freshwater Snails Gastropoda 3 Flatworm Turbelliaria 3 VERY TOLERANT AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES Mosquito Larvae Diptera 2 Biting Midge Larvae Diptera 2 Fly Larvae (ie: True fly larvae, Black, crane, March/ 2 Horse, Dance, and Solider fly larvae Segmented Worm Oligochaeta 1 Non Biting Midges, Blood Worm Diptera 1 TOTALS Abundance Abundance Categories (Column 2) Overall Abundance Categories Nos. of animals Category > Date of Survey: Stream Condition Chart Fair Poor >35 Very Good Good Total Bug Score (Column 1)

8 SENSITIVITY RATINGS SIGNAL SCORES ( Chessman, B. 1995, 2003) Stream Index Grade Number Average Level Very sensitive (7-8) Sensitive (5-6) Tolerant (3-4) Very tolerant (1-2)

9 AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES: SMALL CRITTERS PAINTING A BIG PICTURE Disturbances to the stream will result in a change in the aquatic invertebrate community. These disturbances include: Nutrients from fertiliser runoff, grey water (sullage) and sewerage treatment plant (STP) effluent, Sedimentation from road runoff and Heavy Metals from road runoff and industrial effluent. 2. Continued disturbance will lead to a further change in the aquatic invertebrate community to even more pollution tolerant species. 1. Photo: Frank Coffa 3. In this sample there is a greater variety of species compared to the severely polluted sample, including caddisflies and mayflies. Disclaimer This publication may be of assistance to you but the State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication. Photo: Phil Papas This sample has the most diverse community compared to the others including pollution sensitive stoneflies, dragonflies and beetle larvae. Photo: Phil Papas Photo: Frank Coffa Photo: Frank Coffa 4. In this sample the fauna is dominated by pollution tolerant species, the majority of which are aquatic worms. With on going education we can improve our knowledge of stream degradation and begin to reverse the trend, bringing streams back to life. Photographs by Frank Coffa are Copyright Museum of Victoria. Photographs by Phil Papas are Copyright Department of Natural Resources and Environment. " Copyright The State of Victoria, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, 2002 "

10 Name that Bug Classification Order, Family ( with examples)

11 Classification Kingdom Animalia Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Odonata Family Aeshnidae Genus Austroaeschna Species unicornis unicornis Common name mudeye or daragonfly larvae

12 VERY SENSITIVE (7-8) Stonefly larvae (Order: Plecoptera)

13 Very Sensitive (7-8) Mayfly Nymph (Order: Ephemeroptera)

14 Very Sensitive (7-8) Caddisfly larvae (Order: Trichoptera)

15 Sensitive (5-6) Alderflies/Dobsonflies (Order:Megaloptera)

16 Sensitive (5-6) Dragonfly Nymph (Order:Odonata)

17 Sensitive (5-6) Damselfly Nymph (Order:Odonata)

18 Sensitive (5-6) Freshwater Mussels (Order:Bivalvia) Includes Pea Shell clams, max 10mm and Little Basket Shell clams, 10-25mm

19 Sensitive (5-6) Freshwater Shrimp (Order:Decapoda) Very common in Yarra usually transparent

20 Sensitive (5-6) Water Mite (Order:Acarina)

21 Tolerant (3-4) Beetle larvae (Order: Coleoptera)

22 Tolerant (3-4) Beetle Adults (Order: Coleoptera) Source: Source:Waterwatch Victoria

23 True Bugs Tolerant (3-4) (Order: Hermiptera) Backswimmer, Boatman, Water Scorpion, Water strider Boatman Backswimmer Water strider Water scorpion

24 Tolerant (3-4) Amphipod/Scud/Side Swimmer (Order: Amphipoda)

25 Tolerant (3-4) Nematodes/Roundworm (Order:Nematoda)

26 Tolerant (3-4) Leeches (Order:Hirudinea)

27 Tolerant (3-4) Freshwater Snails (Order: Gastropoda)

28 Tolerant (3-4) Flatworms (Phylum:Platyhelminthes)

29 Very Tolerant (1-2) Fly larvae (Order:Diptera) Including: Black fly, Crane fly, Horse fly, March fly, Soldier fly, Mosquito larvae )

30 Very Tolerant (1-2) Midge Larvae (Order:Diptera)

31 Very Tolerant (1-2) Segmented Worms (Order: Oligochaeta)

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