1 Innovative feedback strategies in clinical practice: A reflective approach Helen Griffiths Senior Lecturer - Senate Award Fellow Academic Unit of Ophthalmology & Orthoptics Margaret Freeman Faculty Director of Learning & Teaching Department of Human Communication Sciences
2 What we plan to do A Reflective Clinician: How do we achieve our aim? Reflective practice Methods and effectiveness New developments Online reflective portfolio with feedback flags Interactive tutor /student reflection Video patient assessment with student reflection & tutor feedback Discussion
3 Clinical Teaching: Do we achieve our aims?
4 Clinical Teaching: Do we achieve our aims? Competent to practice
5 Clinical Teaching: Do we achieve our aims?
6 Clinical Teaching: Do we achieve our aims? What s the difference?
7 Clinical Teaching: Do we achieve our aims? What s the difference? Academic ability Personality Communication Approach to clinical work Questioning Always looking to improve Evaluates - willing to change
8 Clinical Teaching: Do we achieve our aims? What s the difference? Academic ability Personality Communication Approach to clinical work Questioning Always looking to improve Evaluates- willing to change
9 Clinical Teaching: Do we achieve our aims? What s the difference? Academic ability Personality Communication Approach to clinical work Questioning Always looking to improve Evaluates- willing to change
10 The reflective clinician How do we achieve this?
11 The reflective clinician Thought to be a genuine way of fostering change in professional action to improve patient care.
12 The reflective clinician Thought to be a genuine way of fostering change in professional action to improve patient care.
13 The reflective clinician How do we achieve this? Thought to be a genuine way of fostering change in professional action to improve patient care. Being critically self aware is an acquired skill that comes with experience and great intellect Moran & Dallat, Moran, A. Dallat, J Promoting reflective practice in initial teacher training. International Journal of Educational Management, 9(5):
14 The reflective clinician How do we achieve this? Thought to be a genuine way of fostering change in professional action to improve patient care. Can individuals be forced to be reflective? Will students engage if it s not assessed? Being critically self aware is an acquired skill that comes with experience and great intellect Moran & Dallat (1995).
15 The reflective clinician How do we achieve this? Thought to be a genuine way of fostering change in professional action to improve patient care. Does the practice of RP for assessment purposes limit its effectiveness? Can individuals be forced to be reflective? Will student engage if it s not assessed? Being critically self aware is an acquired skill that comes with experience and great intellect Moran & Dallat (1995).
16 The reflective clinician How do we achieve this? Thought to be a genuine way of fostering change in professional action to improve patient care. Does the practice of RP for assessment purposes limit its effectiveness? Lack of advice in the literature regarding how best to assess reflection. Hargreaves (2004). Can individuals be forced to be reflective? Will student engage if it s not assessed? Being critically self aware is an acquired skill that comes with experience and great intellect Moran & Dallat (1995). Hargreaves, J So how do you feel about that? Assessing reflective practice. Nurse Education Today, 24(3):
17 Reflection during clinical placement Reflection during a clinical session Thinking, correcting, improving, questioning themselves during testing TIME to reflect at the end of the session to write notes / questions What succeeded? And why? What would you change? And why? What professional skills have improved? And why? What further action will you take? How will you use these reflections in future?
18 Reflection during clinical placement Reflection after the clinical session Encourage the use of reflective log books
19 Reflection during clinical placement Reflection after the clinical session Encourage the use of reflective log books Checks of these disappointing: Few entries Think only rare things interesting Often just a list of test results Vital information missing Little, if any, reflection / action
20 Reflection on return from placement Reflective practice meeting - academic tutor 15 minutes/student Present an account of a patient encounter and reflection on this What succeeded? And why? What would they change? And why? What have they learnt, how have they extended their knowledge? What professional skills improved? And why? What action have you taken to improve further? How will they use these reflections in future sessions?
21 Reflective practice meetings A total of 8 one-to-one reflective practice sessions Year 1 3 placements - total 7 weeks Challenge to talk in new professional language Year 2 Year 3 3 placements - total 12 weeks Struggle to select a case, haven t gone that step beyond what they did in clinic 3 placements - total 12 weeks Few approaching professional level - majority not What are we meant to be doing in reflective practice? Can we have more guidance?
22 Clinical Teaching - Best Practice Staff Student Committee Student Focus Groups Before Preparation Information Clinical Placements During Induction Supervision Feedback After Reflection Preparation
23 Clinical Teaching - Best Practice Staff Student Committee Student Focus Groups Structure Guided reflection What will we gain? Before Preparation Information Clinical Placements During Induction Supervision Feedback After Reflection Preparation
24 Development of online reflective portfolio with tutor feedback
25 Development of online reflective portfolio with tutor feedback
26 Development of online reflective portfolio with tutor feedback
27 Development of online reflective portfolio with tutor feedback Whose information is it? Should we expect this to be accepted by all students? If compulsory, does it still retain validity as genuine reflection Only achieves the aim if the student is comfortable sharing with the tutor and thinks this type of experience/feedback will be helpful Necessary skill to develop evidence of reflective practice for CPD / registration Ghaye, T. (2007) Is reflective practice ethical? (The case of the reflective portfolio). Reflective Practice, 8; 2:
28 Development of online reflective portfolio with tutor feedback Only do unto others what you would like them to do to you!
29 A reflective clinician Mindful practitioners attend to their own physical and mental processes during ordinary, everyday tasks. This critical selfreflection enables physicians to listen attentively to patients distress, recognize their own errors, refine their technical skills, make evidence-based decisions, and clarify their values so that they can act with compassion, technical competence, presence and insight. Although mindfulness cannot be taught explicitly, it can be modelled by mentors and cultivated in learners. (Epstein, 1999) Epstein, R.M. (1999). Mindful practice, JAMA, 282(9), p
30 Cultivating reflection Problem-based learning using real examples from National Paediatric and Strabismus Network Questions and problems experts in the field were asking Much more focused Real life" it mattered more Encouraged critical thinking with a matter of urgency Challenged to develop a strategy for arriving at a solution What could they add? Important contribution?
31 Anonymity Not to be shared outside the group Professional behaviour and standards apply Development of Tutor shared reflective practice
32 Development of Tutor shared reflective practice Presenting features My expectations for clinical findings Inconsistencies in test finding My analysis of this and clinical decision Questions I have on this case My actions What have I learnt?
33 Development of Tutor shared reflective practice Video Journal Using evidence to predict outcome of treatment in my case Journal abstract Applying case to literature
34 Found journal article to support poor outcomes where other neurological deficits Questions dosage of BT used, refers to table of dosage Relates this to own experience on placement at Moorfields Eye Hospital, questions dose/effect relationship
35 Case presentation Unusual findings post-op How I communicated with the patient Clinical outcome What I did I do to gain successful outcome? Served as a reminder of anxiety faced by patients Action What have I learnt? How this experience will influence my future practice. Several responses
36 Description of the clinical situation and problems with the testing area Case presentation Unusual findings post-op How I communicated with the patient Clinical outcome Outline of my ideas to improve this and actions taken
37 Student feedback This is a great insight into the types of problems Helen faces in clinic and how she deals with them. It provides a challenge for me to see if I can answer the questions and find some evidence for the group. Competitive If they are doing it, I must do it Developing the want to learn / need to learn
38 Student feedback I have never replied or added to a discussion as I m not confident to do that but I still learn a lot by thinking about the cases. I have found it helpful to see how others approach their reflective practice so that I can use similar strategies during my reflective practice The uspace group makes reflective practice seem something that is easier to achieve, whereas in the past I feel that it has been difficult. Has a template for own reflection Making sense of it
39 Outcomes of reflection Negative Extra pressure/ time Lack of Impact Reflection without learning Rejection by students Inappropriate disclosure Boud & Walker, 1998 Positive Promotes deep learning Increased awareness Improved thoughtfulness before and during practice Allows bridging theory and practice Encourages evidencebased practice Makes practice more interesting Develops ownership In red added by me
40 Margaret s commentary on Helen s approach We don t see things as they are, we see things as we are (Anais Nin, quoted by Epstein, 1999)
41 Research into practice knowledge and learning tell us: Learning in practice is different from learning in HEI (Hamm, 1988; Schön, 1995; ) Practice know how may be tacit and not readily articulated (Eraut, 1995; Higgs & Titchen, (2001) Clinicians may also be unused to articulating aspects of their practice in detail (Epstein, 1999) Students may not be able to see the detail or complexity of practice, without some support and guidance (Stengelhofen, 1992) So, students may not have an adequate template for reflection The process needs to be articulated (eg Helen s model)
42 REFLECTION Helen provides effective practice learning by: Modelling reflection on practice (Schön, 1983) Cognitive apprenticeship (Collins et al.,1989) Deconstructing the processes Providing signposts to learning, to: specific events/critical points her expert thinking processes (tacit > explicit) the process of seeking the evidence base Scaffolding students learning Collaborative learning student & tutor share in problem-solving
43 Comparison of learning contexts: students responses University Context ( environment, patients, staff, peers) and the student role are familiar Student may remain passive Information usually provided in structured, linear form in lectures Or, guidelines are provided, goals of learning activity are explicit Emphasis typically on knowing that (Eraut, 1994) Clinic New context, new role Context requires student to be more active Information may emerge in different time frames; structure of information tends to be less clear The information available may be tacit, may require deduction and reasoning but guidelines, structure etc may be implicit Emphasis on knowing how
44 How can we enable students to transfer learning, from classroom to practice? IF: We don t see things as they are, we see things as we are THEN: We need to encourage students to learn how to think like a practitioner, before they leave the university The question is, how can Uni staff help to: make the tacit thinking processes more overt? enable the student to develop the cognitive skills?
45 ViSUAL Voice: an example of bridging the gap between classroom and clinic STARTING POINT: Action in the diagnostic interview tends to be: Responsive to patient s telling of the story Rapid and dynamic Possibly messy, as a result Student observers may not see the significance ACTION PLAN Record an interview Construct tutorial which guides observation & clinical reasoning
46 Construction of Tutorial Initial interview recorded Context transcribed and analysed by 2 tutors (DS as clinician ; MF as tutor ) Interview split into small sections Questions asked of students, eg: What s happening here? What s the rationale for SLT s question? What does this task tell us?
47 Questions emerge at end of recording Tutor s answers emerge after student has responded
48 At the end of the tutorial, student is required to complete summary of findings and write report to the ENT consultant
49 Value of ViSUAL as learning tool (Staff perspective) Consistent experience for all students Slows down the action and makes learning points explicit Available for different learning points As part of the formal lecture course Preparation for Masterclass Real time interview by experienced SLT Students borrow CD-Rom to rehearse before undertaking initial interview DOWNSIDE: It took ages to deconstruct the content and write the tutorial! A bit didactic?
50 Student Feedback about VISUAL It helped me that I could look back and think about each little bit The questions and answers really made me understand what you mean by theory in practice I wish we had one of these for each patient group It helped me prepare for my first interview
51 A Reflective Clinician: How do we achieve our aim? One method won t suit all Use a mixture Compulsory or assessed reflection - may not be true reflection Without compulsory or assessed nature students may not engage Acquired skill Needs cultivating Consider the use of role model Shared supportive reflection Demonstrate the value / be explicit about benefits and rewards Required skill To achieve clinical excellence CPD evidence for HPC
52 References Boud, D., Walker, D (1998) "Promoting reflection in professional courses: The challenge of context." Studies in Higher Education, 23(2) Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1987). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing and mathematics (Technical Report No. 403). BBN Laboratories, Cambridge, MA. Centre for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois. January, Epstein, R.M. (1999). Mindful practice, JAMA, 282(9), p Eraut, M. (1995) Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence, Falmer Press, London. Ghaye, T. (2007) Is reflective practice ethical? (The case of the reflective portfolio). Reflective Practice, 8; 2: Hargreaves, J. (2004). So how do you feel about that? Assessing reflective practice. Nurse Education Today, 24(3):
53 References (continued) Higgs J and Titchen A (2001) Practice knowledge and expertise in the health professions. Butterworth, Heinemann. Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning: experience as the source of learning and development. London: Prentice Hall. Moran, A., Dallat, J. (1995). Promoting reflective practice in initial teacher training. International Journal of Educational Management,9(5): Schön, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner; How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books. Stengelhofen, J. (1992) Teaching Students in Clinical Settings (Therapy in Practice). London: Nelson Thornes Ltd
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