CHAPTER 10 THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Study Guide Answers

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1 CHAPTER 10 THE ROMAN REPUBLIC Study Guide Answers

2 1. Describe the geography of Italy. In geography terms, Italy is a peninsula. It has a rugged landscape with many mountains and hills. It is surrounded by seas on three sides and has many important rivers throughout.

3 2. Name the two mountain ranges and their location. Alps- Northern Italy Apennines- Central/ Middle

4 3. What is the capital of Italy? Who founded it? The capital of Italy is Rome. It was founded by Romulus and Remus. The name Rome comes from Romulus.

5 4. Explain the importance of the Tiber River to Rome. Rome was built on the banks of the Tiber river. It was built there to honor the spot where Romulus and Remus were rescued by the wolf. The river is also important because it is a freshwater source and an avenue for trade.

6 5. Who was Aeneas? What epic poem was written about him and by whom? The Trojan hero that united the Latin tribes in Italy. He is the ancestor of Romulus and Remus. Virgil wrote the epic poem the Aeneid to tell the story of Aeneas travels to Italy from Troy.

7 6. Explain the Etruscans contributions to Roman society? They were people that lived north of Rome but lived there before Rome was founded. They built large temples in Rome, taught Romans their alphabet, and built Rome s first sewer. Many of Rome s earliest Kings were Etruscan.

8 7. Why was the last Roman King overthrown? He was very cruel and had many people killed. The Roman nobles knew things would not improve so they had to overthrow him.

9 8. Who was Cincinnatus? What was he known for? He was farmer in Rome that was chosen to be dictator in 458 BC because Rome was being attacked. He quickly defeated his enemies and left his job as dictator well before his six month term was up. He is viewed as a strong and noble leader.

10 9. What event was most influential in causing the patricians to change the Roman government? Plebeians formed a council and elected their own officials.

11 10. Explain the Roman class system. What characterized each group?

12 11. Explain the three parts of Rome s tripartite government system that was established during the Roman Republic? Part 1- Magistrates- run the city and manage the army. Top two magistrates were the consuls. Two consuls must always be in place so that one does not gain more power than the other. Both magistrates and consuls were elected annually. Part 2- Senate- served for life- very influential- job was the advise the consuls, had been around before the Republic. First was only Patricians- but later wealthy Plebeians could join too. Part 3- Two branch system- both elected annually Assemblies- both classes participated- their primary job was to elect the magistrates who ran the city of Rome. Also approved laws and could declare war Tribunes- office could only be held by Plebeians and controlled the power of the veto

13 12. In what way was the Roman law of the Twelve tables similar to the U.S. constitution? They both were written to protect people s rights.

14 13. What are examples of Roman civic duty? Civic duty was important to Romans. They did the following activities to improve their society: Attend assembly meetings Vote in elections Hold public office

15 14. Where were all activities held in Rome? It s translation means public place. The Forum

16 15. What do togas symbolize? Citizenship

17 16. Why did the Romans expand their trade network? They needed to bring in food from the other parts of the Mediterranean for their growing population.

18 17. Explain how the Roman army was divided and key points about it. The Roman army was very large, strong, and organized. Rome s army was divided into legions. A legion was a group of soldiers as many as 6,000. Legions of 6,000 soldiers were divided into groups called centuries, which had 100 soldiers. By dividing the army into legions and then into small groups called centuries, it allowed the Roman army to quickly adapt to their enemies.

19 18. Describe the importance of Hannibal in the Punic Wars. When did he attack Rome? Hannibal considered to be one of the greatest military generals of the ancient world. He led an attack on Rome in 218 BC and began the second Punic War.

20 19. Why could Roman coins be found throughout the Mediterranean? Roman influence and wealth spread throughout the region as they increased trade to feed their populations.

21 20. Describe the Punic Wars The Punic Wars were a series of 3 wars against Carthage, a city in Northern Africa that lasted over the course of a 120 years. During the first and second Punic War, Carthage attacked Rome first. Rome won both wars. During the 2 nd fought Hannibal in many battles and finally defeated him in the battle of Zama. During the last Punic War, the Romans attack Carthage, and then upon their defeat of Carthage burn the city, kill most of its people, sell the rest into slavery, and throw salt over where the city used to be so nothing would ever grow there again.

22 21. What effect did the killing of the Gracchus brothers had on Roman politics? Romans saw that violence could be used as a political weapon.

23 22. What was Gaius Marius most known for? He allowed poor men to join the Roman armies and became a great military leader with great influence because of this.

24 23. Who was Lucius Cornelius Sulla? What is he most remembered for? Lucius Cornelius Sulla became a consul in 88 BC and quickly became a rival of Gaius Marius. He created his own army, which led to a civil war in Rome. Sulla declared himself as dictator and used his power to punish enemies. Keep the Senate though, and increased it s power to ensure his power.

25 24. What happened to Spartacus and his followers following the end of their rebellion? Spartacus dies in battle. The rebellion falls apart- the slaves are captured. Marcus Crassus crucifies 6,000 of Spartacus's followers on the road between Rome and Capua to set an example.

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