Viruses: LECTURE TOPICS

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Viruses: LECTURE TOPICS"

Transcription

1 Viruses: LECTURE TOPICS Types of viruses: RNA and DNA Virus assembly: Simple (TMV) Complex (T4 bacteriophage) RNA viruses: Replication/Infection Strategies (poliovirus) Membrane Viruses Influenza A SARS West Nile Retroviruses (RNA to DNA)

2 Avian flu mania

3 Another victim of avian flu

4 Types of Viruses * Some Other SS- RNA viruses: * Retroviruses SARS West Nile Hantavirus

5 (+ RNA) Poliovirus: Egypt, 1,500 BC

6 (+ RNA) TMV [Tobaco Mosaic Virus] Systemic Local lesions

7 The Tulip Folly (Jean-Leon Gerome, 1882)

8 (+ RNA) Tulip Breaking (mosaic) virus Tulipomania in Holland (1630 s) One bulb starts centuries of industry.

9 Tulipomania Warning: Don t buy or sell tulips. (Dutch pamphlet, 1637) The Viseroij tulip sold (1637) for the equivalent of $2,000,000 (US 2003)

10 (- RNA) Rabies virus, Iraq (13 th Century A.D.) Translation?

11 (ds DNA) Smallpox virus: Vaccine (cowpox) Jenner (1798) Cartoon (1802)

12 Shogun Yoritomo victorious over smallpox (art is 19 th Century) Smallpox was eradicated in 1977 (last naturally occurring case in Somalia)

13 (+ RNA) TMV [Tobaco Mosaic Virus] : Self-assembles A simple virus: [1 RNA, 1 protein] Might expect assembly to start at one end and zip up to other end. But: Why 2 RNA tails on assembling firecrackers

14 TMV Assembly is complex 1) Assembly starts at an internal RNA hairpin about 1,000 bases from 3 -end of RNA 2) 5 -end is pulled through center hole as lock washers of coat protein are added 1 2

15 (ds-dna) Bacteriophage T4 is more complex: - Assembles in a strict sequential order - T4 scaffold proteins and proteases assist assembly

16 RNA virus replication strategies: (+) and (-) refer to sense of RNA in virus particle (+) RNA is a translatable mrna (-) RNA must be copied to (+) to be translated

17 Poliovirus: (+) RNA (-) RNA (+) mrna For new virus or for translation to viral proteins

18 Poliovirus nucleocapsid structure self-assembles Protein coat structure is icosahedral

19 Poliovirus RNA codes for a polyprotein that is cleaved to form: 1) RNA replicase 2) Protease, some other proteins 3) Proteins for mature virus nucleocapsid P1 [7,500 bases]

20 Membrane viruses: Semliki Forest Virus (ss RNA)

21 Membrane virus infects cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis Cell and viral membrane fuse

22 Membrane virus buds from cell membrane: Creates new virus that has cell s membrane as a coat (containing virus proteins) and a nucleocapsid inside

23 What type of virus is this?

24 West Nile Virus (+RNA) 11kb

25 West Nile Virus in Arizona and Pima County (end of Summer 2003)

26 What type of virus is this?

27 SARS coronavirus (+RNA, 30k bases)

28 SARS coronavirus genome (+RNA) Longest RNA virus genome (29,736 bases)

29

30 Beijing, April 23, 2003

31 * SARS: 8 steps to prevention

32 SARS, Nipah, Hendra, Ebola?, Marburg? Reservoir hosts are bats (not cats) Chinese bats identified as carriers of SARS-like coronaviruses. Bats are also known as natural reservoir hosts to other disease pathogens. (Science, Oct 28, 2005) Black flying fox: the bat that carries Hendra viruses (Asia)

33 Influenza A in art: Grippe (French) from khrip (Russian) [drift variant]

34 Influenza A Virus: A membrane virus H#N# (Ex: H5N1) virus strain terminology (-) RNAs, 8 different ones

35 Influenza A Virus: A membrane virus Cell entry by endocytosis of a virus particle Virus and endosome membranes fuse Virus protein in cell membrane New virus nucleoprotein capsid coated by cell membrane

36 Influenza A Hemaglutinin mutations can and do lead to loss of immunity conferred by vaccine each year Antigenic drift: Influenza A Hemaglutinin is highly mutable at sialic acid receptor binding sites Antigenic drift: Neuraminidase also is highly mutable at sialic acid cleavage sites

37 Influenza A Hemaglutinin mutations can and do lead to loss of immunity conferred by vaccine each year Antigenic drift: Neuraminidase also is highly mutable at sialic acid cleavage sites

38 The Influenza Sequence Database NORTHERN HEMISPHERE VACCINE STRAIN SELECTIONS The trivalent influenza vaccine for the season includes: A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like virus A/California/7/2003 (H3N2)-like virus B/Shanghai/361/2002-like virus.

39 Sleeping with the Enemies

40 Influenza A infects man, birds, pigs, horses, other? Migrating birds are a source of global transmission * New combination of RNAs: A new virus strain [antigenic shift variant]

41 * 1918 Spanish flu pandemic killed 20 million people same flu killed 20 million more. Accounted for 80% of US Army deaths in WWI. New combination of RNAs: A new virus strain [shift variant] H1N1 [humans, pigs] * Die Familie (Egon Schiele, 1917) In 1918, Edith died within 48 hrs (6 mo. pregnant) Egon died 4 days later (28 yrs old)

42 Influenza A pandemics and predominant strains H1N1: humans, pigs H = hemagglutinin N = neuraminidase

43 Influenza A pandemics and predominant strains [Genetic drift vs shift variants] New flu strain appears in human population Pandemic

44 Influenza A pandemics and predominant strains [Genetic drift vs shift variants] RNA RNA RNA

45 Avian flu threat: Influenza A is spread by migratory birds along major global flyways

46

47 Avian flu prevention: Avoid sneezing chickens!

48

49

50

51 Virus Life Cycles and Infection Strategies Scenario 1: Infect + make more virus (polio, flu) Scenario 2: Tale of two fates (λ bacteriophage) Scenario 3: Tale of a few fates (retroviruses)

52 VIRUS LIFE CYCLE Scenario 1: Infect + make more virus 1) Attachment 2) Penetration 3) Uncoating 4) Transcription and translation 5) Genome replication 6) Virus assembly 7) Virus Release

53 VIRUS LIFE CYCLE Scenario 2: Bacteriophage lambda (λ) life cycle [A tale of two fates] 1 new 2 [Latent]

54 Scenario 3: HIV (Retrovirus) [A tale of a few fates] ds DNA genome (provirus) integrates in chromosome like λ phage Provirus

55 Retrovirus virion (HIV, RNA tumor viruses) [core] [env] [pol]

56 Retrovirus RNA tumor viruses (oncogenic) Avian sarcoma virus genome Reverse transcriptase oncogene * Core proteins proteins in membrane Involved in replication

57 Retrovirus reverse transcriptase: Has 3 different enzyme activities RNase H [1 st DNA strand] [Cuts RNA] [2 nd DNA strand]

58 Retrovirus genome replication is complex [Viral RNA] [ds-dna]

59 Retrovirus RNA ds-dna by reverse transcriptase Reverse transcriptase has 3 different enzyme activities 1. RNA-directed DNA polymerase (1 st DNA strand) 2. RNase H (ribonuclease that removes viral RNA) 3. DNA-directed DNA polymerase (2 nd strand DNA) Product is a double stranded DNA copy of viral genome Inserts (integrates) into chromosome (uses viral integrase)

60 Retrovirus RNA tumor viruses (oncogenic) Avian sarcoma virus genome Reverse transcriptase oncogene * Core proteins proteins in membrane Involved in replication

61 Retroviral oncogenes Proteins coded Oncogene name Retrovirus

62 Viral oncogenes code for variants of normal cell proteins (proto-oncogenes) that is involved in control of cell growth and division Ex: v-erbb erbb protein (gene is always on) causes cancer cells to proliferate. is a tyrosine kinase is a growth factor receptor

63 HIV and AIDS: LECTURE TOPICS HIV virus Life Cycle RNA Genome Regulation of HIV gene expression Relation to other retroviruses Transmisison of HIV and AIDS in humans HIV infection tafrges in humans Potential AIDS therapies Vaccine for HIV? * HIV mutation rates HIGH (like transcription 10-4 to 10-5 )

64 HIV virus particle HIV virus attachment and entry into cell New HIV virus buds from cell membrane

65

66 HIV genome

67

68 Fates of HIV target cells

69

70 HIV therapies and vaccine possibilities [can target any stage, theoretically] Provirus

71 AZT

72

73

Viruses. Viral components: Capsid. Chapter 10: Viruses. Viral components: Nucleic Acid. Viral components: Envelope

Viruses. Viral components: Capsid. Chapter 10: Viruses. Viral components: Nucleic Acid. Viral components: Envelope Viruses Chapter 10: Viruses Lecture Exam #3 Wednesday, November 22 nd (This lecture WILL be on Exam #3) Dr. Amy Rogers Office Hours: MW 9-10 AM Too small to see with a light microscope Visible with electron

More information

1. Overview of Animal Viruses

1. Overview of Animal Viruses Chapter 13B: Animal Viruses 1. Overview of Animal Viruses 2. DNA Viruses 3. RNA Viruses 4. Prions 1. Overview of Animal Viruses Life Cycle of Animal Viruses The basic life cycle stages of animal viruses

More information

Viral Replication. I. Steps in Viral Replication. Scott M. Hammer

Viral Replication. I. Steps in Viral Replication. Scott M. Hammer Scott M. Hammer Viral Replication I. Steps in Viral Replication A. Attachment. This is the first step in viral replication. Surface proteins of the virus interact with specific receptors on the target

More information

Viral Replication. Viral Replication: Basic Concepts

Viral Replication. Viral Replication: Basic Concepts Viral Replication Scott M. Hammer, M.D. Viral Replication: Basic Concepts Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites Viruses carry their genome (RNA or DNA) and sometimes functional proteins required

More information

(ii) They are smaller than bacteria, and this can pass through bacteriological filter.

(ii) They are smaller than bacteria, and this can pass through bacteriological filter. Viruses Definition: Obligate intracellular parasite composed of: Nucleic acid - either DNA or RNA & Protein coat. Characteristics of viruses Viruses are the most primitive cellular and non-cytoplasmic

More information

Single celled organisms

Single celled organisms Single celled organisms Single Celled Organisms Some organisms, unlike plants and animals, consist of only one cell. These organisms are said to be unicellular An amoeba is another name given to an organism

More information

Viruses. Strategies for Virion Formation

Viruses. Strategies for Virion Formation Viruses Viruses are important to biologists for several reasons. They are the simplest form of life. Indeed they are so simple that they exist on the borderline between the living and the inanimate, non-biological

More information

VIRUSES AND CANCER. Michael Lea

VIRUSES AND CANCER. Michael Lea VIRUSES AND CANCER 2012 Michael Lea VIRAL ONCOLOGY - LECTURE OUTLINE 1. Historical Review 2. Viruses Associated with Cancer 3. RNA Tumor Viruses 4. DNA Tumor Viruses HISTORICAL REVIEW Historical Review

More information

Viral Infection: Receptors

Viral Infection: Receptors Viral Infection: Receptors Receptors: Identification of receptors has come from expressing the gene for the receptor in a cell to which a virus does not normally bind -OR- By blocking virus attachment

More information

Structure and Function of DNA

Structure and Function of DNA Structure and Function of DNA DNA and RNA Structure DNA and RNA are nucleic acids. They consist of chemical units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined by a sugar-phosphate backbone. The four

More information

Alison Stewart 11/12/06 Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic cells and HIV: Structures, Transcription and Transport Section Handout Discussion Week #7

Alison Stewart 11/12/06 Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic cells and HIV: Structures, Transcription and Transport Section Handout Discussion Week #7 Alison Stewart 11/12/06 Prokaryotic Cells, Eukaryotic cells and HIV: Structures, Transcription and Transport Section Handout Discussion Week #7 Compare and contrast the organization of eukaryotic, prokaryotic

More information

Information The rapid evolution of influenza viruses

Information The rapid evolution of influenza viruses 1 Information The rapid evolution of influenza viruses The influenza-a virus Influenza virus type A (Fig. 1) can occur in different variants. Its genetic information is segmented and consists of 8 separate

More information

Recognition of a host cell Attachment is a specific process

Recognition of a host cell Attachment is a specific process Viruses: The Ultimate Parasites Reading How many childhood diseases can you recall having: mumps, measles, German measles? A generation ago or so ago, these diseases attacked mainly children and were extremely

More information

Final Review. Aptamers. Making Aptamers: SELEX 6/3/2011. sirna and mirna. Central Dogma. RNAi: A translation regulation mechanism.

Final Review. Aptamers. Making Aptamers: SELEX 6/3/2011. sirna and mirna. Central Dogma. RNAi: A translation regulation mechanism. Central Dogma Final Review Section Week 10 DNA RNA Protein DNA DNA replication DNA RNA transcription RNA Protein translation **RNA DNA reverse transcription http://bass.bio.uci.edu/~hudel/bs99a/lecture20/lecture1_1.html

More information

C:\Documents and Settings\George H. Timm\My Documents\Microbiology Sept 08\Micro 260 Notes\Chapter 13 Virus\How do viruses differ.

C:\Documents and Settings\George H. Timm\My Documents\Microbiology Sept 08\Micro 260 Notes\Chapter 13 Virus\How do viruses differ. Virus C:\Documents and Settings\George H. Timm\My Documents\Microbiology Sept 08\Micro 260 Notes\Chapter 13 Virus\How do viruses differ.wpd How do viruses differ? 1) genetic material within a virus a.

More information

Transfection-Transfer of non-viral genetic material into eukaryotic cells. Infection/ Transduction- Transfer of viral genetic material into cells.

Transfection-Transfer of non-viral genetic material into eukaryotic cells. Infection/ Transduction- Transfer of viral genetic material into cells. Transfection Key words: Transient transfection, Stable transfection, transfection methods, vector, plasmid, origin of replication, reporter gene/ protein, cloning site, promoter and enhancer, signal peptide,

More information

Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA (Chapter 9) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College

Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA (Chapter 9) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA (Chapter 9) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Source for figures and content: Eastern Campus Tortora, G.J. Microbiology

More information

Name: Understanding Viruses. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu.

Name: Understanding Viruses. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu. Name: Understanding Viruses Section 1 1. List as many viruses as you can. HIV, Herpes, Influenza, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, bird flu, swine flu. 2. How do viruses reproduce? (aside from the

More information

VACCINE DEVELOPMENT USING RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

VACCINE DEVELOPMENT USING RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY VACCINE DEVELOPMENT USING RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY Animal Agriculture's Future through Biotechnology Mark W. Jackwood, Leslie Hickle, Sanjay Kapil and Robert F. Silva Vaccines Represent one of the Greatest

More information

Bacteria vs. Virus: What s the Difference? Grade 11-12

Bacteria vs. Virus: What s the Difference? Grade 11-12 Bacteria vs. Virus: What s the Difference? Grade 11-12 Subject: Biology Topic: Bacteria, viruses, and the differences between them. The role that water plays in spreading bacteria and viruses, and the

More information

Various Viral Vectors Necessary for Gene Therapy Delivery Systems. Abstract

Various Viral Vectors Necessary for Gene Therapy Delivery Systems. Abstract Patibandla 1 Yamini Patibandla Dr. Rance LeFebvre COSMOS UC Davis Cluster 7 29 July 2013 Various Viral Vectors Necessary for Gene Therapy Delivery Systems Abstract A leading movement in today s times,

More information

Fig. 13.03. Specialized Transduction. Vaccinia Virus. What is a Virus? Outline of Lecture. Result = horizontal gene transfer Fig. 13.

Fig. 13.03. Specialized Transduction. Vaccinia Virus. What is a Virus? Outline of Lecture. Result = horizontal gene transfer Fig. 13. Viruses and Prions Outline of Lecture Viral basics and interesting facts Three interactions with host Influenza, herpes, genital warts HIV-AIDS Prions Discussion question--can viruses be beneficial? Questions

More information

Influenza: the scourge of the phantom menace

Influenza: the scourge of the phantom menace Influenza: the scourge of the phantom menace Darth Maul Narrator: Kin-Chow Chang Recent swine flu news coverage Doctors shocked by spread of swine flu and its severity By Jeremy Laurance, Health Editor,

More information

Catching the Flu: A Photo Essay

Catching the Flu: A Photo Essay May 2006 Catching the Flu: A Photo Essay As it tests a new way of making vaccines, TechnoVax is targeting the deadly 1918 flu virus. By Stephan Herrera (MIT Technology Review) Jose Galarza is the CEO of

More information

We start our exploration of the diversity of life with

We start our exploration of the diversity of life with 33 Viruses Concept Outline 33.1 Viruses are strands of nucleic acid encased within a protein coat. The Discovery of Viruses. The first virus to be isolated proved to consist of two chemicals, one a protein

More information

Pandemic Risk Assessment

Pandemic Risk Assessment Research Note Pandemic Risk Assessment By: Katherine Hagan Copyright 2013, ASA Institute for Risk & Innovation Keywords: pandemic, Influenza A, novel virus, emergency response, monitoring, risk mitigation

More information

Biochemistry of Swine Flu. SMPatel

Biochemistry of Swine Flu. SMPatel Biochemistry of Swine Flu SMPatel Clinical Features Great overlap among Common cold Seasonal Flu Swine flu Bird Flu Laboratory tests are only way to differenciate them ClinicalFeature Common Seasonal Cold

More information

MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER

MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER MUTATION, DNA REPAIR AND CANCER 1 Mutation A heritable change in the genetic material Essential to the continuity of life Source of variation for natural selection New mutations are more likely to be harmful

More information

VIRUSES. Basic virus structure. Obligate intracellular parasites. Enveloped Viruses. Classification of Viruses. Viruses. Heyer 1

VIRUSES. Basic virus structure. Obligate intracellular parasites. Enveloped Viruses. Classification of Viruses. Viruses. Heyer 1 Viruses VIRUSES Viruses are small packages of genes Consist of protein coat around nucleic acids ( or RNA) Viruses measured in nanometers (nm). Require electron microscopy. Obligate intracellular parasites

More information

IMMUNOLOGY OF HIV INFECTION AND AIDS. Interactions between HIV and the immune system

IMMUNOLOGY OF HIV INFECTION AND AIDS. Interactions between HIV and the immune system IMMUNOLOGY OF HIV INFECTION AND AIDS Interactions between HIV and the immune system Basic Statistics United States In the U.S. in 2010, 1.1 million people were living with HIV infection. About 50,000 people

More information

restriction enzymes 350 Home R. Ward: Spring 2001

restriction enzymes 350 Home R. Ward: Spring 2001 restriction enzymes 350 Home Restriction Enzymes (endonucleases): molecular scissors that cut DNA Properties of widely used Type II restriction enzymes: recognize a single sequence of bases in dsdna, usually

More information

T h. Immunity. Why? Model 1 Cell Mediated Response. How does our immune system protect us from disease?

T h. Immunity. Why? Model 1 Cell Mediated Response. How does our immune system protect us from disease? Why? Immunity How does our immune system protect us from disease? One way in which organisms maintain homeostasis is by detecting foreign cells and particles like pathogens and cancer cells. Once the pathogen

More information

Retroviruses May 14 th 2015

Retroviruses May 14 th 2015 Retroviruses May 14 th 2015 I. Retroviruses Overview Retroviruses are termed retro because they encode a reverse transcriptase enzyme. It s apt, because they start with an RNA genome, which is reverse

More information

Swine Influenza Special Edition Newsletter

Swine Influenza Special Edition Newsletter Swine Influenza Newsletter surrounding swine flu, so that you ll have the right facts to make smart decisions for yourself and your family. While the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for

More information

RNA Viruses. A Practical Approac h. Alan J. Cann

RNA Viruses. A Practical Approac h. Alan J. Cann RNA Viruses A Practical Approac h Alan J. Cann List of protocols page xiii Abbreviations xvii Investigation of RNA virus genome structure 1 A j. Easton, A.C. Marriott and C.R. Pringl e 1 Introduction-the

More information

Biology and Society, Exam II

Biology and Society, Exam II iology and Society, Exam II Name There are 50 multiple choice questions. Answer A for true, for false. Write your NAME on the scantron and above, and ID NUMER in the identification number blank on the

More information

CHAPTER 6: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY YEAR III PHARM.D DR. V. CHITRA

CHAPTER 6: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY YEAR III PHARM.D DR. V. CHITRA CHAPTER 6: RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY YEAR III PHARM.D DR. V. CHITRA INTRODUCTION DNA : DNA is deoxyribose nucleic acid. It is made up of a base consisting of sugar, phosphate and one nitrogen base.the

More information

The public health risk of influenza in pigs recent insights, key knowledge gaps

The public health risk of influenza in pigs recent insights, key knowledge gaps The public health risk of influenza in pigs recent insights, key knowledge gaps Prof. Kristien Van Reeth Laboratory of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Belgium H1N1, H3N2 and

More information

Viruses and Prokaryotes

Viruses and Prokaryotes Viruses and Prokaryotes Cellular Basis of Life Q: Are all microbes that make us sick made of living cells? 20.1 What is a virus? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: A virus is a tiny particle that can make people

More information

Chapter 9. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

Chapter 9. Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Chapter 9 Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Q&A Interferons are species specific, so that interferons to be used in humans must be produced in human cells. Can you think

More information

Compiled and/or written by Amy B. Vento and David R. Gillum

Compiled and/or written by Amy B. Vento and David R. Gillum Fact Sheet Describing Recombinant DNA and Elements Utilizing Recombinant DNA Such as Plasmids and Viral Vectors, and the Application of Recombinant DNA Techniques in Molecular Biology Compiled and/or written

More information

Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology

Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology Chapter 18 Lecture Objectives What Is Recombinant DNA? How Are New Genes Inserted into Cells? What Sources of DNA Are Used in Cloning? What Other Tools Are Used to Study

More information

How the Vaccine is Made. Vaccine Protects. Similar Pathogen. Toxoid Vaccine. Heat Killed Vaccine. Naked DNA Vaccine.

How the Vaccine is Made. Vaccine Protects. Similar Pathogen. Toxoid Vaccine. Heat Killed Vaccine. Naked DNA Vaccine. Name: Date: Period: Making Background: A vaccine against a disease works by generating an immune response in the body against some kind of pathogen a virus, bacterium or some other agent that causes the

More information

Recombinant DNA Technology

Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA Technology Dates in the Development of Gene Cloning: 1965 - plasmids 1967 - ligase 1970 - restriction endonucleases 1972 - first experiments in gene splicing 1974 - worldwide moratorium

More information

Understanding Viruses, Third Edition Includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access

Understanding Viruses, Third Edition Includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access This item was created as a helpful tool for you, our valued customer, and is not intended for resale, dissemination, or duplication. Understanding Viruses, Third Edition Includes Navigate 2 Advantage Access

More information

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells.

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells. Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components

More information

Chapter 29. DNA as the Genetic Material. Recombination of DNA. BCH 4054 Chapter 29 Lecture Notes. Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Chapter 29, Page 1

Chapter 29. DNA as the Genetic Material. Recombination of DNA. BCH 4054 Chapter 29 Lecture Notes. Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Chapter 29, Page 1 BCH 4054 Chapter 29 Lecture Notes 1 Chapter 29 DNA: Genetic Information, Recombination, and Mutation 2 DNA as the Genetic Material Griffith Experiment on pneumococcal transformation (Fig 29.1) Avery, MacLeod

More information

AVIAN INFLUENZA. The pandemic influenza clock is ticking. We just don t know what time it is. Laurene Mascola, MD, MPH, FAAP

AVIAN INFLUENZA. The pandemic influenza clock is ticking. We just don t know what time it is. Laurene Mascola, MD, MPH, FAAP AVIAN INFLUENZA The pandemic influenza clock is ticking. We just don t know what time it is. Laurene Mascola, MD, MPH, FAAP D12:\Avian Flu.ppt No. 1 OUTLINE Background on Influenza A Impact of influenza

More information

Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs

Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs 1. Overview of Antimicrobial Drugs 2. Antibacterial Drugs 3. Antiviral Drugs 4. Drugs for Eukaryotic Pathogens 1. Overview of Antimicrobial Drugs Antibiotics An antibiotic

More information

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 and Wild Birds

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 and Wild Birds Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 and Wild Birds What are avian influenza viruses? Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are Type A influenza viruses that are associated with avian species. They have

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 4 The flow of genetic information from DNA to protein in eukaryotic cells is called the central dogma of biology. (a) Explain the role of each of the following

More information

Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014)

Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014) Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014) Immunity and Disease We will talk today about the immune system and how it protects us from disease. Also, we ll learn some unique ways that our immune system

More information

Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria

Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria Viruses, Archaea and Bacteria Viruses and Viroids Features of Prokaryotes Bacterial Diversity Archaeal Diversity Viruses A virus is a noncellular infectious agent Ø Consists of a protein coat around a

More information

Milestones of bacterial genetic research:

Milestones of bacterial genetic research: Milestones of bacterial genetic research: 1944 Avery's pneumococcal transformation experiment shows that DNA is the hereditary material 1946 Lederberg & Tatum describes bacterial conjugation using biochemical

More information

2013 W. H. Freeman and Company. 26 RNA Metabolism

2013 W. H. Freeman and Company. 26 RNA Metabolism 2013 W. H. Freeman and Company 26 RNA Metabolism CHAPTER 26 RNA Metabolism Key topics: Transcription: DNA-dependent synthesis of RNA Capping and splicing: RNA processing Overview of RNA Function Ribonucleic

More information

2. Enzymes that cleave DNA at specific sites are called.

2. Enzymes that cleave DNA at specific sites are called. Biotechnology 1. The most recent techniques developed in the biological sciences allow the manipulation of DNA with the ultimate goal of intervening directly with the fate of organisms. 2. Enzymes that

More information

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1 There are 4 portions of this review a list of objectives, a table of diseases, sample multiple choice questions, and general questions. Your notes are the most important

More information

2.3 Viruses BACKGROUND INFORMATION

2.3 Viruses BACKGROUND INFORMATION 2.3 Viruses BACKGROUND INFORMATION Viral history is relatively short. It begins with the isolation of the human influenza virus in the 1930s and crystallization of the tobacco mosaic virus in 1933, and

More information

20.3 Diseases Caused by Bacteria and Viruses

20.3 Diseases Caused by Bacteria and Viruses 20.3 Diseases Caused by Bacteria and Viruses Lesson Objectives Explain how bacteria cause disease. Explain how viruses cause disease. Define emerging disease and explain why emerging diseases are a threat

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d.

Name Class Date. Figure 13 1. 2. Which nucleotide in Figure 13 1 indicates the nucleic acid above is RNA? a. uracil c. cytosine b. guanine d. 13 Multiple Choice RNA and Protein Synthesis Chapter Test A Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following are found in both

More information

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15

Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Gene mutation and molecular medicine Chapter 15 Lecture Objectives What Are Mutations? How Are DNA Molecules and Mutations Analyzed? How Do Defective Proteins Lead to Diseases? What DNA Changes Lead to

More information

Activity 7.21 Transcription factors

Activity 7.21 Transcription factors Purpose To consolidate understanding of protein synthesis. To explain the role of transcription factors and hormones in switching genes on and off. Play the transcription initiation complex game Regulation

More information

Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality

Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality Philadelphia University, Jordan From the SelectedWorks of Philadelphia University, Jordan 2009 Swine Flu, Fiction or Reality Philadelphia University, Philadelphia University Available at: http://works.bepress.com/philadelphia_university/98/

More information

The correct answer is b DNA and protein B. Answer b is correct. When DNA binds with histone proteins it forms chromatin.

The correct answer is b DNA and protein B. Answer b is correct. When DNA binds with histone proteins it forms chromatin. 1. Which of the following is NOT involved in binary fission in prokaryotes? a. Replication of DNA b. Elongation of the cell c. Separation of daughter cells by septum formation d. Assembly of the nuclear

More information

Chapter 36. Media Directory. Characteristics of Viruses. Primitive Structure of Viruses. Therapy for Viral Infections. Drugs for Viral Infections

Chapter 36. Media Directory. Characteristics of Viruses. Primitive Structure of Viruses. Therapy for Viral Infections. Drugs for Viral Infections Chapter 36 Media Directory Drugs for Viral Infections Slide 23 Slide 27 Slide 29 Zidovudine Animation Saquinavir Mesylate Animation Acyclovir Animation Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

More information

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24 CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,

More information

7.012 Quiz 3 practice

7.012 Quiz 3 practice MIT Biology Department 7.012: Introductory Biology - Fall 2004 Instructors: Professor Eric Lander, Professor Robert A. Weinberg, Dr. Claudette Gardel 7.012 Quiz 3 practice Quiz 3 on Friday, November 12th

More information

Introduction. Chapter 11 DNA replication, repair and recombination. Overview. DNA replication is essential for life. Short on DNA structure

Introduction. Chapter 11 DNA replication, repair and recombination. Overview. DNA replication is essential for life. Short on DNA structure Chapter 11 DNA replication, repair and recombination Overview Brief introduction DNA replication DNA repair DNA recombination DNA replication is essential for life Introduction Cells divide and make copies

More information

1 Mutation and Genetic Change

1 Mutation and Genetic Change CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds

More information

Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA procedures - an overview Biotechnology: The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product. Foods, antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes Recombinant

More information

A Human Designer cell Line Providing a Pandemic Proof Platform for the Manufacturing of Safe Influenza Vaccines

A Human Designer cell Line Providing a Pandemic Proof Platform for the Manufacturing of Safe Influenza Vaccines PER.C6 A Human Designer cell Line Providing a Pandemic Proof Platform for the Manufacturing of Safe Influenza Vaccines Fons March 26, 1918-1919 Flu Pandemic ~30 MillionDeaths The Devil in Enveloped virions

More information

Novel A/H1N1. About causing agent. Swine influenza in humans. What is it?

Novel A/H1N1. About causing agent. Swine influenza in humans. What is it? Novel A/H1N1 About causing agent What is it? It is a new strain of Influenza virus A/H1N1. There have been reports of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe pneumonia cases in Mexico, USA and Canada.

More information

Lecture 13: DNA Technology. DNA Sequencing. DNA Sequencing Genetic Markers - RFLPs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of biotechnology

Lecture 13: DNA Technology. DNA Sequencing. DNA Sequencing Genetic Markers - RFLPs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of biotechnology Lecture 13: DNA Technology DNA Sequencing Genetic Markers - RFLPs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of biotechnology DNA Sequencing determine order of nucleotides in a strand of DNA > bases = A,

More information

Introduction to Virology I: Viral Structure and Function

Introduction to Virology I: Viral Structure and Function Scott M. Hammer, M.D. Introduction to Virology I: Viral Structure and Function I. Background/Discovery The concept behind modern virology can be traced back to Adolf Mayer, Dimitri Ivanofsky and Martinus

More information

Basic attributes of genetic processes (replication, transcription, translation)

Basic attributes of genetic processes (replication, transcription, translation) 411-3 2008 Lecture notes I. First general topic in the course will be mutation (in broadest sense, any change to an organismʼs genetic material). Intimately intertwined with this is the process of DNA

More information

The Virus. Virus Reproduction The Lysogenic Cycle. The Virus Structure. Virus Reproduction The Lytic Cycle. Virus Reproduction

The Virus. Virus Reproduction The Lysogenic Cycle. The Virus Structure. Virus Reproduction The Lytic Cycle. Virus Reproduction The Virus & The Bacteria The Virus 20nm-60nm Not considered alive. Can only reproduce inside the Host Cell. Specific Attach only to specific cells based on the proteins in the cell membrane. The Virus

More information

Microbiology / Active Lecture Questions Chapter 9 Biotechnology & Recombinant DNA 1 Chapter 9 Biotechnology & Recombinant DNA

Microbiology / Active Lecture Questions Chapter 9 Biotechnology & Recombinant DNA 1 Chapter 9 Biotechnology & Recombinant DNA 1 2 Restriction enzymes were first discovered with the observation that a. DNA is restricted to the nucleus. b. phage DNA is destroyed in a host cell. c. foreign DNA is kept out of a cell. d. foreign DNA

More information

Michigan Department of State Police Emergency Management Division. Volume: 06-06 February 23, 2006

Michigan Department of State Police Emergency Management Division. Volume: 06-06 February 23, 2006 Michigan Department of State Police Emergency Management Division Informational Letter 4000 Collins Road P.O. Box 30636 Lansing, MI 48909-8136 www.michigan.gov/emd Volume: 06-06 February 23, 2006 TO: SUBJECT:

More information

11/19/2008. Gene analysis. Sequencing PCR. Northern-blot RT PCR. Western-blot Sequencing. in situ hybridization. Southern-blot

11/19/2008. Gene analysis. Sequencing PCR. Northern-blot RT PCR. Western-blot Sequencing. in situ hybridization. Southern-blot Recombinant technology Gene analysis Sequencing PCR RNA Northern-blot RT PCR Protein Western-blot Sequencing Southern-blot in situ hybridization in situ hybridization Function analysis Histochemical analysis

More information

Recombinant protein vaccines produced in insect cells

Recombinant protein vaccines produced in insect cells Recombinant protein vaccines produced in insect cells Manon M.J. Cox Hong Kong 25JAN2013 Flublok BREAKING NEWS 16JAN2013 FDA approves Flublok for the prevention of influenza in adults 18-49 years old The

More information

Mutations: 2 general ways to alter DNA. Mutations. What is a mutation? Mutations are rare. Changes in a single DNA base. Change a single DNA base

Mutations: 2 general ways to alter DNA. Mutations. What is a mutation? Mutations are rare. Changes in a single DNA base. Change a single DNA base Mutations Mutations: 2 general ways to alter DNA Change a single DNA base Or entire sections of DNA can move from one place to another What is a mutation? Any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA Here

More information

HIV or AIDS. What is HIV? 2 HIV & AIDS

HIV or AIDS. What is HIV? 2 HIV & AIDS HIV & AIDS 2 HIV & AIDS HIV is transmitted via body fluids. HIV or AIDS The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the cause of one of the most destructive human pandemics in recorded history. Since it

More information

X-Plain H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Reference Summary

X-Plain H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Reference Summary X-Plain H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Reference Summary Introduction H1N1 flu, also called swine flu, is a respiratory disease of pigs that has now spread to humans. Swine refers to animals such as pigs, hogs,

More information

Virological Methods. Flint et al. Principles of Virology (ASM), Chapter 2

Virological Methods. Flint et al. Principles of Virology (ASM), Chapter 2 Virological Methods Flint et al. Principles of Virology (ASM), Chapter 2 Overview The most commonly used laboratory methods for the detection of viruses and virus components in biological samples can be

More information

Why use passive immunity?

Why use passive immunity? Vaccines Active vs Passive Immunization Active is longer acting and makes memory and effector cells Passive is shorter acting, no memory and no effector cells Both can be obtained through natural processes:

More information

Liver Disease and Therapy of Hepatitis B Virus Infections

Liver Disease and Therapy of Hepatitis B Virus Infections Liver Disease and Therapy of Hepatitis B Virus Infections University of Adelaide Catherine Scougall Arend Grosse Huey-Chi Low Allison Jilbert Fox Chase Cancer Center Chunxiao Xu Carol Aldrich Sam Litwin

More information

The Institut Pasteur the Institut Pasteur International Network. Influenza. Knowledge belongs to all mankind. Louis Pasteur

The Institut Pasteur the Institut Pasteur International Network. Influenza. Knowledge belongs to all mankind. Louis Pasteur The Institut Pasteur the Institut Pasteur International Network Influenza Knowledge belongs to all mankind Louis Pasteur Fighting infectious disease The Institut Pasteur works to prevent and treat diseases,

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

Development of an Influenza Risk Assessment Tool

Development of an Influenza Risk Assessment Tool Development of an Influenza Risk Assessment Tool Susan C. Trock 1, Stephen A. Burke 2 & Nancy J. Cox 1 1 Influenza Division, NCIRD, CDC 2 Battelle Atlanta Analytical Services, Atlanta, GA Foreign & Emerging

More information

Recombinant DNA & Genetic Engineering. Tools for Genetic Manipulation

Recombinant DNA & Genetic Engineering. Tools for Genetic Manipulation Recombinant DNA & Genetic Engineering g Genetic Manipulation: Tools Kathleen Hill Associate Professor Department of Biology The University of Western Ontario Tools for Genetic Manipulation DNA, RNA, cdna

More information

Replication Patterns of Specific Viruses

Replication Patterns of Specific Viruses WBV15 6/27/03 11:09 PM Page 229 Replication Patterns of Specific Viruses IV PART REPLICATION OF POSITIVE-SENSE RNA VIRUSES REPLICATION OF POSITIVE-SENSE RNA VIRUSES WHOSE GENOMES ARE TRANSLATED AS THE

More information

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences/Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Serology The Master Degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences / Clinical Microbiology, Immunology or

More information

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 SECTION 1 - Infectious Disease 1.Identify the causes of infectious disease. 2.Explain how infectious diseases are spread. Causes

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

Bird Flu, (H5N1) Prof. Nassiri

Bird Flu, (H5N1) Prof. Nassiri Bird Flu, (H5N1) Prof. Nassiri Institute of International Health Michigan State University Bird Flu Objectives: At the end of this lecture, the participants should be able to: 1. Understand the concepts

More information

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is simply the "making of proteins." Although the term itself is easy to understand, the multiple steps that a cell in a plant or animal must go through are not. In order

More information

CHAPTER 6 GRIFFITH/HERSHEY/CHASE: DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION OF DNA DNA AND HEREDITY DNA CAN GENETICALLY TRANSFORM CELLS

CHAPTER 6 GRIFFITH/HERSHEY/CHASE: DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION OF DNA DNA AND HEREDITY DNA CAN GENETICALLY TRANSFORM CELLS CHAPTER 6 GRIFFITH/HERSHEY/CHASE: DNA IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL In 1928, Frederick Griffith was able to transform harmless bacteria into virulent pathogens with an extract that Oswald Avery proved, in 1944,

More information

Lecture Series 7. From DNA to Protein. Genotype to Phenotype. Reading Assignments. A. Genes and the Synthesis of Polypeptides

Lecture Series 7. From DNA to Protein. Genotype to Phenotype. Reading Assignments. A. Genes and the Synthesis of Polypeptides Lecture Series 7 From DNA to Protein: Genotype to Phenotype Reading Assignments Read Chapter 7 From DNA to Protein A. Genes and the Synthesis of Polypeptides Genes are made up of DNA and are expressed

More information

Antibiotic susceptibility

Antibiotic susceptibility Antibiotic susceptibility Antibiotic: natural chemicals produced by bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, plants or animals, and either inhibits or kills other microbes and/or cells Chemotherapeutic agent: A

More information

AP Biology Review Packet 4: Viruses, Bacteria and Expression & DNA Technology

AP Biology Review Packet 4: Viruses, Bacteria and Expression & DNA Technology AP Biology Review Packet 4: Viruses, Bacteria and Expression & DNA Technology 3A1- DNA, and in some cases RNA, is the primary source of heritable information. 3B1- Gene Regulation results in differential

More information