Chapter 7 Section 1 Founding the Roman Republic

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1 Chapter 7 Section 1 Founding the Roman Republic

2 Identify the role of geography played in Italy s and Rome s development Describe the form of government of the Roman Republic Explain the Conflict of the orders and how it changed the early Roman Republic Compare and contrast the roles of citizens and noncitizens as Rome expanded its power

3 Italy looks like a giant boot Alps (mountains) to the north Mediterranean Sea to south Adriatic Sea to east Apennine Mountains run length of country Not rugged; made trade & travel easy Unlike Greece s mountains

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5 Location of Italy made it a perfect base from which to control both the eastern & western halves of the region Long coast line open them up to attack from the sea Alps in north, separate Italy from the rest of Europe

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7 Mid 700s B.C. people called the Latins move into west-central Italy Region called Latium, villages unite to form Rome Late 600s B.C. Rome under rule of Etruscans (from northern Italy) Bring written language, pave roads, sewers, pottery, jewelry with them Rome prospers and grows under Etruscan rule Blend together into one culture Greek culture blended into Roman culture as well

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9 Rome was built on seven hills along the Tiber River 15 miles inland protected it from sea invasions Shallow part of river made it an easy crossing point, put Rome at center of many trade routes

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11 509 B.C. overthrow Etruscan king, Romans vow never to be ruled by a monarch again Set up a republic Form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state Only adult males could vote or take part in government Three groups of citizens help govern Rome: Senate, magistrates, assemblies

12 Senate Most influential & powerful of the three Controlled public funds & decided foreign policies Sometimes acted as a court In emergency, propose that a dictator be named Absolute ruler Rule for six months Complete command of army & courts

13 Magistrates Elected officials Made up of consuls, praetors, & censors Consuls (chief executives): two people that served one year terms Ran government, commanded army, appoint dictators Could veto other consul Refuse to approve Example of checks and balances Preventing one part of government from becoming too powerful

14 Praetors Helped consuls In times of war commanded the armies In times of peace oversaw Roman legal system Censors Registered citizens according to wealth, appointed candidates to Senate, & oversaw moral conduct of all citizens

15 Assemblies Several assemblies existed Citizens in assemblies voted on laws & elected officials Some voted to make war or peace, other were courts Elect ten officials called tribunes Some power over actions by the Senate & other officials

16 Early in Rome s Republic, there were two classes: patricians & plebeians Patricians: powerful landowners who controlled government, inherited their power (nobles) Plebeians: made up most of the population, mainly farmers & workers Had few rights Could vote, but not hold office Plebeians over time increase their power Join army, hold office, form assembly, elect tribunes

17 450 B.C. plebeians forced government to write down laws Laws were engraved on tablets Known as the Twelve Tables Placed in the Forum Chief public square For all to see

18 By 265 B.C. Rome controlled all of Italy south of the Rubicon Romans expand republic Every adult male citizen who owned land was required by law to serve in the Roman army

19 Very disciplined army Major unit called legion 4,500 to 6,000 citizens called legionnaires Later they establish auxilia for noncitizens

20 Romans had a talent for ruling other people Because they wanted conquered people to be loyal to Rome Granted full citizenship to the inhabitants of nearby Italian cities Partial citizenship to the people that lived more distant Could own property & marry, couldn t vote Allies remained independent, but had to provide soldiers for the Roman army Conquered people gave up land for Roman famers, helped them control conquered areas

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