THE BEGINNING OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

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1 THE BEGINNING OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE Think About As You Read 1. Where did the Roman Empire begin? 2. Why was Roman law important? 3. How were Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar good rulers for Rome? Terms, People and Places conquerors republic Senate senators veto accused innocent guilty trial aqueducts Romans Italy Rome Carthage Julius Caesar Augustus Caesar Mark Antony The Romans were some of the greatest conquerors of the ancient world. The Romans built a great empire. They ruled much the ancient world for over 900 years. The Romans thought their empire would last forever. But their empire grew weaker and weaker until it fell apart. You will read about the beginning of the Roman Empire in this chapter. In the next chapter you will read about the end of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire began in the country that is now called Italy. Italy is a country in Europe near the Mediterranean Sea. It is also near Greece. Like Greece, Italy is on a peninsula. Italy also has two large islands. Much of Italy has mountains. Around 753 B.C. people began to build the city of Rome in Italy. The people of Rome were called Romans. The Romans did not want a king or a queen. Rome became a republic. In a republic, people vote for their leaders. The Roman republic was led by the Senate. People in the Senate were called senators. The Romans built aqueducts to carry water into the city. Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 1

2 Roman women were allowed to own land and hold jobs, but they were not allowed to vote. The Roman republic was not a democracy. Rich people had much more power than poor people. Poor people could not be leaders in Rome. Only some citizens were allowed to vote. Most Romans were not citizens. Most Romans could not vote. After many years some laws were changed. Poor Romans could help make laws. But the rich people of Rome still made most of the laws. Women had more freedom in Rome than women had in Athens. They could own land and hold jobs. Women in Rome were citizens, but they were not allowed to vote. Roman law was very important. Many Roman ideas and laws are used by countries today. The Romans used the veto. The veto gives government leaders the right to stop a new law from being passed. The Romans also believed that their laws should apply to all people in the empire. They believed that people accused of crimes were innocent until they were found guilty. Romans also believed that an accused person had a right to a fair trial. The Romans borrowed many ideas from Greek culture. They believed in many of the Greek gods. Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 2

3 . The Roman god Neptune was also the Greek god Poseidon The center of the Roman Empire was the busy city of Rome. Roman soldiers They gave these Greek gods Roman names. They made statues and pictures of their gods. They built strong temples. They built many theaters. The Romans liked the Greek alphabet. They changed some of the Greek letters to make the Roman alphabet. Our alphabet is almost the same as the Roman alphabet. There were many schools in the Roman Empire. Most boys and some girls went to school. They learned to read, to write, and to do math. Older children learned to read Greek in school. The Romans built hospitals and good roads. The Romans also built bridges and aqueducts. Aqueducts were used to bring water to the city. Some of these roads, bridges, and aqueducts are still in use today. The Romans had a very strong army. The Roman army conquered all of Italy. There had been Greek colonies in Italy. The Romans conquered these colonies. Later, the Romans conquered all of Greece. The empire became even greater when the Romans conquered Carthage. Carthage was a great city in North Africa. It was near the Mediterranean Sea. The Phoenicians had built the city of Carthage. Carthage ruled many colonies near the Mediterranean Sea. Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 3

4 Rome conquered many civilizations in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Which two civilizations in Africa did the Romans conquer? Soldiers from Carthage Both Rome and Carthage wanted to rule the land around the Mediterranean Sea. They fought each other for more than 100 years. In 146 B.C. Rome conquered Carthage. The Romans destroyed the city of Carthage. All the colonies of Carthage became Roman colonies. Then Rome conquered land to the east of the Mediterranean Sea. As the years passed, Rome ruled more and more land. One of the greatest Romans was Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar became a leader of the Roman army. He conquered a lot of land in Europe for Rome. In 49 B.C. Julius Caesar was named ruler of Rome. He ruled Rome for five years. Julius Caesar made many changes in Rome. He gave land to poor Romans. Many Romans did not have jobs. Julius Caesar gave these people jobs. People built new roads and temples for Rome. The new roads made it easier to travel through all the land that belonged to Rome. Julius Caesar gave the people in conquered lands the same rights that Romans had. After that, many conquered people wanted to help Rome. Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 4

5 Some roads that were built by the ancient Romans are still being used today. Many senators in Rome thought that Caesar had too much power. They did not want him to rule Rome. They killed Caesar in 44 B.C. Rome lost a strong leader. Two men and their armies fought to rule Rome after Julius Caesar died. Augustus Caesar and Mark Antony both wanted to rule Rome. There was a war between them. Mark Antony lost the war. Augustus Caesar became the ruler of Rome. Augustus Caesar was Rome's first emperor. He became emperor in the year 27 B.C. People do not vote for an emperor. Rome was no longer a republic. Rome was now an empire. Augustus was the one ruler of all the lands in the Roman Empire. Augustus was a good emperor to his people. He made fair laws for the empire. While he ruled, many new cities were built in the empire. Many roads, bridges, and aqueducts were built all over the Roman Empire. He built a strong army. Augustus ruled for 41 years. Augustus brought peace to every part of the empire. This peace lasted 200 years. Then the Roman Empire slowly grew weaker and weaker. How did that happen? You will learn the answer in the next chapter. Augustus Caesar Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 5

6 Using What You Learned Analogies An analogy compares two pairs of words. The words in the first pair are alike in the same way as the words in the second pair. For example, pyramid is to Egypt as the Great Wall is to China. Use a word in dark print to best complete each sentence. 1. A democracy was to Athens as a was to Rome. 2. Pharaoh was to Egypt as was to Rome. 3. Player is to team as is to Senate. 4. Short is to tall as is to guilty. 5. Roads are to people and goods as are to water. Choose the Answer Draw a circle around the correct answer 6. Where did the Roman Empire begin? Greece Persia Italy 7. When did people begin to build the city of Rome? 753 B.C. 146 B.C. 27 B.C. 8. Who had most of the power in the Roman republic? kings rich people poor people 9. What city fought with Rome for the land around the Mediterranean Sea? Athens Sparta Carthage 10. Which Roman leader ruled for only five years before he was killed? Julius Caesar Augustus Caesar Mark Antony 11. Who became the first Roman emperor? Julius Caesar Augustus Caesar Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 6

7 THI K A D APPLY Exclusions One word or phrase in each group does not belong. Find that word or phrase and cross it out. Then write on a separate sheet of paper a sentence that tells how the other words are alike. 1. Greece 3. bridges Italy pyramids Carthage aqueducts China hospitals 2. veto 4. Socrates democracy Julius Caesar fair trial Augustus Caesar innocent until found guilty Mark Antony Using Map Directions Study the map on page 4. Find the compass rose Then circle the word that best completes each sentence. 1. Spain is of Italy. north west south 2. Carthage is in the part of Africa. northern eastern western 3. The Black Sea is north of the Atlantic Ocean Britain Egypt 4. In order to get from Rome to Jerusalem by boat, the Romans had to sail south and then. north west east 5. The Roman Empire included land as far as Britain. north east south 6. The was in the southern part of the Roman Empire. Tigris River Black Sea Nile River Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 7

8 Skill Builder Reading a Resource Map atural Resources are things we get from the earth. Metals such as iron, copper, and gold are natural resources. Foods and animals are also natural resources. A resource map uses symbols to show where different natural resources are found. The map key tells you what each symbol means. The resource map below shows where some natural resources were found in the Roman Empire around A.D Use the map and map key to answer the questions. RESOURCES IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE 1. What five resources are shown on the map? 2. What symbol is used to show wool? 3. What resource is found near Athens? 4. Did Romans get their wool from Spain or Italy? 5. What are two resources that are found in Britain? 6. For which resource might the Romans have crossed the Black Sea? Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 8

9 RISE OF ROME: A CIE T ITALY West of Greece on the Mediterranean Sea lies the land of Italy. Over 3000 years ago, a people called the Latins settled in Italy. They built a village on the Tiber River. That village became the most powerful city of the ancient world Rome. The Romans built a great civilization in Italy. In time, Roman civilization spread throughout much of Europe. Roman ideas about architecture, government, and law were important to the development of Western civilization. What contributions did the Etruscans and Greeks make to ancient Rome? How was ancient Rome governed? How did Rome build an empire? How did Rome change after building its empire? Key Words You will be using these words in this chapter. Look them up in the Glossary at the back of Part. 1. civil war republic dictator treaty Italy is located on a peninsula in southern Europe. The Italian Peninsula reaches far into the Mediterranean Sea. Like Greece, most of Italy is covered by mountains. Mountains called the Alps run across northern Italy. The Apennine Mountains stretch the length of Italy. The land east of the Apennine Mountains is poor. In ancient times, few people settled there. But western Italy has areas of flat, fertile farmland. People settled there and raised wheat and other grains. Western Italy also has good harbors and rivers. One of those rivers runs through the center of Italy. It is called the Tiber River. The Latins You read that the Mycenaeans moved into Greece about 2000 B.C. At about the same time, other groups of people were crossing the Alps into Italy. One of those groups was the Latins. The Latins were farmers and herders from central Europe. They settled on a broad plain beside the Tiber River. Their land became known as Latium. The Latins built settlements throughout Latium. One of the settlements spread across seven hills beside the Tiber River. By about 750 B.C. that settlement had grown into a village called Rome, Looking Back 1. Where is Italy located? 2. Who were the Latins? Where did they settle? Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 9

10 The Early History of Rome Little is known about the early days of Rome. But, like other peoples, the Romans had legends about their past. One of those legends describes the founding of Rome. The legend tells of a princess in Italy who had twin sons. They were named Romulus and Remus. The twins' uncle was a king. He feared the boys would someday overthrow him. The king ordered the babies to be thrown into the Tiber River. The gods took pity on the boys and brought them safely to shore. A wolf cared for the babies until they were found by herders. When the twins grew up, they killed their uncle. Then they built a city beside the Tiber River where they had come ashore. That city was Rome. The Etruscans About 600 B.C., a people called the Etruscans conquered Rome. No one knows where the Etruscans came from. They may have come to Italy from Asia Minor. For the next 100 years, Etruscan kings ruled Rome. During that time, Rome grew into a busy trading city. The Etruscans taught the Romans to build roads and sewers. They also taught the Romans to use the arch in building. (An arch is a curved structure that can support a heavy weight.) The Romans used arches to build stone bridges across the Tiber River. The Romans built aqueducts to carry water from mountain streams to their cities. This aqueduct still stands in France. Notice that the Romans used arches to support the weight of the aqueduct. The Romans also borrowed their alphabet from the Etruscans. (The Etruscans had borrowed their alphabet from the Greeks.) The Romans used the Etruscan alphabet to write their own language, called Latin. Today, the Roman alphabet is used to write many languages, including English, French, Spanish, and German, The Greeks Since about 750 B.C., the Greeks had been building colonies in southern Italy. Through trade, the Romans came into contact with the Greeks. The Romans learned to raise olives and grapes from the Greeks. They copied Greek drama, art, and architecture. They studied Greek philosophy and science. And they borrowed religious ideas and even gods from the Greeks. Later, the Romans spread Greek culture throughout Europe. Looking Back 1. What happened to Rome about 600 B.C.? 2. What did the Romans learn from the Etruscans? 3. What did the Romans borrow from the Greeks? Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 10

11 The Roman Republic You read that Etruscan kings ruled Home for 100 years. In about 509 B.C. the Romans rebelled against the Etruscans and drove them from Rome. The Romans no longer wished to be ruled by kings. Instead, they set up a form of government called a republic. In a republic, people who have the right to vote elect their leaders. Those leaders run the government for the people. The Roman Republic became an example for later people, including the people who founded the United States government. Government in the Republic The highest officials in the Roman Republic were called consuls. The consuls commanded (led) the Roman army. They also made sure that taxes were collected and laws were carried out. A consul held office for only one year. That made it difficult for any consul to grow too powerful. Assemblies of citizens helped to rule Rome. The most powerful assembly was the Senate. It was made up of 300 people. The Senate proposed laws. It also elected the consuls and gave them advice. Social Classes in Rome There were two social classes in the Roman Republic. The upper class was made up of wealthy landowners called patricians. The lower class was made up of farmers, workers, and merchants. They were known as plebeians. The patricians controlled the government. Only patricians could become consuls or senators. Plebeians could not hold office. Plebeians Call for Reforms Plebeians had to pay taxes. They had to serve in the army. But they had little voice in government. Beginning in the 400s B.C., plebeians began to call for reforms. At first, the patricians refused to reform the government. Then the plebeians took action. They refused to serve in the army. They even threatened to leave Rome and set up their own city. Those threats forced the patricians to make changes in the government. The plebeians won the right to elect officials called tribunes. A tribune could veto, or block, actions by any government official or by the Senate. Tribunes used that power to protect the rights of plebeians. The plebeians also won the right to elect their own assembly. It was called the Assembly of Tribes. At first, the assembly had little power. But later, it- passed laws for all of Rome. Looking Back 1. What were the duties of the consuls in the republic? of the Senate? 2. What people made up the upper class of Rome? the lower class? 3. What, changes gave plebeians a greater voice in government? Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 11

12 Conquest and Expansion In the 400s B.C., Rome began a long period of conquest and expansion (growth). The Romans first conquered their neighbors in central Italy. Then they conquered the Etruscans to the north. By about 270 B.C., the Romans had conquered the Greek city-states of southern Italy. They now controlled most of the Italian Peninsula. The Roman Army Rome's success on the battlefield was due to its powerful army. The Romans built the mightiest army of their time. They divided their army into groups called legions. A legion had about 6000 soldiers. Each legion was divided into smaller units of 60 to 120 soldiers. In battle, the Romans moved their small units quickly to wherever they were needed. That gave them an advantage over enemies who fought in phalanxes. (You read that phalanxes were groups of soldiers who fought in tight blocks.) Phalanxes were larger, slower, and harder to maneuver. War with Carthage Rome's main rival in the Mediterranean was the city of Carthage in North Africa. You read that the Phoenicians founded a colony at Carthage around 800 B.C. In time, Carthage became an independent city-state. Carthage built an empire that included parts of Spain, North Africa, and the island of Sicily. In 264 B.C. Rome and Carthage began a series of wars called the Punic Wars. The First Punic War lasted for 23 years. The Romans defeated the Carthagenians _and won control of Sicily. With Sicily, Rome had its first overseas territory and the beginning of an empire. Hannibal and the Second Punic War The Second Punic War began in 218 B.C. In that year, Carthage's greatest general invaded Italy. His name was Hannibal. Hannibal surprised the Romans by invading Italy from the north. He first landed an army of 50,000 soldiers and 37 elephants in Spain. Then he marched across Spain and France, over the Alps, and into Italy. Hannibal defeated several Roman armies in Italy. But he was not able to capture Rome. In 204 B.C., a Roman army landed in North Africa and threatened Carthage. Hannibal was forced to leave Italy to defend his homeland. The Defeat of Carthage The Romans defeated Hannibal at Zama, a town near Carthage. In the treaty that ended the war, the Romans forced Carthage to give up Spain. In 149 B.C. Rome and Carthage began the Third Punic War. After three years of fighting, the Romans captured Carthage. They destroyed the city. Carthage's territory in North Africa now belonged to Rome. Rome's Empire Grows During the years of the Punic Wars, Rome also expanded to the east. The Romans conquered Macedonia, Greece, and Asia Minor. Syria and Egypt came under Roman control. By 130 B.C., Rome ruled most of the Mediterranean world. Romans now called the Mediterranean Mare ostrum. In Latin, that means "Our Sea." Looking Back 1. Why was the Roman army successful? 2. What were the Punic Wars? 3. Describe Hannibal's invasion of Italv. Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 12

13 The End of the Republic The conquest, of an empire changed Rome. Riches from conquered lands poured into the city. But only a few Romans became wealthy. Many Romans suffered during the years of conquest. Roman workers were one of the groups that suffered. Thousands of slaves from conquered lands were sent to Rome. Slaves did most of the work once done by Roman workers. Some Romans were forced to beg to survive. Farmers also suffered. Huge amounts of grain were brought to Rome from conquered lands. As a result, the price of grain fell. Roman farmers could no longer make a living by selling their grain. Many farmers lost their farms. Farmers looking for work crowded into Rome. But Rome had no work for them. Julius Caesar Roman workers and farmers turned to the government for help. But the government was controlled by wealthy Romans. It did little to help the poor. Rome was soon deeply divided between the rich and the poor. For over 100 years, the city was torn by riots, rebellions, and civil wars. (A civil war is a war fought between groups who live in the same country.) In 49 B.C., a general named Julius Caesar came to power in Rome. The Senate made Caesar dictator, or absolute ruler, of Rome. Caesar used his power to help the poor. He gave farms to Romans who had lost their land. He also created jobs for the poor. Julius Caesar was popular with many Romans. But some senators resented Caesar's growing power. They feared Caesar would make himself king. In 44 B.C., a group of senators assassinated Caesar. Julius Caesar was a successful general and a great speaker and writer. In 59 B.C, he was elected "consul of Rome, Later, the Senate made him dictator- or absolute ruler, for life. Caesar Augustus After Caesar's death, Rome was again torn by civil war. The struggle for power was won by Caesar's adopted son. His name was Octavian. In 27 B.C., the Senate made Octavian consul, tribune, and military leader for life. It gave him the title Augustus, which meant "honored." After that, Octavian was known as Caesar Augustus. Under Augustus, the Roman Republic came to an end. The Senate continued to meet. But it had little real power. Augustus was the sole ruler of Rome. Looking Back 1. Why did many Roman workers suffer during the years of conquest? 2. Why did farmers suffer? 3. How did Julius Caesar help the poor? 4. What happened to the republic under Augustus? Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 13

14 The Rule of Augustus The Romans held games and contests in a huge outdoor stadium called the Coliseum, It held about 5O,OOO people. The ruins of the Coliseum still stand in Rome Caesar Augustus came to power in Rome in 27 B.C. By then, Rome controlled a huge empire. The rule of Augustus began a long period of peace and prosperity in the empire. That period is called the Pax Romano, or "Roman Peace." Around A.D. 180, the Pax Romana came to an end. For nearly 300 years, civil wars and invasions weakened the empire. Then, in A.D. 476, the Roman Empire fell. How was Rome ruled during the Pax Romana? What was life like in Rome during that time? What caused the fall of the Roman Empire? What contributions did the Romans make to Western civilization? Key Words You will be using these words in this chapter. emperor public patriotism treason Historians call Augustus the first Roman emperor. (An emperor is the absolute ruler of an empire.) He ruled the Roman Empire for 41 years. Augustus was a wise and able (skillful) ruler. He improved living conditions in Rome. Fires often destroyed large sections of the city. Augustus set up a fire brigade (group) to fight fires. He also set up a police force to protect Romans from criminals. Augustus built new theaters and other public buildings in Rome. Many of those buildings were made of marble. (Marble is a beautiful stone often used in building.) "I found Rome built of bricks, Augustus said, "I leave it clothed in marble." Peace and Good Government Augustus brought peace to the empire. He placed Roman legions on the empire's borders. The legions stopped rebellions and kept out invaders. Augustus also improved government in the empire. He chose good officials to run the provinces, or conquered territories- He paid the officials well so that they would not be tempted to steal government funds. The emperor also encouraged trade. He cleared the Mediterranean Sea of pirates. He built good roads linking distant cities to Rome. And he had coins made that could be used anywhere in the empire. Looking Back 1. How did Augustus improve living conditions in Rome? 2. How did he bring peace to the empire? 3. How did he improve government in the empire? Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 14

15 The Roman Empire = Walls The Emperors of the Pax Romano The rule of Augustus began a long period of peace in the Roman Empire. It was called the Pax Romana, or Roman peace. It lasted for over 200 years. During that time, the empire was ruled by good and bad emperors. But even during periods of bad rule, the empire remained strong. After Augustus died, his stepson Tiberius became emperor. Tiberius was an able ruler. But he had thousands of people executed (killed) because he suspected them of treason. One Roman wrote that during the time of Tiberius, "Not a day passed without an execution. The next emperor, Caligula, was insane. He angered Romans by making his horse a consul and a priest. In A.D. 41, Caligula was killed by his own guards. Caligula was followed by his uncle Claudius. Claudius was a good ruler. He added the island of Britain to the empire. Then in A.D. 54, Claudius was murdered. His stepson Nero became emperor. Nero was a cruel ruler. Many Romans believed he was insane. While Nero was emperor, a great fire destroyed much of Rome. Some Romans suspected that Nero himself set the fire. Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius Nero was followed by several good emperors. In A.D. 117, a general named Hadrian became emperor. Hadrian strengthened the empire's defenses. To keep invaders out, he had walls built along the borders of the empire in Britain and Germany. In A.D. 161, Marcus Aurelius became emperor. During his rule, invaders attacked the empire in Asia Minor and Europe. But Aurelius pushed the invaders back. When Aurelius died in A.D. 180, the Pax Romana came to an end. The empire entered a long period of war and disorder. Looking Back 1. What was the Pax Romana'? 2. What did each of these emperors accomplish? a. Claudius b. Hadrian c. Marcus Aurelius Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 15

16 Life in Rome During the Pax Romana. over a million people lived in Rome. Romans overflowed the streets in daytime. At night, carts bringing in food and goods jammed the streets. Many Romans complained that the noise ruined their sleep. The Roman Family Roman life centered around the family. Households were often large, with parents, children, relatives, and slaves living together. The father was the head of the household. By law, everyone had to obey him. Roman women had few legal rights. But they had more freedom than Greek women. Many Roman women worked in small shops. A few owned their own businesses. Some Roman children were educated. But education ended for most Romans at about age 12. Usually, only wealthy Roman children received more education. Young people in Rome married early. Many girls were married by age 13, many boys by age 15. Parents chose husbands and wives for their sons and daughters. The Rich and Poor of Rome The rich and poor of Rome lived very different lives. Wealthy Romans lived in large houses. Many also had country homes away from the noise and crowds of the city. The houses of the rich had running water and private baths. The walls were often decorated with beautiful paintings. The poor people of Rome lived hard lives, without free food from the government, many would have starved. The poor lived in crowded, dirty apartment buildings that were often several stories high. The wooden buildings often collapsed or burned down. This wall painting of a husband and wife was found in the ruins of Pompeii, a city in southern Italy, The wife is holding a writing instrument and tablet. The husband is holding ONE ROLL of papyrus. Amusements Many Romans, rich and poor, spent their evenings in one of Rome's public baths. The baths were huge indoor pools where people washed and rested. At the baths, Romans caught up on the latest news and gossip. Romans also enjoyed free amusements provided by the city. Chariot races were popular. They were held in a huge racetrack called the Circus Maximus. Other games and contests were held in an outdoor stadium called the Coliseum. There Romans sometimes saw battles to the death between trained warriors known as gladiators. Looking Back 1. Describe a Roman household. 2. How did the poor in Rome live? 3. What did Romans do for fun? Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 16

17 The Decline and Fall of Rome After the death of Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Empire declined, or grew weak. One reason was that the system for choosing a new emperor broke down. In the early years of the empire, an emperor usually named a close relative to be the new emperor. After Aurelius, that system fell apart. When an emperor died, Roman generals fought each other. The winning general became the new emperor. Emperors were often murdered after only a few years of rule. Then fighting would begin again. Years of bloody civil war weakened the empire. High Taxes Hurt the Empire Heavy taxes also weakened the empire. The taxes were needed to pay the large Roman army. Tax money was also needed to buy food for the poor of Rome and to pay for public games. In time, it seemed that all the money people earned went to Rome as taxes. Heavy taxes and disorder in the government turned people against Rome. Feelings of patriotism faded away. (Patriotism is love of one's country.) Many people "were no longer willing to serve in the government or join the Roman army. The Empire is Divided In A.D. 284, the emperor Diocletian came to power in Rome. He brought order to the empire for a time. Diocletian believed that the empire was too large for one person to rule well. He divided the empire into two parts. He ruled the eastern part. Another emperor ruled the western part. In A.D. 324, Constantine I became emperor. He brought the empire back together under his rule. He moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium, a city in Asia Minor. He renamed the city Constantinople after himself. For a time, the empire remained united. But in A.D. 395, it was again split. The eastern part became known as the Eastern Roman Empire. It included Greece, Asia Minor, and Egypt. The western part became known as the Western Roman Empire. It included most of Europe and North Africa. Germans Conquer the Western Empire During the A.D. 300s, large numbers of Germanic peoples invaded the Western Empire. The Germans were hunters and herders from central and northern Europe. They left their homelands to raid Roman farms and towns. The Germans moved across Europe into Spain and North Africa. In A.D. 476, a Germanic tribe called the Visigoths attacked Rome. The once-great city fell. The Eastern Empire held off the Germanic invaders. It survived for nearly 1000 years. But the Western Empire was gone. Looking Back 1. How did the system for choosing an emperor change in Rome? 2. How did high taxes and disorder in government hurt the empire? 3. What happened to Rome in A.D. 476? Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 17

18 The Arch of Constantine was built in Rome around A.D. 315; it honors a military victory by the Roman emperor Constantine. The Contributions of Rome After A.D. 476, Rome was no longer the center of a great empire. But Roman culture did not die. Roman knowledge and ideas became part of European life. Rome played an important role in the growth of Western civilization. Roman Law One of Rome's great contributions was its system of law. The Romans developed a legal system for all the peoples of the empire. The legal system was fair to everyone, not just, Romans. Under Roman law, a person accused of a crime was said to be innocent until proven guilty. Judges made sure everyone had a chance to be heard in court. Then they reached a decision based on the facts. The legal systems of many modern countries in Europe and the Americas are based on the Roman system. Roman Engineering The Romans were outstanding engineers. (An engineer is a person who plans and builds roads, bridges, and other structures.) The Romans built the best roads and bridges of the ancient world. They paved their roads with stones to keep them from turning to mud when it rained. The Romans invented a new building material called concrete. It was less costly and easier to use than brick or marble. The Romans also discovered new ways to build with arches and domes. (A dome is a rounded roof.) Later peoples copied Roman building methods. Roman Language and Writing The Romans spread the Latin language throughout the empire. Today, millions of people speak languages based on Latin. Those languages include Spanish, French, and Italian. Many English words also come from Latin. The Romans produced some of the finest writings of the ancient world. One important writer was Cicero. He was a government leader who lived during the Roman Republic. Cicero wrote hundreds of letters and speeches. His writings are still read and studied today. Another great writer was the poet Virgil. The emperor Augustus asked Virgil to write a poem honoring Rome. Virgil wrote the Aeneid. The Aeneid describes the adventures of a warrior named Aeneas and the beginnings of Rome. It is one of the great works of the ancient world. Looking Back 1. How were people treated under Roman law? 2. What contributions did the Romans make in engineering? 3. Thinking Deeper: Why do you think good roads were so important to the Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 18

19 ame Date Chapter 7 Section 1: The Roman Republic Guided Reading Handout A. As You Read Directions: As you read Section 1, answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. On which peninsula is Rome located? 2. When did people first settle in Rome? 3. Which mysterious people conquered the Romans around 600 B.C.? 4. What was the form of government established by the Romans after they drove out the last Etruscan king? 5. Which empire was destroyed as a result of Rome's invasion of North Africa? 6. Who became dictator of the Roman world in 44 b.c.? B. Reviewing Key Terms Directions: Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided. 7. In Rome, ordinary citizens were called. 8. In the senate, the power was held by men from the wealthy classes, called. 9. In times of emergency, Romans could appoint a, who was given the powers of a king but could rule for only six months. 10. The word comes from the Latin term meaning "I forbid it." 11. In Rome, two men called ruled the government and had the power to veto each other's actions. 12. A form of government in which citizens elect leaders to rule in the name of the people is a. Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 19

20 ame Date Chapter 7 Section 2: The Roman Empire Guided Reading Handout A. As You Read Directions: As you read Section 2, fill in the table below with information about imperial Rome. Under each main idea, write two supporting statements. Main Idea A The first Roman emperor, Augustus, set an example for skillful rule that allowed the empire to flourish Main Idea B Two of Rome's greatest achievements were in the areas of architecture and law B. Reviewing Key Terms Directions: In the blanks provided, write the definitions for the following key terms. 5. province 6. aqueduct Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 20

21 ame Date Chapter 7 Section 3: Daily Life Among the Romans Guided Reading Handout A. As You Read Directions: As you read Section 3, fill in the table below with facts about life in Rome. Ancient Romans The Wealthy 1. How They Lived The Poor 2. Slaves 3. Women 4. B. Reviewing Key Terms Directions: Complete the sentence below by writing the correct term in the blank provided. 5. Along with free grain, the emperors also provided poor Romans with huge entertainment events called. Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 21

22 ame Date Chapter 7 Section 4: A ew Religion: Christianity Guided Reading Handout A. As You Read Directions: As you read Section 4, fill in the table below, Facts About Christianity 1. Where it Started 2. When it Started How the Religion Spread 3. Persecution of Followers 4. B. Reviewing Key Terms Directions: In the blanks provided, write the definitions for the following key terms. 5. Martyr 6. Disciple 7. Epistle 8. Gospel Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 22

23 ame Date Chapter 7 Section 5: The Fall of Rome Guided Reading Handout A. As You Read Directions: As you read Section 5, complete the table below with information about the fall of Rome. A.D. 180 A.D. 330 A.D Directions: In the space provided, describe how each concept contributed to the decline of Rome's power. 4. Weak, Corrupt Rulers 5. Use of Foreign Soldiers B. Reviewing Key Terms Directions: Complete each sentence by writing the correct term in the blank provided. 6. Soldiers who fight for a country in return for pay are called. 7. An economic situation known as occurs when the value of a country s money decreases. Mr. Moore s Ancient Rome Handouts 23

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