2 DESCRIBE THE REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT IN ANCIENT ROME.
3 Before the Republic Rome continued to grow under the Etruscans, until Tarquin the Proud, the seventh and last Roman king, came to power. He was a cruel ruler who ignored the Senate and terrorized the people. In 509 B. C., the people rebelled against him and finally sent him into exile. The Roman people decided that they would never again be ruled by a king.
4 Early Roman Republic When the last Etruscan king was thrown out of Rome in 509 B.C., Roman leaders decided to begin a very new form of government - a republic. In a republic, citizens elect leaders to run their government. In Rome, the leaders chosen to replace the king were called consuls. These consuls were elected by a group of ordinary citizens known as an assembly, and the consuls were given advice by a group of rich people known as the Senate. Although the citizens elected their own representatives, the Roman Republic was not a democracy because not every citizen had equal power.
5 Roman Senate The Senate was composed of leaders from the patricians, the noble and wealthy families of ancient Rome. They were the law makers. They controlled spending. Members of the Senate were not elected. They were chosen by the Consuls. Once chosen, they served for life. There were 300 seats in the Senate. When a seat opened, a new Senator was selected by the current Consuls.
6 Roman Assembly The Assembly was composed of all the plebeian citizens of Rome, the common man. The Assembly did not have a building. It was the right of the common man to assemble in the Forum and vote. In the beginning, the Assembly had very limited power. They could vote for or suggest laws, but the Senate could block their decisions. The Assembly could vote to declare war, but again, the Senate could override them.
7 Roman Assembly However, the Assembly had one power that was very impressive - it was the Assembly who voted each year on which two members of the Senate would serve as Consuls. As a noble, if you wanted to rise to the level of Consul, the highest position in government under the Republic, you needed to gain the support of the plebeian class. Since it was the Consuls who filled empty seats in the Senate, if the Assembly chose their Consuls well, they could slowly gain power in government by putting people in charge who were sympathetic to their needs.
8 Early Roman Republic As citizens, both patricians and plebeians had the right to vote. However, only patricians had the right to hold any political, military or religious offices. All power was in the hands of the patricians.
9 Plebeians Demand Change! By 494 B.C., the plebeians had suffered long enough. They left Rome and formed their own assembly, which was known as the Council of Plebeians. They also elected their own leaders, who were called tribunes. Tribunes were to protect plebian rights. Patricians knew that Rome could not survive without plebeians. Who would do the work? Who would protect the Republic from enemy attacks? The patricians had no choice but to let the plebeians keep their tribunes. The plebeians could vote against any unjust law passed by the Senate. Next, the plebeians demanded that the laws be changed. Rome s laws had never been written down. The plebeians believed that patrician judges took advantage of this fact to rule unfairly against plebeians.
10 Plebeians Gain Rights Finally in 450B.C. the laws were engraved on 12 bronze tablets called the Twelve Tables. The tablets were then displayed in the Forum, so all citizens could see the rights given to them, though few could actually read them. During the 300 s B.C., the plebeians gained more and more rights. Plebeians could now become priests in the Roman religion. Debt bondage was outlawed. Eventually plebeians could even become members of the Senate.
11 Plebeians Gain Equal Rights But the plebeians and patricians still held their meetings in different places. The laws passed by the patrician senate applied to everyone. However, the laws passed by the plebian assembly applied only to plebeians The plebeians demanded that the laws passed by their assembly apply to all citizens. Once again, the plebeians forced the issues by leaving Rome. This time the Patricians gave in and in 287 B.C. agreed to meet the demands of the plebeians. Plebeians and patricians were finally equal under Roman laws.
12 DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC ON ANCIENT ROMANS
13 Two Classes Patricians-The patricians were the upper class, the nobility and wealthy land owners. Plebeians- The plebeians were the lower class. Nicknamed "plebs derived from plere, 'to fill up', the plebeians included everyone in ancient Rome (except for the nobility, the patricians) from well-to-do tradesmen all the way down to the very poor.
14 Patricians Both classes could vote Only Patricians could hold important positions in the military, government, or religious sectors (in early Republic) Power rested in the hands of the Patricians
15 Some Plebeians were wealthy and believed that they should have the same rights as the Patricians. Poor plebeians believed that the system was unfair. Plebeians had fewer rights than the patricians they still had to serve in the army and pay taxes to the very people who oppressed them. Plebeians
16 Women Women citizens could not vote or take part in the government although they were protected by Roman laws. However, women could discuss matters with their husbands and attempt to influence their decisions. Women s guardian, her husband or father, had complete control over her activities. In most families, women could shop, visit a temple, or chat in public. But she could not participate in government. Few women wanted additional rights.
17 Women During the 500 years that Rome was an Empire, women gained considerable freedom. Under the Empire, it became legal for women to own land, run businesses, free slaves, make wills, inherit wealth, and get a paid job. Women were still considered to be under the guardianship of her father or husband.
18 Slaves Slaves which were war captives, were owned by citizens and had no rights. Slaves were at the mercy of their masters and could be beaten or tortured. Slaves could be set free or buy freedom
19 Provincials Provincials who lived in territories conquered by Rome, citizens of Roman states and Roman allies could be given Roman citizenship. To receive Roman citizenship Provincials had to speak Latin, worship in the manner the emperor chooses, and pay taxes.
20 HOW THE ROMAN REPUBLIC IS RELATED TO CURRENT FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
21 How the Roman Republic is Related to Current Forms of Government Like Rome s, the United States government is a republic, where citizens vote for other citizens who represent them in the government. The ancient Roman republic was a model our founding fathers used to develop our modern Republic. The founding fathers took several ideas from the Roman republic in the creation of our modern republic (see next slides).
22 How the Roman Republic is Related to Current Forms of Government Checks and Balances- system to control the power so one branch doesn t become more powerful than another. This was an important element of the Roman republic. For example, The consuls were in charge of government and also of the army. Only the Assembly could approve or disapprove of one of their laws and only the assembly elected Candidates for the office of consul. The modern US constitution is based on these basic concepts of checks and balances within the ancient government of the Roman Republic. Whether it be the President, the Congress, or the courts, none can dominate the government.
23 How the Roman Republic is Related to Current Forms of Government Veto I forbid - action to stop passage of laws. The Roman consuls and tribunes used veto power to no. The two consuls could block a military or civil decision by the other; any tribune had the power to refuse laws passed by the Roman Senate. The writers of the Constitution gave the president the right to veto laws although that veto can be overridden by the vote of two-thirds of the House and Senate.
24 How the Roman Republic is Related to Current Forms of Government Voting - The Romans voted to choose their leaders, the way we vote for United States President and Congress do today. In the beginning of the United States only certain male property owners had the right to vote. The founding fathers followed these rules from ancient Rome. Remember in ancient Rome, only men had the right to vote and only landowners could serve in the Senate.
25 How the Roman Republic is Related to Current Forms of Government The idea of Bicameralism came from the ancient Romans. Bicameralism means consisting of two legislative chambers upper and lower Houses. The Upper House in ancient Rome was the Senate and in the US it is also the Senate. The Lower House in ancient Rome was the Assembly and in the US it is the House of Representatives.
26 How the Roman Republic is Related to Current Forms of Government The Roman Legal System gave us the Professional Lawyers, Rules of Evidence, Rights of Defendants, and concept that one is innocent until proven guilty. The founding fathers copied the Roman Republican past, and paid respect to Rome's, Twelve Tables which codified the rights of Roman citizens before their government. Our Bill of Rights was modeled after the Twelve Tables.
27 How the Roman Republic is Related to Current Forms of Government What is in a name? Capitoline Hill is the Roman Capital and Capitol Hill is the US Capital. The United States Senate is named after the Roman Senate and has the same functions as Roman Senate. The head of the Roman republic was the two Consuls which had the same function as a US President.
28 How the Roman Republic is Related to Current Forms of Government Benjamin Franklin himself, during the Constitutional Convention of 1787, would refer to the nation he was helping create as both a republic and an empire. Is the United States not an empire?
29 DESCRIBE THE SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ADVANCEMENTS
30 Utilities As Roman towns got bigger, in the course of the Roman Republic, it got too hard for the people who lived in the towns to get drinking and washing water. Because raw sewage was draining into the rivers, people who drank river water often got very sick or died. Local governments, first in the city of Rome and then elsewhere in the growing Empire, decided to build long stone channels to carry clean water from nearby hills to the towns.
31 These were called aqueducts, from the Latin word for water (aqua) and the Latin word for channel (ductus). By the time of the Empire, most Roman towns had at least one aqueduct to bring in fresh water, and big cities like Rome had ten or more. Utilities
33 Utilities These aqueducts were quite a challenge to build. The engineering had to be just right in order to get the water to run through the channels and get to the city without stagnating in the channel or coming too fast into the city. They had to keep the slope the same all the time, so sometimes the aqueducts had to run on high arches, and other times along the ground in stone channels, or even under the ground in tunnels.
34 Utilities They also built public bathrooms and systems of sewage pipes to carry sewage out of the streets and dump it into the river. This was a big improvement on Greek sewage arrangements, where people just poured their waste into the street however they wanted.
35 Roman Sewer
36 Utilities There were also big public toilets that had room for lots of people at the same time.
37 Utilities Roman people usually didn't have hot baths in their houses, because it was too hard to heat up the water. So instead they used to go to public baths. Public baths were something like our community centers today, or like a health club. They had swimming pools fed by aqueducts, and hot tubs, and exercise equipment, and often gardens and libraries and theaters as well.
38 But unlike most community centers today, Roman baths were made to be really impressive, beautiful buildings. They had high, vaulted ceilings, and the walls were decorated with marble and frescoes or painting is done on fresh, wet plaster walls. The floors had complicated mosaics. Utilities
40 Transportation The Romans built thousands of miles of wonderful roads, to connect every part of the empire back to Rome. The Romans were the first ancient civilization to build paved roads, which did not prevent travel during or after bad weather. The Romans built roads so that the army could march from one place to another. They tried to build the roads as straight as possible, so that the army could take the shortest route. Of course, the roads were used for trade, connecting parts of the Roman Empire to itself and the rest of the known world.
42 Transportation To help people find their way, while traveling these roads, the Romans more or less invented the milestone which grew increasingly wordy, and increasingly tall, to be easily readable from a vehicle. Some are 6 feet tall. The milestone usually gave the mileage to the nearest large city, sometimes to an intermediate place as well; and the date and perhaps who paid for the road.
43 Transportation Up until about a hundred years ago, people were still using these roads, as roads! In recent years, instead of building new roads, modern engineers simply covered many of the old Roman roads with a coat of asphalt.
44 Arts Roman art did not get a start until 500 B. C. Before this the Romans copied the art of the Etruscans. About 200 B. C. the Romans conquered the Greeks and began copying their art style. During their conquest of Greece, the Romans looted the towns. They brought the art home. They also captured sculptors and brought them to Rome as slaves.
45 Arts Beginning with the Roman Republic the Romans started making statues that really looked like one particular person. The Romans were far more realistic than the Greeks with their statues. The Greeks tried to build statues to illustrate the "ideal" person. The Romans believed that having a good image of somebody's face kept its ghost happy.
46 Arts They made statues and portraits too. Statues were life-like and of gods, goddesses, emperors, and important people. Many statues are just the head and shoulders of an emperors. They were called portraits.
47 Arts Frescoes, painting on plaster, became popular during the first century A. D. The paintings were painted on a specially prepared wall with three layers of plaster and three layers of a special coating. Colors were applied to the top layer while it was wet. This made the fresco durable and able to hold up well over a long period of time.
49 Arts The Romans painted murals. These showed everyday scenes around Rome. They also painted mythological scenes such as the heroic deeds of Hercules, Achilles, Ulysses, and Theseus.
50 Roman pottery began with Etruscan-style pottery, but soon developed a tradition of its own. In general, pottery in Italy tended to be made in one color, and the decorations were molded into the clay rather than painted. Arts
51 Arts The floors of Roman buildings were often richly decorated with mosaics (decoration on a surface made by setting small pieces of glass, tile, or stone of different colors into another material so as to make pictures or patterns) many showed scenes of history and everyday life. Some mosaics were bought 'off the shelf' as a standard design, while the wealthy villa owners could afford more personalized designs.
52 Architecture One of the things the Romans are most famous for is their architecture. The ancient Romans were great builders. They built things to last! The Romans brought a lot of new ideas to architecture, of which the three most important are the arch, the baked brick, and the use of concrete.
53 Architecture The Romans introduced stone arch technology over two thousand years ago. They applied to bridges they constructed across the known world and examples can still be seen today. The technology they used has stood the test of time and some Roman construction methods are still used today. The arch is an prime example of Roman technology that is still used world wide even though modern materials are now used.
54 Architecture The Forum was the main marketplace and business center, where the ancient Romans went to do their banking, trading, shopping, and marketing. It was also a place for public speaking. People crowding the Forum would stop and listen, then wander away to do their shopping, and perhaps leave a gift at a temple for one of their gods. The Forum was also used for festivals and religious ceremonies. It was a very busy place.
56 Architecture Outside of Rome, people began to build stone amphitheaters for entertainment. They were called amphitheaters because they were built like two theaters facing each other. In the 6c BC (about 2,500 years ago!), the ancient Romans built the Circus Maximus in the city of Rome. Basically, the Circus Maximus was a race track. It was designed to race chariots. The original Circus Maximus was built out of wood. It burnt down a couple of times. During the Roman Empire, the Circus Maximus was rebuilt using marble and concrete.
58 Architecture Then in 69 AD Vespasian tore down some of the Golden House to build the Colosseum. The Colosseum was a place where a lot of people could sit and watch entertainment. The entertainment was mostly people killing animals, or people killing each other. It was almost exactly like a football stadium today. It was built of concrete and marble and limestone.
60 Architecture Ancient Roman concrete has withstood the attack by elements for over 2,000 years. Roman cement was made up of aggregate or gravel, chunks of stone and rubble, broken bricks which was a binding agent, and mixed with water.
61 Architecture The Pantheon was a temple first built in the very early days of the Roman Empire. It was dedicated to all the Roman gods. The Romans used concrete to build the dome of the Pantheon, which even today is still one of the largest single-span domes in the world. The construction of this building greatly influenced modern architecture. Take a tour:
62 IDENTIFY THE ROLES AND CONTRIBUTIONS
63 Julius Caesar Julius Caesar was a great general and an important leader in ancient Rome.
64 Julius Caesar During his lifetime, he achieved just about every important title in the Roman Republic including consul, tribune of the people, high commander of the army, and high priest. He suggested many new laws, most of which were approved by the Senate. He reorganized the army. He improved the way the provinces were governed. The Romans even named a month after him - the month of July is named for Julius Caesar.
65 Julius Caesar When Julius Caesar announced he had something to say, the people flocked to the Forum to hear him. His ideas had been good ones. The people trusted him. Julius Caesar told the people that he could solve Rome's problems. Certainly, Rome had problems. Crime was everywhere. Taxes were outrageous. People were hungry. Many were out of work. For the rich, it was easier to use slaves to do work than hire Roman people. The people were angry that their government had not been able to solve the many problems facing the Republic.
66 Julius Caesar As Julius Caesar became more powerful, and more popular with the people, leaders in the Senate began to worry. They were afraid that Julius Caesar wanted to take over the government and rule Rome as a king. The leaders of ancient Rome had vowed that the Roman people would never be ruled by a king again. That promise went back over 500 years in time, to when the Roman Republic first began.
67 Julius Caesar One of the laws of the original Twelve Tables was that no general could enter the city with his army. Julius Caesar ignored this law. In 49 BCE, he entered Rome with the Roman Legion, and took over the government. The poor people of Rome, who made up the bulk of the population, were glad. The people called him "father of the homeland. The Senate was furious.
68 Julius Caesar Ultimately, he fought a great Civil War with Pompey for mastery of Rome, and ruled for four years afterwards as Dictator. Senate gave him the title of dictator for life. However, the Roman senators did not want to return to the time of dictators or kings. Besides, Julius Caesar had made many enemies in Rome.
69 Julius Caesar On the Ides of March or March 15, 44 B.C., he was assassinated by a group of Senators, including his best friend, Brutus.
70 Augustus Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. He replaced the Roman republic with a monarchy and during his long reign brought peace and stability.
71 Augustus Julius Caesar, was assassinated and in his will, Octavius, known as Octavian, was named as his heir. He was Caesar s adopted son. He fought to avenge Caesar and in 31 BC defeated Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. He was now undisputed ruler of Rome.
72 Augustus Octavian just kept ruling almost as if he were king, nobody tried to stop him. He made people call him Augustus (which means The Good) instead of Octavian. But he was smarter than his uncle Julius Caesar had been. He didn't call himself dictator, but First Citizen.
73 Augustus He didn't disband the Senate; he made the Senate do what he wanted. He had himself elected tribune, so he could veto whatever the Senate did that he didn't like. People knew that Augustus was really taking over, but as long as there was peace and he didn't say he was taking over, it was okay with them.
74 Augustus Octavian took measures to earn the loyalty of the Roman army. He encouraged the soldiers to retire from the army by providing them with land. Once the soldiers retired, Octavian did not have to be concerned with the army turning on him. Further, Octavian knew he could count on the soldiers support if he was challenged by the Senate.
75 Augustus Octavian restored peace and order to Rome. He made sure the lands throughout the empire were well run and taxes were fair. Octavian built massive roads and bridges, government buildings, and huge public baths. He said, I left Rome a city of marble, though I found it a city of bricks.
76 Augustus The two hundred year period that began with the rule of Augustus was known as the Pax Romana, or the Peace of Rome.
77 DESCRIBE THE TRANSITION FROM THE ROMAN EMPIRE TO BYZANTINE EMPIRE
78 Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Rome had quite a run. First a monarchy, then a republic, then an empire all roads led to Rome for over 1200 years. In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge. During the Imperial period, Rome had some wonderful emperors. Rome also suffered from a series of bad, corrupt and just plain crazy emperors. There were lots of reasons why Rome fell.
79 Reason for the Fall of Rome The empire was too large to govern effectively. The army was not what it used to be. There was corruption in the military - dishonest generals and non-roman soldiers. Civil wars broke out between different political groups.
80 Reason for the Fall of Rome Emperors were often selected by violence, or by birth, so the head of government was not always a capable leader. The increased use of slaves put many Romans out of work The rich became lazy and showed little interest in trying to solve Rome problems. The poor were overtaxed and overworked. They were very unhappy.
81 Reason for the Fall of Rome Prices increased, trade decreased. The population was shrinking due to starvation and disease. That made it difficult to manage farms and government effectively. The Empire starting shrinking. The Huns, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Saxons and other barbarian tribes overran the empire.
82 Roman Empire Splits When the old emperor died, the army selected General Diocletian to be the new emperor of Rome. One of the first things Emperor Diocletian did was to put price controls in place to help stop inflation. He created a law that stated if you charged more than the price limit, you could be killed. The punishment for breaking any of his laws was quite severe.
83 Roman Empire Splits In 293, Diocletian divided the Empire into an eastern and western half The empire was split to make it easier to rule or manage 1. Diocletian ruled the Eastern half 2. Maximian ruled the Western half
84 Roman Empire Splits The Western Roman Empire (Europe/North Africa) included the city of Rome. The Eastern Roman Empire (Turkey/parts of Asia) included the city of Byzantium. Rather than rule Rome, Diocletian chose to rule the Eastern Roman Empire
85 Roman Empire Split This created two Roman empires - the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Each side had a ruler in charge of it. But the ruler who was in charge of Rome was the senior ruler. He placed a good friend in charge of Rome. Before he left town, Emperor Diocletian moved a great deal of Rome's money over to the Eastern Roman Empire. He left Rome forever.
86 Capital Moved to Constantinople/Byzantium In AD 307, Constantine became emperor and united the empire He believed that Rome was too far away from vital areas of the empire to be of value Constantine moved capital of the empire to a new city - Constantinople
87 Capital Moved to Constantinople/Byzantium Constantinople was a new city that was built on the old city of Byzantium. Constantinople was much further east than Rome and firmly in the eastern empire. This left the western empire very vulnerable though the eastern empire was hardly free from attacks.
88 Capital Moved to Constantinople/Byzantium Constantine founded a new capital city to reflect the growing weakness of the Western part of the Roman Empire and the strength of the Eastern part. Constantinople means the city of Constantine. Constantinople was also halfway between the fighting against the Germans in the north and the fighting against the Sassanids in the East, making it easier for the Emperor to get where he needed to be.
89 Capital Moved to Constantinople/Byzantium Constantine had a dream in which a cross appeared in the sky and he heard the words, "Under this sign you will win." Constantine figured that this meant he would win the battle if he had his soldiers paint a cross on their shields. He did have the soldiers paint the cross on their shields, and they did win the battle. Constantine was very impressed with the power of the Christian god, and became a Christian.
90 Germanic Invasions Without money to use for repairs, the famous Roman roads started to fall into disrepair. Without good roads, fresh supplies of men and goods did not always reach the far ends of the empire. Nor were needed goods getting back to Rome. Barbarian tribes had always raided the Roman Empire. These days, barbarian raids on the provinces were becoming more successful. What is a Barbarian? In ancient Rome, a barbarian was the name given to any people who lived outside the borders of the Roman Empire. You were also called a barbarian if you did not speak Latin.
91 Germanic Invasions There were five main barbarian tribes in Europe. Each wanted to conquer the famous Roman Empire. These tribes were the Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, and Visigoths. They were all attacking various pieces of the Western Roman Empire at the same time. Forts and strongholds along the road were destroyed. There were few cities in the outlying regions of the empire, but those that existed were attacked.
92 Germanic Invasions
93 Germanic Invasions Rather than try to defend against all the barbarian tribes who had turned their eyes on Rome, Emperor Valens tried to turn one barbarian tribe against another. Since the barbarian tribes rarely got along anyway, it was a smart thing to do. Valens went one step further. He believed that if he could get some of the barbarians working for him, he might be able to restore order.
94 Germanic Invasions But Emperor Valens did not keep his promises. His army was spread all over the empire, trying to hold back the invading barbarians. Still, supplies did not reach Rome in large enough numbers to support the Visigoths as promised. The Visigoths rebelled. It was the beginning of the end of the Western Roman Empire. In A.D. 476 the German soldier Odoacer captured the city of Rome, and killed the emperor. He named himself king of Italy. Many historians consider this the official date of the fall of Rome.
95 Important Dates In 410, Visogoths captured and looted Rome. In 455 Vandals took Rome In 476 Ostrogoths removed the Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus, this end more than 1000 years of Roman glory
96 Was the Fall of Rome, Really the Fall of Rome? Even though the city of Rome fell to barbarian invaders on 476, the Eastern Empire remained strong Byzantine Empire. Constantinople became the center of a new empire Byzantine Empire which lasted for 1000 s of years.
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The Anglo-Saxons First inhabitants of Britain were the Britons and the Celts. Tall blonde warriors, hunters, and farmers Highly religious people who saw spirits in every part of nature. Their main deities
The Story of the World TEST BOOK AND ANSWER KEY Volume 1: Ancient Times Peace Hill Press Charles City, Virginia www.peacehillpress.com How to Use These Tests and Answer Key These Tests and their accompanying
Name: Date: Period: Lesson 10 - The Kingdom of Kush Section 1 - Introduction In this chapter, you will learn about the African kingdom of Kush. Kush was located on the Nile River, to the south of Egypt.
Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile How did geography influence ancient Egypt? What were the main features and achievements of Egypt s three kingdoms? How did trade and warfare affect Egypt and Nubia? The Egyptian
Unit 7 Lesson 1 Geography and the Rise of Rome Lesson 1 Geography and the Rise of Rome Fill in the Blank 1. Because Italy is surrounded by, the Romans could travel easily by sea to other parts of the world.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. By: Lorin Murphy This book belongs to: Fun Facts About Franklin He was President of the United States longer than any other President.
AP ART HISTORY STUDY SHEET Name: Date: Period: Gardener s Notes Unit 7 - Chapter 10: Roman Art What do Thomas Jefferson s home at Monticello, the New Orleans Superdome, and the California Aqueduct have
The War Horse in Ancient Greece and Rome Four Horse Chariot Race at The Library of Congress This educational packet is intended for 7th grade social studies students. Students will learn about how horses
Ancient Rome Mr. Scherman s Core Rome-Geography Food They had recipes to make cheesecake. The recipes included eggs and ricotta cheese Celery was a popular green vegetable Garum, made from fish and salt,
Leading up to the New Testament In this lesson, we will look at the history of Israel. We will also pay attention to the growing Jewish expectation for coming of a Messiah and developments in the Jewish
The Making of a Nation: The French and Indian War During the eighteenth century, Spain, France, and Britain controlled land in North America. Spain controlled Florida. France was powerful in the northern
Title: MOSES: A PROPHET BECOMES A GREAT LEADER Space for Notes (Yours and ours) Theme: God s dealings with Moses gives hope to leaders and to oppressed people Bible Basis: Deuteronomy 34:10-12 NLT; Exodus
SECTION 1 Note Taking Study Guide THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE Focus Question: What made the Byzantine empire rich and successful for so long, and why did it finally crumble? As you read this section in your textbook,
PUSD High Frequency Word List For Reading and Spelling Grades K-5 High Frequency or instant words are important because: 1. You can t read a sentence or a paragraph without knowing at least the most common.
The Parting of the Red Sea Exodus 14 Items Needed! Bible with marked scripture! Crayons/Markers/Pencils! Large throw or blanket! Copies of coloring sheet! Copies of take home overview The Parting of the
SEPTEMBER WHI.1 Historical Research and Geographical Analysis *(ongoing throughout year) identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary sources use maps, globes, artifacts, pictures identify major
Global History and Geography I The Rise of Feudalism in Japan Name: The emperor was an important political and religious figure in Japan. However, by the 1100s, the emperor s power was so weakened that
Devotion NT249 CHILDREN S DEVOTIONS FOR THE WEEK OF: LESSON TITLE: Jesus Visits Mary and Martha THEME: Jesus wants us to spend time with \ Him. SCRIPTURE: Luke 10:38-42 Dear Parents Welcome to Bible Time
Bible for Children presents EZEKIEL: MAN OF VISIONS Written by: Edward Hughes Illustrated by: Lazarus Adapted by: Ruth Klassen Produced by: Bible for Children www.m1914.org 2007 Bible for Children, Inc.
Byzantium: Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 9-12 Curriculum Focus: World History Lesson Duration: Two class periods Program Description Rome fell in 476, but the empire moved east and lasted another thousand
Lesson 2 The First Civilization MAIN IDEAS Culture Food surpluses, new technology, and advanced social organization led to a complex way of life. It is called civilization. Government A new type of government
LESSON 7 Living together in the Roman Empire Conquerors and rulers of a Great Empire Roman politics - 400 BC - 200 AD Research questions 1. How did Rome become a Great Empire? 2. How did the Romans govern
Ghana: A West African Trading Empire The kingdom of Ghana lasted from 500 C.E. to the 11 th century C.E. The kingdom arose from the Sahel of Africa and spread to the valley between the Senegal and Niger
VMFA Resources Pre- and Post-Visit Activities VIRGINIA MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS Greece and Rome GRADE 3 Based on images of two works of art from VMFA s collection, these activities will provide students with
Set 1 The people Write it down By the water Who will make it? You and I What will they do? He called me. We had their dog. What did they say? When would you go? No way A number of people One or two How
The Geography of Rome Around 3,000 years ago, a tribe of people known as the Latins settled on the hilltops above the Tiber river. This cluster of small villages eventually grew to become the city of Rome
GRADES: 4-5 Be like the stars of our faith-help care for the church! Tithe to tithe is to share to tithe is to care Dear Student, As Orthodox Christians, we care about our faith and our church. One way
The Byzantine Empire and Russia The city of Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Location of Constantinople Constantinople provided political, economic, and military advantages 1. Protection
Comprehension and Discussion Activities for the Movie This module has been designed to accompany the film Mulan (1998). Mulan is based on the 4 th century Chinese legend of a young girl named Fa Mulan.
Culture Inspiration for this lesson came from ESL Special Collection found at: http://www.literacynet.org/esl/tta5.html. Within that website, there is Building Bridges: A Peace Corps Guide to Cross-Cultural
SECTION 1 Note Taking Study Guide THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE Focus Question: What made the Byzantine empire rich and successful for so long, and why did it finally crumble? As you read this section in your textbook,
Cultural Diffusion Essential Question: In what ways have migration and trade affected cultures? A. Define cultural diffusion. B. Record information about the topics listed in the Cumulative Review or your
Unit 5 Lesson 3 The Early Hebrews Lesson 3 The Early Hebrews Directions Fill in the Blank Read each sentence. Fill in the blank with the word from the word pair that best completes each sentence. 1. After
SECTION Note Taking Study Guide THE GREEK ROOTS OF DEMOCRACY Focus Question: What ideas arose in ancient Greece that contributed to the development of democratic values in the modern world? As you read
Sparta was the greatest military power in the Greek city-states Spartans lived in harsh conditions, without luxuries, to make them tough fighters. There is much less information about the Spartans than
MINNESOTA CIVICS TEST The following 50 questions which serve as the Minnesota's civics test were selected from the 100 questions used for the naturalization test administered by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration
Name: Class: Date: 6 th Grade World History Chapter 8 Study Guide: Ancient Greece Section 1- Geography and the Early Greeks 1) Complete the chart below to show how geography shaped the lives of early Greeks.
1 Samuel 4 1 And Samuel s word came to all Israel. Now the Israelites went out to fight against the Philistines. The Israelites camped at Ebenezer, and the Philistines at Aphek. 2 The Philistines deployed
Table of Contents Part One: Social Studies Curriculum Chapter I: Social Studies Essay Questions and Prewriting Activities 1. Western Political Thought 1 2. The Age of Revolution 6 3. The Age of Napoleon
Bible for Children presents JOSHUA TAKES CHARGE Written by: Edward Hughes Illustrated by: Janie Forest Adapted by: Ruth Klassen Produced by: Bible for Children www.m1914.org 2007 Bible for Children, Inc.
Mesopotamia Review Mesopotamia is the first known civilization. Mesopotamia means land between two rivers. This civilization began on the plains between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This curving strip
Big Picture Question: Why did God scatter His people? God s people sinned against Him. Bible Passage: 2 Kings 17:1-23 Christ Connection: The prophets called God s people to repentance as Christ calls people
Introduction In Chapter 37, you learned how the emperor Constantine moved his capital from Rome to the ancient city of Byzantium in 330 C.E. This city eventually became known as Constantinople. After Constantine