TROPICAL BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT CONTENTS VOLUME VII

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1 CONTENTS VOLUME VII Insect Viruses: Diversity, Biology and Use as Bioinsecticides 1 Jorge E. Ibarra and M. Cristina Del Rincon-Castro, Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioquimica, Cinvestav Campus Guanajuato, Mexico 2. Entomopathogenic Viruses 3. Taxonomic Classification 3.1. Ascovirus 3.2. Iridovirus 3.3. Polydnavirus 3.4. Baculovirus 3.5. Cypovirus 3.6. Entomopoxvirus 4. Life Cycle 4.1. In Vitro Replication of Insect Viruses 5. Genetics of Insect Viruses 6. Use of Insect Viruses as Biological Control Agents 6.1. Production 6.2. Application 6.3. Examples on the use of Insect Viruses in the Field 6.4. Important Considerations When Using Viral Bioinsecticides 6.5. Advantages and Limitations 6.6. Development of Resistance to Insect Viruses 6.7. Genetic Manipulation of Baculoviruses Phylogeny,Biology,Behavior and Management of Tephritid fruit Flies:An Overview 32 J. Rull, Instituto de Ecologia A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. 1. Phylogeny 1.1. Diptera 1.2. Tephritoidea 1.3. Tephritidae 2. Biology 2.1. Life Cycle 2.2. Natural Enemies Parasitoids Predators 3. Behavior 3.1. Feeding Behavior 3.2. Host Finding Behavior 3.3. Oviposition Behavior 3.4. Mating Behavior 4. Management 4.1. Pest Status 4.2. Monitoring 4.3. Control Chemical Control Biological Control Sterile Insect Technique Biorational Control Methods. i

2 Insect vectors of phytoplasmas 46 R. I. Rojas-Martínez, Department of Plant Pathology, Colegio de Postgraduado- Campus Montecillo, México 2. Factors Involved in the Transmission of Phytoplasmas by the Insect Vector 3. Acquisition and Transmission of Phytoplasmas 4. Families Reported to Contain Species That Act As Vectors of Phytoplasmas 5. Bactericera Cockerelli Effects of Aflatoxins Contaminating Food On Human Health 60 Magda Carvajal and Pável Castillo, Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad Universitaria, Colonia Copilco, Delegación Coyoacán México, D.F. 1. Aflatoxins, Production, Occurrence, Chemical Structure 1.1. Definition of Aflatoxins 1.2. Aflatoxin Producing Fungi and Production Conditions Aflatoxin Producing Fungi Conditions for Aflatoxin Production 1.3. Occurrence 1.4. Chemical Structure and Types Physicochemical Properties of Aflatoxins 1.5. Biological Properties 2. Biosynthetic Pathway 2.1. Biotransformation of AFB 1 3. Analytical Methods for Aflatoxin Study 4. Aflatoxin Metabolism 5. Toxic Effects of Aflatoxins in Health 5.1. In Plants 5.2. In Animals 5.3. In Humans Mutagenesis and Proto-Oncogene Activation Mutagenesis Proto-Oncogene Activation AFB 1 -DNA Adducts Carcinogenesis 6. Economic Losses Due To Aflatoxin Contamination 7. Control Preventive Measures 7.2. Structural Degradation after Chemical Treatment 7.3. Modification of Toxicity by Dietary Chemicals 7.4. Detoxification 7.5. Chemosorbents 7.6. Radiation 8. Legislation 9. Conclusions Tropical Insect Chemical Ecology 85 Edi A. Malo, Departamento de Entomologia Tropical, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Carretera Antiguo Aeropuerto Km. 2.5, Tapachula, Chiapas, C.P Mexico. 2. Semiochemicals 2.1. Use of Semiochemicals 3. Pheromones ii

3 3.1. Lepidoptera Pheromones 3.2. Coleoptera Pheromones 3.3. Diptera Pheromones 3.4. Pheromones of Insects of Medical Importance 4. Kairomones 4.1. Coleoptera Kairomones 4.2. Diptera Kairomones 5. Synthesis 6. Concluding Remarks Passalidae, Insects which live in Decaying Logs 112 M. L. Castillo and P. Reyes-Castillo, Departamento de Biología de Suelos, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Xalapa, Ver. México 1.1. What are Passalid Beetles? 1.2. How to Recognize Passalid Beetles? 1.3. Where do Passalid Beetles Live? 2. Natural History 2.1. Life Cycle 2.2. Food 2.3. Relationships with Other Organisms 3. Behavior 3.1. Galleries 3.2. Courtship and Copulation Sound Communication 3.3. Subsocial Behavior Oviposition and Nests for Eggs Parental Care Territoriality 4. Ecology, General Features 4.1. Other Specialized Microhabitats 4.2. Percentage of Decaying Logs Housing Passalid Beetles 4.3. How Many Arboreal Species are Fed on by Passalid Beetles? 4.4. Passalidae Life Strategies in Decaying Logs 4.5. Passalidae and the Succession of Fauna in the Decomposing Trunk 4.6. Ecological Interest 5. Conclusions Insects As Plant Virus Vectors 134 Daniel L. Ochoa Martínez, Department of Plant Pathology, Colegio de Postgraduados-Campus Montecillo, México 2. Vector Concept 3. Plant Viruses: Transmission by Insects 4. Aphids: Virus Vectors 5. Leafhoppers, Planthoppers and Treehoppers: Virus Vectors 6. Whiteflies: Virus Vectors 7. Thrips: Virus Vectors 8. Beetles: Virus Vectors Insect Conservation 142 Michael J. Samways, Department of Conservation Ecology and Entomology and Centre for Agricultural Biodiversity, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa iii

4 1.1. The Rise of Insects 1.2. Current World Species Richness 1.3. Insect Survival prior to Human Impact 1.4. Early Human Impact 1.5. Current Extinctions 1.6. Taxonomic Challenges 1.7. Perception Challenges 2. Insects and Ecosystem Processes 2.1. Insects as Keystone Organisms 2.2. Insect Ecosystem Engineers 2.3. Insects as Food 2.4. Insect Pollinators 2.5. Insect Interactions with Plants 3. Threats to Insects 3.1. Threats from Contaminants 3.2. Threats from Increasing Loss of Natural Habitat 3.3. Urbanization 3.4. Forest Loss 3.5. Loss of Grasslands 3.6. Loss of Special Habitats 3.7. Over-collecting 4. Threats from Invasive Aliens 4.1. Invasive Alien Plants 4.2. Invasive Alien Vertebrates 4.3. Invasive Alien Insects 5. Risks of Biological Control 5.1. Biological Control of Insect Pests 5.2. Biological Control of Weeds 5.3. Biocontrol Leading into Conservation 5.4. Risks of Introducing Insect Pathogens 6. Risks of Genetic Engineering 6.1. Questions being posed 6.2. Effect of Genetically Modified Crops on Natural Enemies 6.3. Effect of Genetically Modified Crops on Pollination and Soil Organisms 7. Response of Insects to Global Climate Change 7.1. What Evidence is There of Climate Change? 7.2. Effects of Global Climate Change on Insects 7.3. Changes in Species Geographical Ranges 7.4. Climate Change Interacting with Other Threats 8. Prioritizing for Insect Conservation 8.1. Large-scale Planning 8.2. Systematic Reserve Selection 8.3. Surrogates in Conservation Planning 8.4. Does the Conservation of Plants and Other Organisms Conserve the Insects? 9. Recording Insect Diversity 9.1. Mapping 9.2. Making Inventories 9.3. Monitoring 9.4. Red Listing 10. Managing for Insect Diversity Importance of Reserves Landscape Heterogeneity Countryside-wide Management Corridors 11. Restoration of Insect Populations Restoring to What? Restoration Results iv

5 11.3. Insect Gardening Species-recovery Plans Captive Breeding 12. Conventions and Social Issues International Conventions National Issues Increasing Public Awareness Parasitoids Wasps, Natural Enemies Of Insects 185 A. Bonet, Department of Entomology, Instituto de Ecologa A. C., Mexico 2. Parasitoidism (= parasitism), important mode of life in Hymenoptera 3. Evolution of Hymenoptera parasitoids 4. Parasitoid biology 4.1. Developmental Strategies of Parasitoids Ectoparasitoids Endoparasitoids Evolution of parasitoid virulence genes Nutrition and developmental strategy between parasitoid-host interactions Wolbachia endosymbionts 5. Parasitoid Behavioral Ecology 5.1. Foraging and Optimization Theory with Parasitoids 5.2. Parasitoid Interactions Through Infochemicals 6. Multitrophic interactions between parasitoids and other organisms in natural and modified environments 7. Augmentative biological control with parasitoids in the Neotropics 7.1. A Success Case Study, Biological Control of Agricultural Pests with Trichogramma in Brazil, 20 Years of Research, Maintenance and Release of Trichogramma 7.2. Search for New Parasitoids against Bruchid Pests in one of the Domestication Centers of Beans (legume pulses), a Mexican Example 8. Digital information resources about parasitic wasps 9. Conclusion Index 209 About EOLSS 213 v

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