Gender and Helping Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Social Psychological Literature

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1 Psychlgical Bulletin 1986, , N. 3, Cyright 1986 by the American Psychlgical Assciatin, nc /86/$00.75 Gener an Heling Behavir: A Meta-Analytic Review f the Scial Psychlgical Literature Alice H. Eagly an Maureen Crwley Purue University Accring t ur scial-rle thery f gener an heling, the male gener rle fsters heling that is heric an chivalrus, whereas the female gener rle fsters heling that is nurturant an caring. n scial sychlgical stuies, heling behavir has been examine in the cntext f shrt-term encunters with strangers. This fcus has tene t exclue frm the research literature thse heling behavirs rescribe by the female gener rle, because they are islaye rimarily in lng-term, clse relatinshis. n cntrast, the heling behavirs rescribe by the male gener rle have been generusly reresente in research finings because they are islaye in relatinshis with strangers as well as in clse relatinshis. Results frm ur meta-analytic review f sex ifferences in heling behavir inicate that in general men hele mre than wmen an wmen receive mre hel than men. Nevertheless, sex ifferences in heling were extremely incnsistent acrss stuies an were successfully reicte by varius attributes f the stuies an the heling behavirs. These reictrs were interrete in terms f several asects f ur scial-rle thery f gener an heling. Whether wmen an men iffer in the extent t which they give an receive hel is a questin f cnsierable interest frm bth theretical an alie ersectives. Althugh many sychlgists have aresse this questin (e.g., Deaux, 1976; Maccby & Jacklin, 1974; J. A. Piliavin & Unger, 1985), until nw n systematic review has been carrie ut n sex ifferences in the large scial sychlgical literature n heling. An analysis base n scial rles rvies a theretical framewrk fr ur synthesis f this literature. Like ther scial behavirs, heling can be viewe as rle behavir an therefre as being regulate by the scial nrms that aly t iniviuals base n the rles they ccuy. T accunt fr sex ifferences in heling frm this ersective, we must unerstan the ways in which heling is sustaine an inhibite by the scial rles ccuie mainly r exclusively by ne sex versus the ther. Gener rles are ne imrtant class f scial rle in this analysis. ther rles, if they are ccuie rimarily by a single sex (e.g., A reliminary rert f this research was resente at the meeting f the Miwestern Psychlgical Assciatin, May This research was surte by Natinal Science Funatin Grant BNS We thank Larry Heges fr guiance cncerning statistical analysis, Patricia Renner fr hel in lcating an cing stuies an calculating effect sizes, Miriam Lerner fr assistance in cing the recrs f the Carnegie Her Cmmissin, Rbert V. Eagly fr hel with cmuter rgramming, Carle Chrvala, Ellen Drury, an Katherine M. Markee fr hel in lcating stuies, an Carlyn Jagacinski fr suggestins cncerning the statistical analysis. We als thank Catherine Blake, Shelly Chaiken, Kay Deaux, Juith Hall, Samuel Himmelfarb, Janet Hye, Alice sen, Carlyn Jagacinski, Mary Kite, Patricia Renner, Valerie Stefien, Wlfgang Strebe, Helen Weinreich-Haste, Sharn Wlf, an Weny W fr their cmments n a raft f the article. Crresnence cncerning this article shul be aresse t Alice H. Eagly, Deartment f Psychlgical Sciences, Purue University, West Lafayette, niana firefighter, hmemaker), can als unerlie sex ifferences in heling. By rviing a single, integrative theretical ersective, ur scial-rle arach is a macrthery fr unerstaning sex ifferences in varius sychlgical rcesses that may unerlie heling behavir. A number f such mechanisms have been iscusse recently by J. A. Piliavin an Unger (1985). n ur arach, hytheses abut sex ifferences in such rcesses are erive frm an analysis f the scial rles cmmnly ccuie by wmen an men. Befre we resent ur thery, ne warning is arriate: Given the limitatins f the emirical literature, it is imssible t test all f the reictins that fllw frm this analysis. This inability will highlight missins in the kins f rle relatinshis within which heling behavir has been stuie. Gener Rles an Heling T exlain sex ifferences in heling, we first exlre gener rles. These rles cnsist f the nrms alicable t iniviuals base n their scially ientifie gener. We argue that the nrms gverning heling are quite ifferent in the female an male gener rles. The female gener rle. The female gener rle inclues nrms encuraging certain frms f heling. Many feminist scial scientists (e.g., Bernar, 1981;Chrw, 1978; J.B. Miller, 1976) have argue that wmen are execte t lace the nees f thers, esecially thse f family members, befre their wn. Gilligan (1982) has ientifie this theme as wmen's rientatin twar caring an resnsibility. Furthermre, several investigatrs have claime that wmen's cnsieratin fr thers unerlies their altruism (e.g., J. A. Piliavin & Unger, 1985; Staub, 1978; Unerw & Mre, 1982). n aitin, many sychlgists have argue that wmen (an girls) are generally mre emathic r symathetic than men (an bys; e.g., Feshbach, 1982; Hffman, 1977). Yet, in agreement with ur scial-rle 283

2 284 ALCE H. EAGLY AND MAUREEN CRWLEY ersective, Eisenberg an Lennn (1983) have shwn that this emathy sex ifference is btaine rimarily when gener rle bligatins r eman characteristics are salient. The female gener rle may rescribe that wmen hel nly certain ele in certain ways. Wmen are execte t care fr the ersnal an emtinal nees f thers, t eliver rutine frms f ersnal service, an, mre generally, t facilitate the rgress f thers twar their gals. The eman fr wmen t serve thers in these ways is esecially strng within the family an alies t sme extent in ther clse relatinshis, such as frienshis. Research n gener steretyes rvies evience that nrms fstering this nurturant an caring helfulness are assciate with the female gener rle. n steretye stuies (e.g., Bern, 1974; Ruble, 1983; Sence & Helmreich, 1978), wmen have tyically been rate mre favrably than men, nt nly n helfulness, but als n kinness, cmassin, an the ability t evte neself cmletely t thers. Furthermre, such attributes are ften rate as mre esirable in wmen than men. Cnsistent with this steretye f wmen's helfulness, stuies f frienshi have fun that wmen, t a greater extent than men, rerte rviing their friens ersnal favrs, emtinal surt, an infrmal cunseling abut ersnal rblems (Aries & Jhnsn, 1983; Berg, 1984; Jhnsn & Aries, 1983; Wrell, Rman, &Newsme, 1984). n aitin, Bern, Martyna, an Watsn (1976) shwe that even with subjects' level f anrgyny cntrlle, cllege wmen were rate as mre nurturant than cllege men in a cnversatin with an aarently lnely stuent f the same sex. The male gener rle. The male gener rle, articularly in its traitinal frm, encurages ther frms f heling. ne such frm is heric behavir, esecially altruistic acts f saving thers frm harm erfrme at sme risk t neself. Thus, her is enne in the xfr English Dictinary (1971) as "a man istinguishe by extrarinary valur an martial achievements; ne wh es brave r nble ees." Althugh ur culture als ffers a arallel cncet f herine, it is nt inclue in ur analysis f the female gener rle because herine is a much less wiely accete ieal fr wmen than her is fr men. Research n gener steretyes rvies nly limite surt fr an assciatin between herism an masculinity. Attributes such as willingness t take risks, aventurusness, calmness in a crisis, an the ability t stan u well uner ressure are ascribe t men mre than wmen an are ften viewe as mre esirable in men (Bern, 1974; Brverman, Vgel, Brverman, Clarksn, & Rsenkrantz, 1972; Ruble, 1983; Sence, Helmreich, & Sta, 1974). Such attributes may well reisse men t act herically, yet herism is nt a quality steretyically ascribe t men, n ubt because heric acts are believe t ccur nly in quite extreme an unusual circumstances. Sme surt fr an assciatin between herism an the male rle cmes frm nting that almst all f the ele wh have been single ut as heric by schlars an ther writers are men (e.g., Hk, 1943; Kerenyi, 1960; Thmas, 1943). Yet the imlicatins f this evience fr the male gener rle are nt clear-cut because sme f these heres ccuie ther rles that strngly encurage heric behavir (e.g., military leaer). Aitinal infrmatin abut herism can be fun in the recrs f the Carnegie Her Fun Cmmissin, which since 1904 has given awars t ele wh erfrm acts (in the Unite States r Canaa) in which they risk r sacrifice their lives "in saving, r attemting t save, the life f a fellw being" (Carnegie Her Fun Cmmissin, 1907,. 21). Cnvenient with resect t etermining whether herism is linke with the male gener rle an nt merely with ther rles ccuie isrrtinately by men is the exclusin frm awars f ersns such as firefighters whse uties in their regular vcatins require herism. Because arental rles may require that herism be islaye when ne's chilren are in anger, it is als cnvenient that the Carnegie Her Cmmissin exclue frm awars ersns wh rescue family members, "excet in cases f utstaning herism where the rescuer lses his life r is severely injure" (Carnegie Her Fun Cmmissin, 1983,. 4). Wmen are exlicitly inclue: "Whenever herism is islaye by man r wman in saving human life, the Fun alies" (Carnegie, 1907,. 11). Yet classificatin f the 6,955 Carnegie mealists accring t their sex inicates that nly 616 (8.86%) were wmen (W. F. Rutkwski, Secretary, Carnegie Her Fun Cmmissin, ersnal cmmunicatin, February 18, 1986). The iea that heric frms f heling are rescribe by the male gener rle suggests that men are mre helful than wmen uner certain circumstances. Fr examle, because herism imlies that the heler takes risks, the amunt f anger inherent in heling may affect sex ifferences in heling. Wmen may erceive many classes f situatins as mre angerus than men fr examle, when heling is irecte twar a male stranger r when giving ai entails the risk f hysical injury t the heler. n the absence f ressures t behave herically, wmen may nt feel as bligate as men t risk harm t themselves in rer t rvie hel. The resence f an auience an the availability f ther helers may als be relevant t heric heling. Thus, bystaners might elicit greater heling frm men than wmen because heric status is achieve nly if there is ublic recgnitin fr ne's exlits. n the wrs f Hffer (1951), "There is n striving fr glry withut vivi awareness f an auience" (. 65). The availability f ther tential helers may als increase men's heling because herism is achieve by being the ne ersn amng many wh is willing t take the risks invlve in heling. Relate t herism is chivalry, which is als rmte by the male gener rle. Behavirs labele as chivalrus are "characterize by ure an nble gallantry, hnr, curtesy, an isintereste evtin t the cause f the weak r resse" (xfr English Dictinary, 1971). The helfulness inherent in chivalry is illustrate by several f the chivalric vws taken by meieval knights: (a) "t rtect the weak an efenseless," (b) "t resect the hnr f wmen," (c) "t live fr hnr an glry, esising ecuniary rewar," an () "t fight fr the general welfare f all" (Hearnshaw, 1928,. 24). The cntinuing influence f chivalry n cncetins f ieal male behavir in Western sciety is well cumente (e.g., Aresty, 1970; Fraser, 1982; Giruar, 1981). Furthermre, rules cnsistent with the chivalric ce, esecially rules rescribing that men rtect wmen, are cmmn in twentieth century etiquette bks (e.g., Pst, 1924; Vanerbilt, 1963). Yet as Walum (1974) has shwn,

3 GENDER AND HELPNG BEHAVR 285 many ele have becme ambivalent abut chivalrus behavir since the avent f the Wmen's Mvement. Althugh the iea that the male rle fsters chivalrus behavir might suggest that attributes such as civility shul be ascribe t men, such finings have nt been btaine in steretye research. Yet chivalry, with its quality f nblesse blige, may be steretyically assciate rimarily with men f relatively high scial status rather than men in general. Mre generally, chivalrus behavir is nt synnymus with lite r civil behavir because chivalry encurages nly certain frms f liteness carrie ut in relatin t certain targets in arriate scial cntexts. T the extent that chivalry cntinues t influence behavir, men wul be mre helful than wmen in situatins that allw chivalrus rtectiveness r civility. Examles inclue a man carrying a heavy ackage fr a wman r heling a wman ut n her cat. Such behavirs, like heric behavirs, wul be irecte twar strangers as well as intimates, an at least sme curtesies, such as assisting a wman with her cat, rbably ccur mre cmmnly amng ele wh nt knw ne anther well. Wmen rbably receive mre chivalrus hel than men.' The chivalric ce stiulates that men irect their curteus an rtective acts twar wmen, wh cnstitute ne class f "weak an resse" ele whm chivalrus men are suse t hel. nee, wmen are regare as weaker an mre eenent than men (e.g., Brverman et al., 1972), althugh this ercetin f weakness may elicit victimizatin as well as heling. Als imrtant in insuring that chivalrus heling is irecte twar wmen is wmen's fulfillment f their chivalric uty t welcme an, mrever, t insire men's curtesies an rtectin. Ventimiglia's (1982) fining that wmen fr whm a man hel a r islaye mre gratitue than men fr whm a wman hel a r is cnsistent with this rtrayal f wmen but als allws ther interretatins (e.g., men's surrise r uzzlement at unexecte behavir). n summary, the heling behavirs cnsistent with the male gener rle iffer bth in kin an in scial cntext frm thse cnsistent with the female gener rle. The heling execte f men encmasses nnrutine an risky acts f rescuing thers as well as behavirs that are curteus an rtective f subrinates. These behavirs cmmnly ccur in relatinshis with strangers as well as in clse relatinshis an may ften be irecte twar wmen. The heling execte f wmen mainly cnsists f caring fr thers, rimarily in clse relatinshis. Finally, even thugh we have emhasize the surt gener rles rvie fr heling, rhibitins against heling may als be inclue in these rles. n articular, arents an ther scializers may teach girls abut the tential angers f ealing with strangers. Rules f aviance, rimarily intene t lessen the ssibility that girls an wmen will be victims f sexual assault(e.g., U.S. Deartment f Justice, 1979), may lea them t juge many heling behavirs as angerus. Thus, nrms enjining wmen t avi strangers, esecially male strangers, may be as imrtant in accunting fr hel given t strangers as nrms encuraging men t len assistance t strangers. ther Scial Rles an Heling n natural settings, sme heling behavirs may be mre cmmn in ne sex because they are asects, nt f gener rles, but f ther scial rles ccuie rimarily by ersns f that sex. The mestic rle is a case in int. T he service-riente character f the "husewife" rle has beeninte in feminist writings (e.g., Friean, 1963) an cumente in emirical research (e.g., Walker & Ws, 1976). Because this rle is ccuie almst exclusively by wmen, care-giving within the family is much mre cmmnly carrie ut by wmen than men. nee, because f the traitinal imrtance f the mestic rle in wmen's lives, the nrms assciate with it may be very similar t thse assciate with the female rle in general. As Eagly an Steffen (1984) argue base n their research n gener steretyes, cmmunal qualities such as kinness an evtin t thers are assciate with wmen in general, rimarily because these qualities are assciate with the mestic rle. The view that the mestic rle encurages caring behavir twar family members is cnsistent with sme f the mre general views exresse abut wmen's rles in clse relatinshis. Fr examle, Bernar (1981) summarize evience suggesting that wmen suly the majr emtinal surt, bth t their husbans an t their wmen friens, an Belle (1982a, 1982b) cumente the ways in which wmen's traitinal rles as hmemaker, frien, an neighbr ften require that they rvie mre scial surt than they receive. Base n a review f the scial surt literature, Vaux (1985) suggeste that wmen rvie (an receive) mre emtinal surt than men. ther heling behavirs are require by ccuatinal rles ther than the mestic rle fr examle, secretaries hel bsses, nurses hel hysicians, an scial wrkers hel r an resse ele. Wmen are articularly well reresente in ai ccuatins that fcus n sme frm f ersnal service: ver half f all emlye wmen are in clerical an service ccuatins, an wmen with rfessinal sitins are reminantly in teaching an nursing (U.S. Deartment f Labr, 1980). n cntrast, men are esecially well reresente in ai ccuatins that may require lacing ne's life in jeary t hel thers (e.g., firefighter, law enfrcement fficer, slier). Finally, wmen's traitinal eicatin t cmmunity service in vlunteer rles is yet anther surce f sex ifferences in heling behavir in natural settings. Skills gaine in scial rles. As ccuants f scial rles, ele ften gain skills require in heling. Furthermre, ele als gain skills because they anticiate ccuying rles that 1 Because it might als be argue that heric heling is irecte mre twar wmen than men, we analyze the sex f the reciients f heric heling in the 404 accunts f the ees f the Carnegie mealists frm every thir year starting in 1970 (Carnegie Her Fun Cmmissin, 1970, 1973, 1976, 1979, 1982). The finings rve ifficult t interret. Amng the 95% f these heres wh were male, 22% rescue ne r mre ault wmen, 30% rescue chilren, 39% rescue men, an the remaining 9% rescue grus f ele cnsisting f men, wmen, an/ r chilren. Yet many f these incients ccurre in ccuatinal r recreatinal settings where men were rbably in the cmany f ther men. n aitin, Meinl an Lerner's (1983) exerimental emnstratin that the victimizatin f a female artner elicite heric behavir frm their male subjects is ifficult t interret because the exeriment i nt yiel a cmarisn f this behavir with that elicite by a male artner.

4 286 ALCE H. EAGLY AND MAUREEN CRWLEY eman secific skills. Fr examle, men are mre likely t ccuy (an t anticiate ccuying) rles in which they service autmbiles an therefre are mre likely t have gaine the exertise t hel ele with their cars. n cntrast, wmen are mre likely t ccuy (an t anticiate ccuying) rles in which they nurture yung chilren an therefre are mre likely t have gaine the exertise t hel chilren. Cnsequently, ssessing arriate skills allws men t hel ele with their cars an wmen t hel chilren, even in the absence f a cntemraneus rle requiring these behavirs. Because f such rle-linke eterminants f skills, helful acts shul be examine fr the extent t which ele feel cmetent an cmfrtable engaging in them. Persns f whichever sex is mre cmetent an cmfrtable in relatin t a articular act wul be mre likely t engage in that act (see Deaux, 1976; J. A. Piliavin & Unger, 1985). Scial Status an Heling The istributin f the sexes int higher an lwer status rles may als affect heling. n general, subrinate status in hierarchical rle relatinshis increases the likelih that iniviuals will be rviers f services rather than reciients. Because men ten t have higher status than wmen in rganizatins f all kins, men are mre likely t receive ai in attaining jbrelevant gals, an wmen are mre likely t rvie such ai. Furthermre, t the extent that gener functins very generally as a status cue (Lckhee & Hall, 1976; Meeker & Weitzel- 'Neill, 1977), assistance in attaining lnger term gals may be isrrtinately irecte twar men an elivere by wmen even utsie f rganizatinal cntexts. This attern cntrasts with that reicte fr minr curtesies, which by chivalric rules shul be irecte by men twar wmen. The tyical status ifference between the sexes has aitinal imlicatins when effrts t elicit hel are viewe as frms f scial influence. Frm this ersective, a irect request fr ai is ne tye f influence attemt. Heling in resnse t such an aeal can be regare as a cmliant behavir. n cntrast, the mere rtrayal f a nee, as in bystaner interventin stuies (e.g.,. M. Piliavin, Rin, & Piliavin, 1969), is an inirect aeal fr ai. Because n secific request is irecte twar the tential heler, heling in such a situatin can be regare as an assertive behavir. The status ifference between the sexes has cntrasting imlicatins fr cmliant versus assertive heling behavirs. Because gener is a general status cue, wmen like members f ther lwer status categries are execte t behave in smewhat cmliant an unassertive ways (see Eagly, 1983). Therefre, as Deaux (1976) has als argue, wmen may be less helful than men when heling is elicite by the mere rtrayal f a nee an is therefre an assertive act. n cntrast, wmen may be mre helful than men when heling is elicite by a irect request an is therefre a cmliant act. Limitatins f the Research Literature Frm a scial-rle ersective, sex ifferences in heling behavir shul be highly variable because heling is embee in scial rles an is therefre regulate by a variety f scial nrms. Cnsequently, it is nt reasnable t reict that either men r wmen are unifrmly the mre helful sex, rvie that heling has been stuie with meths reresentative f natural settings. nstea, the size an irectin f sex ifferences shul be a ruct f situatinal variables that etermine what scial rles are salient in articular situatins. ur examinatin f the literature n heling reveale that it is nt reresentative f natural settings: Heling has been stuie almst exclusively in brief encunters with strangers in fiel an labratry situatins an nt in lng-term rle relatinshis within families, small grus, r rganizatins. Therefre, the heling fstere by the female rle in clse r lng-term relatinshis wul nt be islaye in the available research. Neither wul several ther frms f wmen's heling be evient namely, the hel they rvie as (a) hmemakers, (b) jbhlers in service an heling ccuatins, (c) cmmunity vlunteers, an () ccuants f lwer status rles in rganizatins. n cntrast, the heric an chivalrus frms f heling, which are rescribe by the male gener rle, wul be generusly reresente because they are islaye in brief encunters with strangers. Even thugh research has nt examine extremely heric behavirs such as thse f the Carnegie mealists, fr the merately angerus behavirs that have been examine (e.g., changing a tire fr a stranger r giving a stranger a rie), men's willingness t take risks an wmen's bligatin t avi them shul engener mre hel by men than wmen. Als, heling behavir stuie in the research literature shul be affecte by tw ther sex-relate ifferences that fllw frm ur rle analysis namely, sex ifferences in secific skills an in cmliance an assertiveness. n cnclusin, when the varius cmnents f ur scialrle analysis are alie t the very restricte set f rle relatinshis within which scial sychlgists have stuie heling, verall sex-ifference reictins are that men are mre helful than wmen an wmen are mre likely than men t receive hel. Yet accring t ur analysis, these sex ifferences wul nt be invariant, even in the limite range f situatins examine in the heling literature. As alreay nte, features f scial settings (e.g., the resence f ther ele) an heling acts (e.g., their assertive r cmliant nature an the secific skills they require) shul affect the irectin an magnitue f sex ifferences. We have teste these reictins using metaanalytic meths f research integratin (e.g., Glass, McGaw, &Smith, 1981; Heges &lkin, 1985;Rsenthal, 1984). Samle f Stuies Meth We retrieve the stuies inclue in J. A. Piliavin an Unger's (1985) review, an ae t them with a cmuter-base infrmatin search f the fllwing ata bases: PsycNF (Psychlgical Abstracts), ; ERC, ; an Scial SciSearch, The key wrs use in the searches inclue altruism, rscial behavir, heling behavir, assistance, an ai. We als searche thrugh (a) the reference lists f the jurnal articles in ur samle f heling stuies, (b) the reference lists f numerus review articles an bks n heling behavir, an (c) vlumes f jurnals with the largest number f heling stuies, with cmlete cverage f issues frm June 1981 t June The criteria fr incluing stuies in the samle were (a) the eenent

5 GENDER AND HELPNG BEHAVR 287 measure was either a heling behavir r, in a few stuies, a cmmitment t engage in a heling behavir (e.g., vlunteering t serve as a subject in an exeriment); 2 (b) the rerte results were sufficient either t calculate a sex-f-subject effect size r t etermine the statistical significance an/r irectin f the sex ifference; an (c) the subjects were male an female aults r alescents (age 14 r ler) frm the Unite States r Canaa wh were nt samle frm secialize ulatins (e.g., mental hsital atients, r articular ccuatinal grus). Stuies were mitte if their authrs rerte the sex istributin f the helers but faile t rert the sex istributin f the nnhelers r the baseline rrtins f females an males in the setting (e.g., Bryan & Test, 1967; Snyer, Grether, & Keller, 1974). Stuies were mitte if they examine a behavir helful t iniviuals but illegitimate accring t braer scial nrms (e.g., a clerk allwing a custmer t ay less than the urchase rice fr an item; Brigham & Richarsn, 1979). Stuies f rewar allcatin, ceratin an cmetitin, an equity were als exclue. The resulting samle (see the Aenix) f 172 stuies yiele 182 sex-f-subject rerts. Each stuy cntribute ne sex-f-subject rert, with the excetin f 6 stuies that cntribute tw rerts an 2 that cntribute three. Parts f stuies rerte as a single stuy by their authrs were treate as searate (e.g., Latane, 1970) if the arts (a) use ineenent samles f subjects, (b) assesse a ifferent heling behavir in each art, an (c) rerte the sex-f-subject ifference searately fr each art. Variables Ce Frm Each Stuy The fllwing infrmatin was recre frm each rert: (a) ate f ublicatin, (b) surce f ublicatin (jurnal; ther surce), (c) ercentage f male authrs, () sex f first authr, an (e) samle size (female; male; an ttal). n aitin, the fllwing variables were ce frm the infrmatin rvie in each rert: (a) setting (labratry; camus r schl; ff-camus), (b) surveillance f heling act by ersns ther than victim r requester (n surveillance; unclear; surveillance), (c) availability f ther tential helers (nt available; unclear; available), 3 () tye f aeal fr hel (irect request; resentatin f nee), (e) ccuants f victim an requester rles (same ersn; ifferent ersns), an (f) ientity f victim/requester (male; female; sex varie; same sex as subject; cllective [e.g., charity]; unclear). These variables were ce by a single rater, whse wrk was then checke by the first authr. The secn authr, wh ineenently ce 25 f the stuies accring t the criteria evele by the first tw raters, agree with 92%-100% f their jugments, eening n the variable. Disagreements were reslve by iscussin. Variables Cnstructe Frm Questinnaire Resnents'Jugments f Heling Behavirs A questinnaire stuy was cnucte t generate measures f the extent t which each heling behavir was assciate with sex ifferences in (a) the ability t hel, (b) the belief that heling is angerus t neself, an (c) the erceive likelih f heling. The likelih measures were inclue t allw us t evaluate hw well the resnents' imlicit theries f their wn an thers' behavir reicte the heling sex ifferences btaine in the research literature. Resnents* The samle cnsiste f 146 female an 158 male Purue University unergrauates wh receive artial curse creit fr articiating. Prceure, Resnents articiate in grus f in sessins cnucte by a female exerimenter. Each resnent cmlete ne f three versins f a questinnaire that tk arximately 1 hr. Each versin cntaine brief escritins f ne-thir f the heling behavirs investigate in the stuies use in the meta-analysis. These escritins were similar t thse use by Pearce an Amat (1980) an Smithsn an Amat (1982) t generate a taxnmy f heling behavirs. Fr examle, Darley an Latane's (1968) stuy was escribe as "Cming t the ai f a male stuent wh is having a seizure in a nearby rm; yu have never met him befre but yu, he, an the ther articiants are cmmunicating with ne anther via micrhnes as art f a sychlgy exeriment when he suenly becmes agitate an incherent." Cunningham, Steinberg, an Grev's (1980) stuy was escribe as "Dnating mney t the Wrl Chilren's Fun when smene araches yu in a shing mall with a ster avertising this charity." Resnents juge these heling behavirs in reactin t three questins assessing beliefs abut heling: (a) Hw cmetent wul yu be t rvie this hel? (b) Hw cmfrtable wul yu feel when yu rvie this hel? (c) Hw much anger wul yu rbably face if yu rvie this hel? Resnents als juge these behavirs in reactin t three likelih questins: (a) Hw likely is it that yu wul rvie this hel? (b) Hw likely is it that the average wman wul rvie this hel? (c) Hw likely is it that the average man wul rvie this hel? These ratings were mae n 15-int scales. The questinnaire was ivie int six arts, each f which elicite resnents' jugments in relatin t ne f these six questins. The rer f the first three arts was cunterbalance, as was the rer f the last tw. Within each art, the escritins f the behavirs aeare in ne f tw ranm rers. Analysis f ratings. Fr the first fur f the six questins just liste, mean scres fr each heling behavir were cmute searately fr female an male resnents. Fr each behavir, the female mean was subtracte frm the male mean t yiel a mean sex ifference, which was stanarize by iviing it by the le (within-sex) stanar eviatin. Fr the last tw questins n the average wman's an average man's likelih f heling, the resnents' mean rating f the average wman fr each behavir was subtracte frm their mean rating f the average man t yiel a mean steretyic sex ifference, which was stanarize by iviing it by the stanar eviatin f the ifferences between the aire ratings. Cmutatin an Analysis f Effect Sizes The effect size inex use in the resent stuy is, the ifference between the means f tw grus, ivie by the le (within-sex) stanar eviatin. Fr sex-f-subject effect sizes, this cmutatin was base n (a) t r F fr 13 rerts, 5 (b) r r chi-square fr 7 rerts, (c) 2 f a behaviral measure an a behaviral cmmitment measure were bth rerte, the effect size was base nly n the behaviral measure. 3 ther helers were regare as available even if nt hysically resent if it was likely that subjects believe such helers were tentially available t the victim r requester. Fr examle, ther helers were ce as available t ele wh requeste charity natins, althugh these ther helers were nt necessarily hysically resent. 4 n this article, the term resnents esignates ele wh articiate in the questinnaire stuy, an the term subjects esignates ele wh articiate in the riginal exeriments reviewe in this metaanalysis. 5 f such a statistic was resente as a cmnent f a multifactr analysis f variance, the errr term was recnstitute by aing int the errr sum f squares all (available) between-grus sums f squares excet that fr the sex-f-subject effect. By this rceure, recmmene by Heges an Becker (1986) an Glass, McGaw, an Smith (1981), ne-way esigns were arximate. The rceure is esecially arriate in the resent meta-analysis because the great majrity f sex ifferences in the available stuies were rerte fr ne-way esigns.

6 288 ALCE H. EAGLY AND MAUREEN CRWLEY means an stanar eviatins r errr terms fr 2 rerts, an () the rrtins f men an wmen wh hele fr 77 rerts. Fr the rrtins, the rbit transfrmatin recmmene by Glass et al. (1981) was use t cmute, with rrtins greater than.99 r less than.01 ajuste by the recmmene Bayesian rceure. All effect size calculatins were erfrme ineenently by the first authr an anther iniviual, wh then reslve any iscreancies. The statistical significance an/r irectin f the 182 sex-f-subject ifferences was recre, an an effect size () was calculate fr the 99 heling behavirs fr which sufficient infrmatin was rvie. Whenever ssible, these rceures were als carrie ut fr the sex-f-victim/requester ifferences as well as fr the simle effects f (a) sex f subject fr male an female victims/requesters, an (b) sex f victim/ requester fr male an female subjects. f ssible, the significance f the Sex f Subject X Sex f Victim/Requester interactin was als recre. The effect sizes were crrecte fr the bias frm 's verestimate f the ulatin effect size, esecially fr small samles (Heges, 1981). Then the stuy utcmes were cmbine by averaging the effect sizes. T etermine whether the stuies share a cmmn effect size, the hmgeneity f each set f effect sizes was examine (Heges, 1982a). n aitin, the nrmality f the istributins f effect sizes was assesse. Deviatins frm nrmality may be iagnstic f varius rblems iscusse by Light an Pillemer (1984), such as the resence f utliers an the missin f smaller effect sizes ue t ublicatin bias. Yet if the effect sizes are nt hmgeneus, tests f nrmality shul be interrete with cautin because they resume that the ata are frm a single ulatin. Bth categrical an cntinuus mels were teste (Heges, 1982a, 1982b; Heges & lkin, 1985). n aitin, cunting meths were alie (Rsenthal, 1978, 1984). Sex-f-Subject Differences Results Characteristics f stuies. As a first ste, it is infrmative t examine the characteristics f the stuies frm which cnclusins abut sex ifferences in heling shall be rawn. Table 1 shws these stuy characteristics, summarize searately fr (a) the stuies fr which effect sizes cul be calculate an (b) the larger samle f stuies, which inclue stuies with calculable effect sizes an stuies that rerte a nnsignificant sex ifference but i nt rvie infrmatin sufficient t cmute an effect size. The first eight characteristics are calle cntinuus variables because they were measure n cntinuus scales, an the remaining five are calle categrical variables because each cnsists f iscrete categries int which the stuies were classifie. As shwn by the central tenencies f the first three cntinuus variables in Table 1, the stuies usually (a) were ublishe relatively recently, (b) invlve merate numbers f subjects, an (c) ha male authrs. The means fr the next three cntinuus variables in Table 1 reresent the sex ifferences in questinnaire resnents' beliefs abut (a) their cmetence t engage in each heling behavir, (b) their cmfrt in rviing this hel, an (c) the anger they wul face if they rvie this hel. As shwn by the cnfience intervals assciate with these means, nly the anger sex ifference iffere significantly frm 0.00 (the value inicating exactly n sex ifference) fr the stuies with knwn effect sizes: Wmen estimate they wul face mre anger frm heling than men estimate they themselves wul face. Fr the larger samle f stuies, this anger Table 1 Summary f Stuy Characteristics Samle with knwn effect Variables All rerts 8 Mn ublicatin year Mn n. f subjects M ercentage f male authrs M sex ifferences in jugments f heling behavirs Cmetence' Cmfrt Danger wn behavir Steretyic Setting' Surveillance* Availability f ther helers' 1 Tye f aeal 1 entity f victim/ requester' Cntinuus variables 1 * (69.37/82.57) 0.06 (-0.02/0.14) (-0.15/0.00) 0.11 (0.06/0.16) (-0.10/0.06) (-0.22/0.05) Categrical variables 6 16/36/47 41/42/16 42/57 59/40 24/18/34/6/15/ (70.89/80.86) 0.00 (-0.05/0.06) (-0.18/-0.08) 0.09 (0.06/0.12) (-0.12/-0.02) (-0.30/-0.12) 41/58/84 77/79/25 73/ /72 48/37/55/8/26/7 Nte, n = 99 fr "Samle with knwn effect sizes" clumn.«= 181 fr "All rerts" clumn. a Samle inclues stuies fr which effect sizes were calculable an stuies fr which they were nt. Stuies rerting nly the irectin f the effect size were exclue. b Values in arentheses are 95% cnfience intervals. c Values are sitive fr ifferences execte t be assciate with greater heling by men (greater male estimates f cmetence, f cmfrt, an f wn likelih f heling; greater female estimate f anger t self). Values are sitive when questinnaire resnents believe men were mre helful than wmen. e Entries are numbers f rerts fun within each categry. Rerts that cul nt be classifie because the attribute was varie in the stuy were lace in the mile categry fr setting an surveillance an in the first categry fr availability f ther helers an tye f aeal. ' Categries are labratry/ camus/ff-camus. * Categries are n surveillance/unclear/surveillance. " Categries are nt available r unclear/available. ' Categries are irect request/resentatin f nee. ' Categries are male/female/ sex-varie/same-sex-as-subject/cllective/unclear. sex ifference was als significant, an in aitin, wmen rate themselves as significantly mre cmfrtable in heling than i men. The last tw cntinuus variables in Table 1 reflect questinnaire resnents' jugments f the likelih that the heling behavirs wul be erfrme. Sex ifferences in these jugments rve significant nly fr the larger samle f stuies: Female resnents juge themselves mre likely t hel than male resnents juge themselves, an resnents f bth sexes juge the average wman mre likely t hel than the average man.

7 GENDER AND HELPNG BEHAVR 289 Table 2 Summary fsex-f-subject Criterin Differences Effect size analyses Knwn effect sizes («= 99) M effect size (M) 95%CltarM Mn effect size M weighte effect size (rf + )" 95%Cfr + Ttal n. f subjects All rerts (n = 181) M effect size (M) 95% C fr M Ttal n. f subjects Cunting meths Frequencies Differences in the male irectin" 63/101 (.62) Significant ifferences in the male irectin 1 28/181 (.15) Values / / , / ,945 X * ** Nte. When all rerts were inclue, a value f 0.00 (exactly n ifference) was assigne t sex ifferences that cul nt be calculate an were rerte as nnsignificant. Effect sizes were calculate fr all significant ifferences. Effect sizes are sitive fr ifferences in the male irectin an negative fr ifferences in the female irectin. C = cnfience interval. 8 Effect sizes were weighte by the recircal f the variance. b Frequencies are the number f ifferences in the male irectin ivie by the number f ifferences f knwn irectin. The rrtin aears in arentheses. "Frequencies are the number f significant ifferences ( <.05, tw-taile) in the male irectin ivie by the ttal number f cmarisns f knwn significance. The rrtin aears in arentheses. Althugh there were 18 significant ifferences in the female irectin, the statistical significance f this unreicte utcme cannt be evaluate, given the ne-taile lgic f these cunting tests (see Rsenthal, 1978). " Base n execte values f 5 an 176, r.03 an.97fn. * <.01, ne-taile. ** <.001, ne-taile. The summaries f the categrical variables aear next in Table 1. The stuies were mre ften cnucte in fiel settings (ff-camus r n) than in labratry settings. The tential helers usually were either nt uner surveillance by anyne ther than the victim r requester r it was unclear whether such surveillance ccurre. Stuies were mre evenly istribute in relatin t the next tw variables availability f ther helers an tye f aeal. Fr ientity f victim r requester, cmmn arrangements were male.targets, female targets, targets wh varie by sex, r cllective targets (e.g., charities). Summary f sex-f-subject ifferences. The summary f the sex-f-subject effect sizes in Table 2 allws ne t etermine whether there is an verall sex ifference in heling, base n the available rerts. A mean effect size that iffers significantly frm the 0.00 value that inicates exactly n ifference suggests an verall sex ifference. The mean f the knwn effect sizes was relatively small but, as shwn by its cnfience interval, iffere frm 0.00 in the irectin f greater heling by men than wmen. Weighting each knwn effect size by the recircal f its variance (Heges & lkin, 1985), a rceure that gives mre weight t effect sizes that are mre reliably estimate, yiele the largest mean effect size in the male irectin. The istributin f the knwn effect sizes, which was smewhat sitively skewe, earte slightly frm nrmality, W =.96, with values lwer than arximately.98 inicating rejectin f the hythesis f nrmality at <.05 (Weisberg & Bingham, 1975). There is n cmletely satisfactry meth t cmute a mean effect size that takes int accunt the nnsignificant effects that cul nt be calculate because f a lack f sufficient infrmatin. Nevertheless, ne ssible slutin is t give these nnsignificant effects the value f 0.00 (inicating exactly n sex ifference). When this ste was taken, the mean (unweighte) effect size ecrease, but remaine significant, again in the male irectin. This mean is rerte in Table 2, uner "All rerts." As Table 2 shws, the cnclusin that men hele mre than wmen was surte by cunting test results (see Rsenthal, 1978) emnstrating that.62, the rrtin f rerts inicating a sex ifference in the male irectin (isregaring significance) earte significantly frm.50, the rrtin execte uner the null hythesis. As Table 2 als shws, greater heling by men than wmen was als cnsistent with a secn cunting test, which emnstrate that. 15, the rrtin f rerts inicating a significant sex ifference in the male irectin, earte significantly frm.025, the rrtin execte uner the null hythesis. Hmgeneity f effect sizes. Althugh the aggregate sex ifferences in Table 2 are f interest in relatin t ur reictins, their imrtance can be questine in view f the incnsistency f the finings acrss the stuies. Calculatin f a hmgeneity statistic, Q, which has an arximate chi-square istributin with k - 1 egrees f freem, where k is the number f effect sizes (Heges, 1981; Heges & lkin, 1985), inicate that the hythesis that the knwn effect sizes were hmgeneus was rejecte, Q = 1,813.45,. <.001. Therefre, stuy attributes were use t accunt fr variability in the sex ifferences. Preictin was attemte nly fr the 99 knwn effect sizes, because the 0.00 values use t estimate the nnsignificant effects that cul nt be calculate are t inexact t warrant an attemt t fit statistical mels. 6 Table 3 resents each sex-f-subject effect size that cul be calculate, alng with the stuy attributes that reicte these effect sizes an a brief escritin f each heling behavir. Effect sizes are rere by their magnitue an irectin s that the largest sex ifferences in the male irectin aear at the beginning f the table an the largest ifferences in the female irectin aear at the en f the table. Tests f categrical mels. Table 4 resents tests f the univariate categrical mels that yiele significant betweenclass effects (analgus t main effects in an analysis f vari- (text cntinue n age 296) 6 Alternative calculatins reresenting each stuy by nly ne effect size yiele results very similar t thse rerte in this article. N results are resente fr the fllwing variables which i nt relate significantly t the magnitue f either the sex-f-subject r the sex-fvictim/requester effect sizes: surce f ublicatin, ercentage f male authrs, sex f first authr, an ccuants f victim an requester rles.

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9 GENDER AND HELPNG BEHAVR 291 V <N l <N c tr> V~t v 2 s % '. 00 s t^ v. Q c l 1 f? S <N 1' ^- < i «««v V fn ^3 ^ N <N S <N (N ^ 1 ^t m m 1 V> <N fs s s (N fn fn (N m <N en <N i * v 00, 5. S 1 ill S CN ' i s i Cvl ~H v : '/" Behavir 8 S Sbja «Mfe^J S." <X» a-% * g>ja c 2 '3. 3 S fe -S -c 'S,! a-sts s^'a * is n K M 1 s c C <u.3 «a BC =a Lat, (1975 acksn & v r~ S g 1 «55 s? 970 Lata S

10 292 ALtCE H. EAGLY AND MAUREEN CRWLEY " " S '? "1 * ex *~ *3 5» A <3 1 <3 J S S 2 J& "*? (g 5; R-3. Si ^1.0 S i 1 Tf V t-- m f!&> c fe m b "S Q 1».a J S S N Q <i ^ 3 1 ^x _. & a 8 N ( JN' r m ^ <N fn *t r~ ""> v n m r s t ^ ^ - ^ ^ m vi fn v> r~ mtn «v ; m T j - - H ^ - - r ^ w i v fn ^ ^^^^ m m m - J ^ ' - ' - ^ s ^^ -^ v) f) N ^ N "^ "* * N N c^ *~^ ^^ ^^ m»j m *~" ^ ^^ (N ^ '""' f) ^H "^ rn ^^ ^ t m N t ^ m N t ^ w " j N ^ ( N ^ H T t N ^- < < N < n ' ««C N CN]<N N t^ C N i r ^ T f r ^ c N Q N w i^r^«>n <tf> m < N < N m -H CN N -^ 1 -~,S CN «- - - «s - - M - C. - C N SN - <N (NfN < S f N f N C N f N f S i f^fq fnfn ^ f s ( S < N < ^ «_ H M cntn m ( N ^ ^ CN m r n f N f N f N c n f N m ( N m i t N (NCN m^"(^ VCNN N * N m m «> n f n m f N f N ' r- fn( N s ms es < mv^ Nr fs ^^ * ^ N t^ vi ^ N m ^^ ^ - ^ t rs ^ C S ^ - < i c N T f < ^ ^E-8NS ^ c- m2mem cns-s'^* ^N^St-? r- 2 v S! 5 :. S 5 =>S! 0 S 0 =>^=>5 2^ 030^0305 M M ^-K ble 3 (cntinue (2 jbehavir8 Heling a man wh re enveles in a shing N" r~ N en Samertte & Har ja a i- ^ y 5 aua s 1 Sill 1 f S s^sll 32S ' 1 ll's -s ll 3> i^ MA 1,1 ^ S H «a > «q a "S i-l " «S 1 "g «1* e 'g «>.'g 1 -a $ s - s^«sg'llg'ig'lf s i s &i,l l ll B g'-il'sf.f i: 3S' sf ) l 'i Sg'0 ss^. &.9 1 -g s^ g g-g s 3#5«T3- E '«'S*"3*3B'g ta S^-a 13 "S ^ -H.g & J aa-ga2-g.- <.! 43 S^. Q K S J & K f ^ S ^ S? ^ Q Q «* - S ".r CN c ^< f 6 ^^i-l^-s 1 - a - ^CS; 2? g S? S^-Jj-tl^ 1 5? i E S ^ S x ' e i S ~- a JC 55 'r'.a C S ill lll 1! 1 S "2-=- 5 S^ ^S "i^2 r2 ^flc. S M C <. i s!5l 1 ll qf«{ifill a ll 1 i 111 f 1 S isg -i fc gel i^esslf "a^ijs -a s. -8 1«1 l i2,?.c "s (9 *3 *3.^ *" *H *v ' 5 ** "H J3 7 n Q ««f f l a a ^ 2 i C Q CQ i c c/5 NtS -H <N r ^ v S ^ r ^ ^ - ^ rjcn^-'i/s ^r-' ^^ ^t ^- T f ^ - ^ ^ t t - ^ - ^ - i n v ) i n w - >» n < n i>n

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13 GENDER AND HELPNG BEHAVR 295 (N (N 0 ff 1 S S CS * mil " CN 1 1 (N fn i 1 1 (N <N r- i * r-»n 0 S V <N * a^'s-s fl-ajl S 7»n S N i-g. 1 ill l.sf i Be r* ng t t c te

14 296 ALCE H. EAGLY AND MAUREEN CRWLEY ance) fr sex-f-subject ifferences. n aitin t a test f the significance f between-class effects, this arach rvies a test f the hmgeneity f the effect sizes within each class. f a categrical mel were crrectly secifie (i.e., the ata fit the mel in the sense that the mel sufficiently accunte fr the systematic variatin in the effect sizes), it wul yiel a significant between-class effect an hmgeneus effect sizes within each class. The between-class effect is estimate by QB, which has an arximate chi-square istributin with \ egrees f freem, where is the number f classes. The hmgeneity f the effect sizes within each class is estimate by Qw,, which has an arximate chi-square istributin with m 1 egrees f freem, where m is the number f effect sizes in the class. Table 4 als inclues (a) the mean effect size fr each class, calculate with each effect size weighte by the recircal f its variance, an (b) the 95% cnfience interval fr each mean. Cnsistent with the significant between-class setting effect, st-hc cmarisns amng the mean effect sizes fr the three classes (Heges & Becker, 1986; Heges & lkin, 1985) shwe that the sex ifference (in the male irectin) in ff-camus settings was larger than the sex ifference in camus settings, X 2 (2) = , <.001, which iffere frm the sex ifference in the labratry, x 2 (2) = 7.90, <.025. Cnsistent with the significant between-class surveillance effect, the sex ifference (in the male irectin) with surveillance was larger than the sex ifference when surveillance was unclear, x 2 (2) = , <.001, which iffere frm the sex ifference withut surveillance, x 2 (2) = 66.59, <.001. The remaining significant between-class effects shwe that the tenency fr men t hel mre than wmen was (a) greater when ther helers were available (r their availability was unclear) versus unavailable an (b) greater when the aeal was a resentatin f a nee versus a irect request. Desite these highly significant between-class effects, nne f these categrical mels can be regare as having fit the effect sizes. Fr each mel, the hythesis f hmgeneity f the effect sizes was rejecte within each class (see Table 4). n aitin, the cnfience intervals f the mean effect sizes shwe that all f the categry means inicating a sex ifference in the male irectin (a sitive number), but nne f the means inicating a sex ifference in the female irectin (a negative number), iffere significantly frm 0.00 an thus inicate a significant sex ifference. Tests f cntinuus mels. Univariate an multivariate tests f cntinuus mels fr the sex-f-subject ifferences were als cnucte (Heges, 1982b; Heges & lkin, 1985). These mels are least squares regressins, calculate with each effect size weighte by the recircal f its variance. Each such mel yiels a test f the significance f each reictr as well as a test f mel secificatin, which evaluates whether significant systematic variatin remains unexlaine by the regressin mel. The errr sum f squares statistic, QE, which rvies this test f mel secificatin, has an arximate chi-square istributin with k 1 egrees f freem, where fc is the number f effect sizes an is the number f reictrs (nt incluing the intercet). As Table 5 shws, univariate tests inicate that six f the cntinuus variables were significantly relate t the sex-fsubject ifferences. The first f these variables, ublicatin year, was relate negatively t the magnitue f the effect sizes: Effects were larger (i.e., greater tenency fr men t hel mre than wmen) in the stuies ublishe at earlier ates. Effect sizes als were larger t the extent that the fllwing sex ifferences were btaine in questinnaire resnents' jugments f the heling behavirs: Male (cmare with female) resnents (a) rate themselves mre cmetent t hel, (b) rate themselves mre cmfrtable in heling, (c) estimate they face less anger frm heling, 7 an () juge themselves mre likely t hel. Effect sizes als were larger t the extent that resnents f bth sexes juge the average man mre likely t hel than the average wman. Desite highly significant relatins, nne f these mels was crrectly secifie T examine the simultaneus imact f the cntinuus an categrical variables that were significant univariate reictrs f effect sizes, we exlre varius multivariate mels. Fr urses f these analyses, the categrical variables were ummy-ce. The cntinuus variables cnstructe frm questinnaire resnents' likelih jugments were exclue frm these mels because they assesse, nt stuy attributes, but resnents' abilities t reict heling behavirs. n aitin, the sex ifference in the resnents' cmfrt ratings was exclue because f its high crrelatin with the sex ifference in their cmetence ratings, r(97) =.8 1, < The first multivariate mel in Table 5 entere ublicatin year, cmetence sex ifference, anger sex ifference, an all f the categrical variables significant n a univariate basis. All f these reictrs were significant, with the excetin f surveillance an the availability f ther helers. The mst substantial reictr in this mel was the anger sex ifference. As reflecte in the multile R f.80, this mel was quite successful in accunting fr variability in the magnitue f the effect sizes, althugh the test f mel secificatin shwe that it cannt be regare as crrectly secifie, Q E = , <.001. Further exlratin shwe that the sex ifferences in questinnaire resnents' ratings f cmetence, cmfrt, an anger reicte the effect sizes cnsierably better at sme levels f the categrical variables than at thers. Preictin frm these ratings was esecially effective when the setting was ffcamus, the heler was uner surveillance, ther helers were available, an the aeal t the heler was the resentatin f a nee. The effects f the resulting interactins are illustrate by the inclusin f the tw largest interactins in the secn multivariate mel in Table 5. This secn mel inclue the interactins f the cmetence an the anger sex ifferences with the availability f ther helers. Cnsistent with these interactins, when ther helers were available there was a strng tenency fr effect sizes t be 7 ur herism analysis might als suggest that men wul be mre helful than wmen fr esecially angerus acts. Subjects' ratings f anger i relate sitively t the effect sizes but the anger sex ifference was a smewhat better reictr. Danger sex ifferences were larger (in the irectin f wmen erceiving mre anger than men) t the extent that wmen erceive a great eal f anger, r(179) =.54, <.001, an were mre weakly relate t men's ercetin f anger, ) =.25,<.001.

15 GENDER AND HELPNG BEHAVR 297 Table 4 Tests f Categrical Mels fr Sex-f-Subject Effect Sizes Variable an class Between-class effect (CB)» Weighte effect size (</.) 95%Cfrrf i+ (lwer/uer) Hmgeneity within each class «2w,)" Setting Labratry Camus ff-camus Surveillance N surveillance Unclear Surveillance Availability f ther helers Nt available r unclear Available Tye f aeal Direct request Presentatin f nee * * 93.74* * / / / / / / / / / / * * * * * * * 1,350.15* * * Nte. Effect sizes are sitive fr ifferences in the male irectin an negative fr ifferences in the female irectin. Cl = cnfience interval. Significance inicates rejectin f the hythesis f hmgeneity. *<.001. larger (i.e., mre heling by men than wmen), t the extent that male resnents rate themselves mre cmetent t hel r as facing less anger frm heling. When ther helers were nt available, these relatins between the effect sizes an the cmetence an the anger sex ifferences were cnsierably weaker. Cnsistent with the hierarchical analysis f interactins (see Chen & Chen, 1983), the main effects in this secn mel were artiale frm the interactins but the interactins were nt artiale frm the main effects. Therefre, fr this secn mel, regressin cefficients fr the main effects are nt rerte because they are nt interretable. The secn mel rve very successful in accunting fr variability in the effect sizes, as shwn by its multile R f.83, althugh it als cannt be regare as crrectly secifie, Qs = , <.001. Aitinal interactin terms were nt ae t this mel because f the large number f reictrs an the multicllinearity that resulte. Sex-f- Victim/Requester Differences A subset f the stuies varie the sex f the victim r requester an rerte a test f this maniulatin's imact n heling. Table 6 resents a summary f these sex-f-victim/requester ifferences. The means f the effect sizes eviate frm 0.00 in the irectin f greater heling receive by wmen than men. This mean ifference was largest when each knwn effect size was weighte by the recircal f its variance an smallest when the nnsignificant effect sizes that cul nt be calculate were inclue as 0.00 values. The istributin f the knwn effect sizes was nrmal, W =.98, with values lwer than.94 inicating rejectin f the hythesis f nrmality at <.05 (Shair & Wilk, 1965). The cnclusin that wmen were hele mre than men was als surte by the results f the tw cunting tests shwn in Table 6. Thus, the rrtin f rerts inicating a sex-fvictim/requester ifference in the male irectin,.69, earte significantly frm.50. Als, the rrtin f rerts inicating a significant sex-f-victim/requester ifference in the male irectin,.25, earte significantly frm.025. Because the hythesis that the knwn effect sizes were hmgeneus was rejecte, Q = , <.001, the stuy attributes were use t accunt fr variability in the effect sizes. n interreting these finings, it shul be ket in min that the sex-f-victim/requester effect sizes relate negatively t the sexf-subject effect sizes, r(34) = -.40, <.01. Thus, t the extent that men hele mre than wmen, wmen receive mre hel than men. Nt surrisingly, therefre, the relatins alreay rerte between varius stuy attributes an the sex-f-subject ifferences (Tables 4 an 5) als tene t be significant fr the sex-f-victim/requester ifferences, but site in sign (Tables 7 an 8). Tests f categrical mels. Table 7 resents tests f the univariate categrical mels that yiele significant betweenclass effects fr sex-f-victim/requester ifferences. Cnsistent with these significant effects, the tenency fr wmen t be hele mre than men was strnger (a) in ff-camus settings versus camus settings (fiel an labratry); (b) with surveillance versus unclear surveillance, x 2 (2) = , <.001, an unclear surveillance versus n surveillance, x z (2) = 39.28, <.001; (c) when ther helers were available (r their availability was unclear) versus unavailable; an () when the aeal was a resentatin f a nee versus a irect request. Fr each f these categrical mels, the hythesis f hmgeneity f the effect sizes was rejecte within each class (Table 7). n aitin, all f the mean ifferences were in the female irectin (negative numbers) an, as shwn by their cnfience intervals, iffere significantly frm 0.00, thus inicating a significant ifference. Tests f cntinuus mels. Table 8 shws tests f cntinuus mels fr the sex-f-victim/requester effect sizes. Univariate tests inicate that the same six cntinuus variables that

16 298 ALCE H. EAGLY AND MAUREEN CRWLEY Table 5 Tests f Cntinuus Mels fr Sex-f-Subject Effect Sizes Variable Multivariate mel Univariate mels Multivariate mel with interactins Cntinuus variables 1. Publicatin year 2. Cmetence sex ifference' 3. Cmfrt sex ifference 4. Danger sex ifference 5. wn behavir sex ifference 6. Steretyic sex ifference' Categrical variables 7. ff-camus setting' 8. Labratry setting 4 9. Surveillance* 10, N surveillance f 11. Availability f ther helers 6 12, Tye f aeal" nteractin terms 13. Cmetence Sex Difference X Availability f ther Helers 14. Danger Sex Difference X Availability f ther Helers Aitive cnstant Multile R SE f estimate -.05*** *.58***.45.13**.27***.28.72***.39.54**'.49***.42.32***.49.34*** -.16** *** ***.52.80*** ***.32.55*** j Nte. Mels are weighte least squares regressins calculate with weights equal t the recircal f the variance fr each effect size, b = unstanarize regressin cefficient, b* = stanarize regressin cefficient. Effect sizes are sitive fr ifferences in the male irectin an negative fr ifferences in the female irectin, n = 99. * Values are sitive fr ifferences execte t be assciate with greater heling by men (greater male estimates f cmetence, f cmfrt, an f wn likelih f heling; greater female estimate f anger t self). b Values are sitive when questinnaire resnents believe that men were mre helful than wmen. c 0 = camus r labratry, 1 = ff-camus. 0 = camus r ff-camus, 1 = labratry. c 0 = n surveillance r unclear, 1 = surveillance. ' 0 = surveillance r unclear, 1 = n surveillance. 8 0 = nt available r unclear, 1 = available. h 0 = irect request, 1 = resentatin f nee. *<.05. **;)<.01. ***<.001. were significantly relate t the sex-f-subject ifferences were emerge as the mst substantial reictr: The tenency fr als significantly relate t the sex-f-victim/requester iffer- wmen t be hele mre than men was larger if the heler was ences. Thus, the tenency fr wmen t be hele mre than uner surveillance by ersns ther than the victim r remen was larger in the stuies ublishe at earlier ates. Als, quester. This mel rve quite successful in accunting fr the tenency fr wmen t be hele mre than men was larger variability, as shwn by its multile R f.78, althugh it was t the extent that the fllwing sex ifferences were btaine in nt crrectly secifie, QE = , <.001. questinnaire resnents'jugments f the heling acts: Male (cmare with female) resnents (a) rate themselves mre Sex-f- Victim/Requester Differences fr Male an cmetent t hel, (b) rate themselves mre cmfrtable in Femai e Subjects, an Sex-f-Subject Differences fr heling, (c) estimate they face less anger frm heling, an mk anfemale Victims/ Requesters () juge themselves mre likely t hel. The tenency tr wmen t be hele mre than men was als larger t the extent Twenty-five f the stuies that varie the sex f the victim that resnents f bth sexes juge the average man (vs. r requester rerte enugh infrmatin t calculate sex-fwman) mre likely t hel. Desite highly significant relatins, victim/requester effect sizes searately fr male an female subnne f these mels was crrectly secifie (s <.001). jects an sex-f-subject effect sizes searately fr male an fe- Because nly 36 sex-f-victim/requester effect sizes were male victims r requesters. Table 6 inclues a summary f these available, cautin is arriate in interreting multivariate finings. mels. Nevertheless, ne such mel is inclue in Table 8. The means fr the male subjects' an the female subjects' sex- All f the reictrs in this mel were significant, with the f-victim/requester effect sizes shwe that the men were sigexcetin f the cmetence sex ifference. The reversal in sign nificantly mre likely t hel wmen than ther men, whereas f the regressin cefficient fr the anger sex ifference frm the wmen were abut as likely t hel wmen r men (althugh that in the univariate mel may reflect bth sme multicllin- the wmen's weighte mean iffere significantly frm 0.00 in earity an the unreliability f multile-regressin analyses n the female irectin). The means fr the sex-f-subject effect relatively small numbers f cases. n this mel, surveillance sizes elicite by the male an female victims r requesters

17 GENDER AND HELPNG BEHAVR 299 Table 6 Summary fsex-f- Victim/Requester Differences, Sex-f- Victim/Requester Differences fr Male an Female Subjects, an Sex-f-Subject Differences fr Male an Female Victims/Requesters Values Criterin Sex f victim/ requester Sex f victim/ requester fr male subjects Sex f victim/ requester fr female subjects Sex f subject fr male victims/ requesters Sex f subject fr female victims/ requesters Effect size analyses Knwn effect sizes* M effect size (M) 95%C(rM Mn effect size M weighte effect size (</+)" 95%Cfrrf+ N. f effects Ttal n. f subjects / / , / / , / / , / / , / / ,137 Cunting meths" Freq. Exact Freq. Exact Freq. Exact Freq. Exact Freq. Exact Differences in the hythesize irectin" Significant ifferences in the hythesize irectin' 24/35 (.69) 14/55 (.25).020 < /25 (.80) 8/25 (.32).002 < /23 (.48) 3/25 (.12) 1 1/24 (.46) > 4/25 (.16) 19/25 (.76) 11/25 (.44).007 <.001 Nte. Effect sizes are sitive fr ifferences in the male irectin an negative fr ifferences in the female irectin. C = cnfience interval. " Nnsignificant sex-f-victim/requester sex ifferences fr which cul nt be calculate were rerte in 19 stuies. ncluing these rerts as 0.00 (exactly n ifference) yiele an unweighte mean effect size f-.15 (95% C = t -0.05). N nnsignificant ifferences that cul nt be calculate were rerte fr any f the ther tyes f ifferences rerte here. " Effect sizes were weighte by the recircal f the variance. c Fr sex-f-victim/requester ifferences, the hythesize irectin is female; fr sex-f-subject ifferences, the hythesize irectin is male. Frequencies are the number f ifferences in the hythesize irectin ivie by the ttal number f ifferences f knwn irectin. The rrtins aear in arentheses. Exact s (ne-taile) were base n the binmial istributin with =.5(Harvar University Cmutatin Labratry, 1955). ' There were slightly mre ifferences in the nnhythesize irectin. ' Frequencies are the number f significant ifferences ( <.05, tw-taile) in the hythesize irectin ivie by the ttal number f cmarisns f knwn significance. The rrtins aear in arentheses. Exact s (ne-taile) were base n the binmial istributin with =.025 (Rbertsn, 1960). There were tw significant ifferences in the nnhythesize irectin fr sex f victim/requester, zer fr sex f victim/requester fr male subjects, fur fr sex f victim/requester fr female subjects, fur fr sex f subject fr male victims/requesters, an tw fr sex f subject fr female victims/requesters. s There were slightly mre significant ifferences in the nnhythesize irectin. shwe that the men were equally likely t receive hel frm wmen an men, whereas the wmen were mre likely t receive hel frm men. The istributins f these fur tyes f effect sizes were nrmal (Shair & Wilk, 1965), with the excetin f the sex-f-subject effect sizes fr male victims r requesters, which inclue ne very large value, = The istributins f these fur tyes f sex-ifference finings were further exlre with the cunting tests shwn in the bttm sectin f Table 6. These cunting tests substantiate the cnclusin that in general, the verall tenency fr wmen t receive mre hel than men ccurre fr male but nt female helers, an the verall tenency fr men t hel mre than wmen ccurre fr female but nt male victims an requesters. Thus, men heling wmen was an esecially revalent frm f heling. Cnsistent with this interretatin, the Sex-f-Subject X Sex-f-Victim/Requester interactin was significant in 14 f the 35 instances in which this infrmatin was given r cul be calculate. This rrtin,.40, earte significantly frm.05, the rrtin execte uner the null hythesis, <.001 (Rbertsn, 1960). Althugh the hythesis f hmgeneity was rejecte fr each f these fur sets f effect sizes (s <.001), mel tests are nt resente because f the relatively small number f available effect sizes. n general, these analyses tene t arallel the verall analyses resente earlier fr sex-f-subject an sex-fvictim/requester ifferences, albeit with generally lwer levels f statistical significance. Between-stuies cmarisn f sex-f-subject effect sizes fr male versus female victims/requesters. Sex-f-subject effect sizes were als examine fr the stuies that use nly a male r nly a female victim r requester. The weighte mean f the 24 sex-f-subject effect sizes frm stuies that use nly a male victim r requester was 0.55 (with the 95% cnfience interval extening frm 0.51 t 0.59). The weighte mean f the 18 effect sizes frm stuies that use nly a female victim r requester was 0.26 (with the 95% cnfience interval extening frm 0.16 t 0.35). A categrical mel test establishe that the tenency fr men t hel mre than wmen was greater fr male victims an requesters, QB = 30.39, <.001. Yet any cnclusin that men are esecially likely t hel mre than wmen if the target f their hel is a man is incnsistent with the withinstuy test we resente in the receing subsectin. The sex-fsubject effect sizes frm stuies that maniulate the sex f the victim r requester (see Table 6) an therefre rvie a cn-

18 300 ALCE H. EAGLY AND MAUREEN CRWLEY Table 7 Tests f Categrical Mels fr Sex-f- Victim/Requester Effect Sizes Variable an class Between-class effect (fl)) n Weighte effect size ( it ) 95%Cfn// t (lwer/uer) Hmgeneity within class (Qw/ Setting Labratry an camus ff-camus Surveillance N surveillance Unclear Surveillance Availability f ther helers Nt available r unclear Available Tye f aeal Direct request Presentatin f nee * * 12.44* * / / / / / / / / / * * * * * * * * * Nte. Effect sizes are sitive fr ifferences in the male irectin an negative fr ifferences in the female irectin. C = cnfience interval. " Signficance inicates rejectin f the hythesis f hmgeneity. *<.001. trlle test f the imact f the victim r requester's sex inicate that the tenency fr men t hel mre than wmen was larger fr female cmare with male victims an requesters. The iscreancy between the within- an between-stuy tests is accunte fr by the cnfuning f target sex with ther stuy attributes. n articular, thse stuies with nly male (vs. nly female) targets r requesters tene t examine heling behavirs fr which male resnents rate themselves mre cmetent an cmfrtable than i female resnents. Magnitue f Mean Sex Discussin Differences Because scial sychlgical stuies f heling have been cnfine t shrt-term encunters with strangers, ur scialrle thery reicte that men shul hel mre than wmen an wmen shul receive mre hel than men. These reictins fllwe frm ur cntentin that the male gener rle fsters chivalrus acts an nnrutine acts f rescuing, bth f which are ften irecte twar strangers, whereas the female gener rle fsters acts f caring fr thers an tening t their nees, rimarily in clse relatinshis. Cnsistent with ur reictins, the mean weighte sex-fsubject effect size base n the knwn effect sizes was 0.34, r arximately ne-thir f a stanar eviatin in the irectin f greater heling by men than wmen. Because the aitinal sex ifferences rerte as nnsignificant that cul nt be estimate were n ubt smaller n the average than the knwn ifferences, 0.34 shul be regare as an uer bun f the aggregate sex-f-subject ifferences in the samle f stuies. Similarly, the weighte mean sex-f-victim/requester effect size f 0.46, r almst half f a stanar eviatin in the irectin f greater heling receive by wmen than men, shul be regare as an uer bun f this aggregate sex ifference. These mean effect sizes crresn t int-biserial crrelatins f.17 between subject sex an heling an -.23 between victim/requester sex an heling. Accring t Hall's (1984) review f all available sex-f-subject meta-analyses, ur value f. 17 is cmarable t thse rerte fr sex ifferences with resect t many ther abilities, ersnality traits, an scial behavirs. nterretatin f these aggregate effect sizes shul take int accunt ssible threats t the valiity f the sex ifferences they suggest (see Eagly, 1986). Fr examle, ne ssible external valiity (r generalizability) rblem is that a tenency t ublish stuies with statistically significant finings might have biase the finings twar larger effect sizes (Greenwal, 1975; Lane & Dunla, 1978). Yet, because sex-ifference finings in research n heling behavir were tyically eriheral t hytheses abut the effects f ther variables, stuy utcmes n these ther variables wul have affecte ublicatin much mre strngly than sex-ifference finings. Als reassuring with resect t ublicatin bias is the tenency fr the istributins f effect sizes in this meta-analysis t arximate nrmality (see Light &Pillemer, 1984). ur finings als suggest that the cnstruct valiity an external valiity f ur verall sex-ifference finings were nt cmrmise by isrrtinate selectin f heling behavirs cngenial t men's skills (see Table 1). nstea, the verriing valiity issues stem frm the exclusive fcus f the scial sychlgical heling literature n interactins with strangers in shrt-term encunters. The elevatin f wmen's anger ratings relative t thse f men (see Table 1) n ubt reflects the use f these cntexts. Because f the missin f heling in clse an lng-term relatinshis, n general cnclusin can be rawn abut the relative helfulness f wmen an men. Because the finings that were aggregate were extremely incnsistent, mean effect sizes imlying an verall sex ifference f a certain magnitue are less imrtant than successful reictin f variability in the magnitue f the effect sizes. Heling is a behavir fr which a relatively small aggregate sex ifference can be create by averaging very hetergeneus effect sizes, many f which are in fact quite large. n such cases, the ular claim that sex ifferences are small (e.g., Deaux, 1984;

19 GENDER AND HELPNG BEHAVR 301 Table 8 Tests f Cntinuus Mels fr Sex-f- Victim/Requester Effect Sizes Variable Cntinuus variables 1. Publicatin year 2. Cmetence sex ifference* 3. Cmfrt sex ifference 4. Danger sex ifference 5. wn behavir sex ifference 6. Steretyic sex ifference b Categrical variables 7. Setting" 8. Surveillance" 9. N surveillance Availability f ther helers f 11. Tye f aeal' Aitive cnstant Multile/? SE f estimate Univariate mels b.02** -.34** -.22** -.22** -.42** -.34** b* Multivariate mel b.02* ** -.25* -.62*.32*.20*.19* **.24 b* Nte. Mels are weighte least squares regressins calculate with weights equal t the recircal f the variance fr each effect size. b = unstanarize regressin cefficient, b* = stanarize regressin cefficient. Effect sizes are sitive fr ifferences in the male irectin an negative fr ifferences in the female irectin. n = 36. ' Values are sitive fr ifferences execte t be assciate with greater heling by men (greater male estimates f cmetence, f cmfrt, an f wn likelih f heling; greater female estimate f anger t self). b Values are sitive when questinnaire resnents believe that men were mre helful than wmen. 0 = camus r labratry, 1 = ff-camus. 0 = n surveillance r unclear, 1 = surveillance. 0 = surveillance r unclear, 1 = n surveillance. f 0 = nt available r unclear, 1 = available.! 0 = irect request, 1 = resentatin f nee. V<.05. **<.001. Eagjy & Carli, 1981; Hye, 1981) is misleaing. n fact, sex ifferences in heling behavirs such as icking u hitchhikers an heling strangers in subways are ften substantial (see Table 3). Scial Rles an the Preictin f Sex in Heling Differences The male gener rle. ur scial-rle thery f sex ifferences yiele a number f reictins that were teste by categrical an cntinuus mels. ur claim that the scial sychlgical literature has fcuse n the kins f chivalrus an heric acts surte by the male gener rle suggeste that men shul be mre helful than wmen t the extent that (a) wmen erceive heling as mre angerus than men i, (b) an auience witnesse the heling act, an (c) ther tential helers were available. 8 n a univariate basis, all three f these reictins were cnfirme, althugh the availability f ther helers i nt remain a significant reictr as a main effect in the multivariate mels. ur chivalry analysis als suggeste that men shul irect their heling acts mre twar wmen than men. The sex-fvictim/requester effect sizes shwe that in general, wmen receive mre hel than men. Mre relevant t ur chivalry reictin was the examinatin f these effect sizes searately fr male an female subjects. These finings reveale that althugh there was a slight tenency fr wmen t hel wmen mre than men, the tenency fr men t hel wmen mre than men was cnsierably strnger. Als relevant t the chivalry analysis are the reictrs f the sex-f-victim/requester ifferences. n general, the tenency fr wmen t receive mre hel than men was strnger uner all f the cnitins that favre greater heling by men than wmen. Yet in the multivariate analysis, surveillance by nlkers emerge as by far the strngest reictr f the sex-f-victim/ requester effects. Because an auience f nlkers wul generally be regare as tential reinfrcers f acts surting revailing scial nrms, it is nt surrising in terms f ur chivalry analysis that wmen elicite an esecially large amunt f hel uner such cnitins. nee, t the extent that the tenencies fr men t be mre helful than wmen an fr wmen t receive mre hel than men are enhance by the resence f an auience, chivalrus an heric behavir may be largely a ruct f scial nrms rather than ingraine mtives r issitins. These finings recall Eagly an Carli's (1981) rert that the tenency fr wmen t cnfrm mre than men is esecially large when subjects are uner surveillance by ther gru members. Because the effect f surveillance n cnfrmity sex ifferences is at least artly ue t men's tenency t becme esecially ineenent when facing an auience (Eagly & Chrvala, 1986; Eagly, W, & Fishbaugh, 1981), future research shul evaluate the extent t which men's behavir may be mre eenent n external rewars than wmen's behavir is. Sex ifferences in skills. ur scial-rle thery als suggeste that sex ifferences in heling behavir shul be influence by sex ifferences in skills. Cnsistent with this hythesis, men hele mre than wmen t the extent that male resnents believe themselves mre cmetent an mre cmfrtable in heling than female resnents believe themselves t be. t is als ntewrthy that these skill-relate factrs as well as the sex ifference in anger emerge as cnsierably mre imrtant reictrs uner sme cnitins than thers. Mst strikingly, these sex-tye eterminants f heling were mre imrtant if ther helers were available. n cntrast, if an iniviual was the nly tential heler, he r she tene t vercme limitatins f sex-tye skills an vulnerability t anger. Similarly, sex-tye skills an vulnerability t anger tene t be imrtant t the extent that the setting was ffcamus, the heler was uner surveillance, an the aeal was the resentatin f a nee. These finings suggest that in many natural settings, esecially thse with nlkers an multile tential helers an withut irect aeals fr hel, ele behave in ways that are markely sex-tye, with men heling cnsierably mre than wmen when sex-tye masculine skills are calle fr an when tential angers are mre threat- 8 We i nt istinguish emirically between heric an chivalrus acts because this iscriminatin verlae cnsierably with ur ther reictrs. Heric behavirs seeme t iffer frm thse that were merely chivalrus rimarily in the higher ratings f anger assigne by the questinnaire subjects, esecially by the female subjects.

20 302 ALCE H. EAGLY AND MAUREEN CRWLEY ening t wmen. Thus, these interactin finings als surt the generalizatin that sex ifferences are quite large in sme scial cntexts. Sex ifferences in cmliance an assertiveness. n terms f anther asect f ur analysis, men's higher status in sciety leas them t behave in ways that are smewhat mre minant an assertive than wmen. As a cnsequence, when heling is assertive, men shul hel mre than wmen. We ha als suggeste that when heling is cmliant, wmen shul hel mre than men. Yet, because in mst stuies ther cnitins favre heling by men (e.g., stranger relatinshis, fiel settings), the general tenency fr men t hel mre than wmen merely ecrease fr cmliant heling. Thus, ur finings shwe that men were cnsierably mre helful than wmen when heling was elicite by the resentatin f a nee (an was therefre assertive) an nly slightly mre helful than wmen when heling was elicite by a irect request (an was therefre cmliant). Date f ublicatin. Sex ifferences in heling favre men less strngly in later ublicatin years. Even thugh ther metaanalyses f sex ifferences have als rerte such changes ver time (e.g., Eagly & Carli, 1981; Rsenthal & Rubin, 1982), interretatin is ambiguus fr heling behavir. Althugh the mvement f ur sciety twar greater gener equality in recent years rvies a ssible exlanatin f the time tren, the ttal san f years f the stuies in ur meta-analysis is t shrt t allw fr substantial cultural change. Furthermre, the ublicatin year was itself crrelate with varius stuy attributes an, as a result, was nt a majr reictr in the multivariate mels. Success f reictins. The success f ur reictin f sex ifferences in heling behavir is striking. We were able t accunt fr arximately 70% f the variability in the available finings. n evaluating this figure, ne shul kee in min that the tenency t hel was tyically assesse by single-act criteria f lw reliability an that the research araigms were extremely varie, rbably iffering n many imensins nt reresente by ur reictr variables. These factrs n ubt lace a ceiling n reictin. nee, uner these circumstances, it is unreasnable t exect t accunt fr all f the systematic variatin between effect sizes. Althugh the absence f crrectly secifie mels suggests cautin in interreting the relatins that were btaine (Heges & lkin, 1985), the verall cnsistency f these finings with ur theretical ersective is reassuring with resect t the valiity f these relatins. Mrever, ur meta-analysis achieve better reictin than mst ther meta-analyses n sychlgical tics, althugh a few thers have als been very successful (e.g., N. Miller & Carlsn, 1984;Tanfr&Penr, 1984; White, 1982). Such instances f successful reictin attest t the rerliness f sychlgical finings. The reictin achieve by ur multivariate mels can be cmare with that achieve by ur questinnaire resnents. Fr each heling behavir, these resnents estimate their wn resnse as well as thse f the average wman an man. The mean sex ifferences in these jugments, aggregate acrss all f the heling behavirs (see Table 1), were in the female irectin an thus were incnsistent in irectin with the verall sex ifference in heling behavir (see Table 2). Perhas the general steretye that wmen are helful biase these jugments smewhat in favr f wmen. Nevertheless, acrss stuies the magnitue f sex ifferences in these jugments reicte merately well the effect sizes that estimate sex ifferences in heling (see Table 5). Althugh it shul be recalle that these jugments were aggregate ver the resnents, the fact that these jugments reicte stuy-level sex ifferences as well as they i suggests that ele have relatively g imlicit theries f the cnitins uner which men an wmen hel. N ubt these imlicit theries wul have fare even better if the resnents ha access t a full range f cues instea f shrt escritins f the heling acts. Still, cnsistent with the literature n statistical an intuitive reictin (e.g., Meehl, 1954), these imlicit theries fare less well than ur multivariate mels, which exclue resnents' estimates f their wn an thers' behavir. Cnclusin ur cnclusins, like thse f ther reviews, are limite t the range f behavirs examine in the available stuies. The scial sychlgical literature n heling behavir has been limite t suerergatry giving f ai r succr t strangers in brief encunters that ften hl tential angers fr helers. Cnsiering the bra range f heling behavirs in everyay life, this narrw fcus is unfrtunate. As exlaine in the intructin, many f the tyes f heling exclue frm the emirical literature are carrie ut rimarily by wmen, within the family an ther clse relatinshis. t is temting t ascribe the fcus n male-minate heling behavirs t sme srt f reference r bias t rtray men favrably, esecially because mst researchers wh have wrke in this area are men (see Table 1). Yet a reictin cnsistent with such a bias namely, that male authrs shul btain larger sex ifferences favring men than female authrs was nt cnfirme. The absence f sex-f-authr effects in ur stuy an in Hall's (1984) meta-analyses f nnverbal sex ifferences raises questins abut the generality f Eagly an Carli's (1981) finings that investigatrs ten t rert thse sex ifferences that are flattering t their wn gener. T unerstan why scial sychlgists have cnstructe heling rimarily as acts f rescuing an civility that take lace between strangers, the research meths f scial sychlgy shul be scrutinize. Thus, in the 1970s, when heling research was mst ular, the exerimental araigm was minant in scial sychlgy (see Rsnw, 1981). Cnsequently mst heling stuies were true exeriments even thugh the majrity were cnucte in the fiel rather than in the labratry. Maniulatin f ineenent variables an ranm assignment f subjects t cnitins, which are the efining features f exerimentatin, can rinarily be accmlishe nly in the cntext f shrt-term encunters with strangers. Within lng-term relatinshis, exerimental maniulatins are ifficult, imractical, an very ften unethical. Therefre, researchers wul have t turn t meths that are smewhat susect in the exerimental traitin meths invlving, fr examle, subjective rerts f ne's wn an thers' behavir. This exclusin f such alternative meths in favr f true exeriments with behaviral eenent variables reflects a me

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