Livestock production and the feed challenge

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1 Livestock production and the feed challenge Richard Kipling and Nigel Scollan

2 Major message Increased demand for livestock products Challenges in livestock sector focus feed Land allocation Intensification of livestock production Protein sources By-products biofuel industry

3 Feeding the world population Calorific intake 1 Plant products: ~80% Animal products: ~20% Predicted world food requirement 12 plant and 5 animal spp. provide 75% of world s food 2 Wild foods are used by ~1 billion people 3 Figure source: Food, energy, water and the climate: A perfect storm of events? J. Beddington, FAO; Based upon food balance sheets for 2009, at world-wide scale; 2 FAO, What is happening to agrobiodiversity?; 3 Bharucha and Pretty (2010) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 365

4 Million Tonnes of food Global Demand for Food is rising Milk and dairy (excl butter) Meat (carcass weight) Vegetable oils, oilseeds and products Pulses Sugar Roots and tubers Cereals, food / / / / Food production must rise by 50 % by 2030 and 75% by 2050 (Source: UN 2008)

5 Monogastrics production systems Pig Intensive Relying on mainly grain, soya bean meal Competitive with human on grains BUT high usage of by-products High feed conversion efficiency Poultry Intensive Relying on mainly grain soya bean meal Competitive with human on grain High feed conversion efficiency

6 Ruminant production systems Intensive dairy, some beef reduced energy use constant feed supply cheaper products maximum efficiency Extensive beef, sheep, goat lower output reduced labour low input, high management consumer friendly

7 Challenges for food systems more resilient production systems reduce dependency of the food chain on fossil fuels enhance ecosystem services (i.e soil and water) radically reduce greenhouse gas emissions produced by food system feed challenge

8 Demand for feed concentrate is increasing World production of meat, milk and eggs 1025 million tonnes (2007) use of feed concentrate 1250 million tonnes 2050 require additional 1048 million tonnes of which: livestock humans (IAASTD 2009)

9 MMT Demand for vegetable protein is increasing - soya Soya meal consumption in China has grown by 3,000% since 1990 and is not slowing

10 UK plant-derived protein (supply and demand) UK uses 2.6 million tonnes/annum of plantderived protein for animal feed 37% from home-grown cereals (ca. 1 million T) 3% from home-grown pulses (ca million T from dry peas and field beans) 55% from imported soya (ca. 1.4 million T) 5% from imported maize (ca million T) (Crute, 2013)

11 Demand on land is increasing Global area of agricultural land 1970 Food 4.59 billion ha billion ha Fuel Per capita agricultural land ha/person/year ha/person/year Feed Land Use Major technological improvements in crop and livestock Fibre

12 Driving productivity and efficiency Improved health Improved fertility Improved genetics Improved nutrition

13 Food Crops Cropland Food-Feed- Crops Foods: Livestock products Crop based food Pastureland Feed Crops Livestock Industry Traditional Land Use Allocation Model (Taheripour et al. 2013)

14 Global area of agricultural land , 22 Food and Crops 21% as food, feed and food-feed , 16, 28% as food, feed and food-feed Cropland Pastureland Food-Feed- Energy Crops Biofuel Industry Livestock sector more maize, oilseed meals and distillers grains Livestock Industry Current Land Allocation Model Foods: Livestock products Crop based food Reduced dependency of livestock sector on land permitting increasing crop production Global area of permanent meadows and pastures decreased Feed Crops Environmental impact biodiversity loss, soil erosion, release of stored carbon. (Taheripour et al. 2013)

15 Cropland Pastureland Food Crops Food-Feed- Energy Crops Dedicated Energy Crops Feed Crops Biofuel Industry Livestock Industry Foods: Livestock products Crop based food Expected Future Land Allocation Model (Taheripour et al. 2013)

16 Source: IGC World grain Previous increases in crop yields are stabilising or stagnating

17 Crop yields Yield gaps Huge variations between potential and actual yields Exacerbated by technical knowledge/access and economic limitations Closing/reducing the gap would improve food supply Reducing yield gap and increasing potential yield could increase crop production on existing land by 50% by BUT that doesn t account for land competition for fibres and biofuels 1 Jaggard et. al. (2010) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 365

18 Why soyabeans? Product Energy Content (%) Crude Protein Content (%) Wheat Rapeseed meal Soyabean meal (Van Krimpen et al. 2013)

19 Potential protein sources for Europe Category Oil seeds Grain legumes Forage legumes Leaf proteins Aquatic proteins Cereals and pseudo cereals Insects Protein Source Proteins of defatted soybeans, rapeseed and sunflower seed Peas, Vicia fabia, lupins and concentrates, chick peas Lucerne (alfalfa); red and white clover Grass, sugar beet leaves Algae, both macro- (seaweed) and micro-algae, duckweed Proteins from oat and quinoa e.g. mealworm, housefly, house cricket (Van Krimpen et al. 2013)

20 Aquatics Product Protein Content Protein Yield (tons/ha/yr) Macro-algae % Micro-algae % 4-15 Duckweed % Not in competition with other crops for land use; high yield per hectare Research effort needed to explore processing techniques Protein levels high but research needed on protein extraction, nutritional value and other aspects of commercial production High energy costs of drying stage

21 Insects Product Protein Content Black Soldier Fly larvae 42 % House Fly pupae 61 % Crickets 20 % Conversion of animal manure into high protein feed Challenges in commercializing production and overcoming safety issues

22 What is required? Plant breeding to increase yields Research into nutritional value of protein sources and their concentrates Developing and improving protein content through processing

23 Biofuels and feed Production of energy from biomass Synergy or competition? By-products used as animal feed source Technological crossovers between sectors Feedstock crops compete for land with food and animal feed crops (Donkin et al. 2013; Taheripour et al. 2013)

24 Million Tonnes The Scale of Biofuel Production / /10 Global Grain Supply Use for Bioethanol But for specific crops the story is more complex (Cooper and Weber 2013)

25 Maize (MMT) The Scale of Biofuel Production Changes in US maize production for nonethanol uses But increase in supply of DDGS from ethanol production (Taheripour et al. 2013)

26 Co-products of bioethanol production DDGS (Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles) Depending on processing WDG (Wet Distillers Grain) or DDG (Dry Distillers grain) may also be produced 2001 to 2008 use as feed in US up from 1.3 to 10.3 % Maize and wheat gluten feeds (co-products of wet milling) Bagasse (residue from sugar cane use) and root fibre (residue from cassava use) Used as fuel in boilers and to produce electricity (Cooper and Weber 2013)

27 Co-products of biodiesel production Glycerine (makes up around 10 % of animal fats and vegetable oils) Added to feeds at low levels (max 10 %) Oilseed Meal (80 % of original seeds are meal; crop would be grown for feed even without demand for oils for biofuel) Fatty Acids (used in candles, cosmetics, toiletries, lubricants and asphalt as well as animal feeds) (Cooper and Weber 2013)

28 Impacts and Challenges Increased bio-diesel production boosts demand for oils, and may increase availability of feed meals Second generation biofuel production from non-edible sources: cellulosic materials from crop residues and dedicated crops (miscanthus, switchgrass) Variation in the nutritional value of co-products Problem of mycotoxins Even second generation crops take up land, having a particular impact on extensive livestock systems land prices extension into natural habitats (Taheripour, 2013; Cooper and Weber 2013)

29 Technological Synergies Techniques for increasing digestibility of cellulosic materials Chemical, enzymatic or mechanical More materials suitable for energy and feed production Increased efficiency in use by animal Use for monogastrics as well as ruminants (Donkin et al. 2013; Dale et al. 2010)

30 Conclusion Large opportunity for livestock sector to produce high quality food Rate of growth will depend on many factors including feed matters Balance in land use Further intensification is expected

31 Acknowledgements

32 The Scale of Biofuel Production Bioethanol 87 billion litres Biodiesel 17.9 million tonnes US/Brazil/EU 93 % EU 52 % Sugar Cane Cane/beet molasses Grains Sugar beet Rapeseed oil Palm oil 5700 Soybean oil Animal fats and yellow grease Fresh cassava Other Sunflower oil Other (Licht, 2011)

33 Oil Seeds Product Protein Content Protein Yield (tons/ha/yr) Soyabean 40% Rapeseed 25% 0.75 Sunflower 23% 0.7 Rapeseed cultivated widely in Europe with reasonable protein yield Higher yields required for soyabean production in Europe Rapeseed meal more attractive than sunflower meal processing Soyabean processing well-developed Oil Seed meals widely used - nutritive value well known Qualities of concentrates and EUgrown soyabean less well known Processing of meals into concentrates may double energy load (Van Krimpen et al. 2013)

34 Grain and Forage Legumes Product Protein Content Protein Yield (tons/ha/yr) Legumes (pulses) % 1-2 Legumes (forage) 19 % 2.5 Peas and beans have high protein content Cultivation practices widely used, but sensitive to pests & pathogens Pea protein concentrates commercially available High energy costs for drying lucerne Can be part of protein supply, but anti-nutritional factors present Production processes available

35 Grain and Forage Legumes Product Protein Content Protein Yield (tons/ha/yr) Legumes (pulses) % 1-2 Legumes (forage) 19 % 2.5 Peas and beans have high protein content Cultivation practices widely used, but sensitive to pests & pathogens Pea protein concentrates commercially available High energy costs for drying lucerne Can be part of protein supply, but anti-nutritional factors present Production processes available

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