Tourism in Russia. Over the three year course of the NETOUR project, other reports will be produced and published.

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1 Tourism in Russia

2 NETOUR Tourism in Russia Preface This is an introductory report to a series produced in the framework of the NETOUR project (Network for Excellence in Tourism through Organizations and Universities in Russia). So far, four reports have been completed: This short introductory report called Tourism in Russia Cultural Tourism in Russia Nature based tourism in Russia Business tourism in Russia. Over the three year course of the NETOUR project, other reports will be produced and published. The four reports provide a contextual background and situational analysis that is essential for the rest of the NETOUR project. The central purpose of NETOUR is curriculum development: seven European Union Universities and Business Schools as well as a French network of tourism centres of excellence are working with eight Russian Universities and Institutions to help improve the tourism curricula in Russian universities and school, to develop student expertise and a more qualified workforce, thereby to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of tourism agencies and businesses and, overall, to develop and sustain the competitiveness of the tourism sector in Russia. 31 March

3 Table of contents 1. Introduction The context Definitions and categories of tourism The scope of this report The tourism context Russia s position within the global tourism market The economic environment Analysis of inbound tourism Growth rates Origins of tourists Means of transport used to the destination Outbound tourism Five main destinations for Russian tourists Supply and demand Evolution of supply An apparent mismatch between supply and demand Tourist motivation and behaviour Arrivals to Russia by main purpose Total Expenditure by main purpose of the trip Summary of conclusions TABLES Table 1. International tourism arrivals and receipts by regions Table 2. World s top tourism destinations and top spenders in Table 3. International tourism by region of destination Table 4. Evolution of number of tourists Table 5. Annual variation rate Table 6. Arrivals by air: annual variation rate Table 7. The five main destinations of Russian tourists Table 8. Arrival by main purpose References

4 Report Conventions Acknowledgements This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Disclaimer Data have been sourced from market reports, academic papers, policy documents, web sites and industry news sources relating to the Russian Tourism and Cultural Tourism industry and primary research via expert interviews and surveys. What is presented here has been informed by available data; however, collection methods vary widely in reliability and integrity and visitor numbers for many sites is absent. Therefore, this report is bounded by the constraints of the data available. Note: As much as possible, reference data in the form of tables have been inserted into the main text of the document, and labelled as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. Where there is significant amounts of data, the tables have been placed for reference in a section at the end, and labelled Table 1, Table 2, etc. 3

5 1. Introduction 1.1. The context The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world measuring 17 million Km 2, double that of either the USA or China. It extends from the east of Europe up to the furthest tip of Asia, sharing borders with EU countries (Norway, Finland), China, Mongolia, Northern Korea, Japan, the US, and the former USSR countries, including Azerbaijan, the Ukraine and Kazakhstan. The population in 2011 was about 143 million inhabitants, but it is one of the countries with the lowest density of population worldwide (8.4 inhab/km 2 ). Three quarters of the total population live in urban centres. 80% of the total population (113 million people) live in the European part of the country, where two main urban centres are located, that is: the Federation s capital Moscow (11.5 million inhabitants) and Saint Petersburg (4.8 millions). Twelve other cities exceed one million inhabitants, and twenty seven half a million. The size of the Russian's middle class has multiplied by a factor of 7 between 2000 and 2006, now accounting for around 55 million consumers. Between 2000 and 2010, the size of the middle class grew from 15% to 25% of the population, and the GDP per capita doubled. This is an opportunity both for domestic and foreign companies, to address their interest in consumer goods and services, including travel and tourism. At the higher end of the scale, Russia boasts the second greatest number of billionaires in the world, after the US (numbering 50 in 2007, 1 according to FORBES). Russians are accustomed to travel, at least within the boundaries of the federation, and indeed within those of the historical Soviet Union. The number of domestic visitors in Russia is considerable and these figures show an increasing trend. In 2011, Russians made 93.6 million domestic trips. The number of trips increased by 2.5% from the previous year. Russian domestic tourism is expected to grow by 4.3% in In 2011, domestic tourists spent 21.1 billion dollars in Russia. Domestic tourism revenue growth is projected to be 4% by the year The state of evolution of international tourism is more uncertain. On the one hand, outbound tourism is seeing massive growth, in particular to the Mediterranean basin 3. Inbound, the state of tourism is very variable. Some cities and areas of the country are high volume tourism destinations, such as Moscow and Saint Petersburg. Many other places have only recently 1 Source : Forbes (MEK; vezdnogo turizma rossii; proshlom godu potratili granitsei bolee 32 mlrd dollarovissledovanie) 3 Turkey is the top destination for outbound holidays 4

6 started to promote and develop international tourism and are in very early stages of development. A few destinations boast state of the art facilities 4, but in many places, the tourism infrastructure is still weak and tourism services and facilities modest. There are also practical inconveniences including visa and registration requirements. On the other hand, Russia has a long history and tradition of international contact, which provides a positive foundation for serving international guests Definitions and categories of tourism According to the UN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), the tourism sector is the cluster of production units in different industries that provide consumption goods and services demanded by visitors. The term tourism as we apply it to the Russia tourism industry will be defined as the movement of people, travelling outside of their usual environment, for the purpose of holidays, business or other purposes and staying away for more than 24 hours but no longer than one year (UNWTO). Tourism can also be domestic and international. Although this distinction is not made by the UNWTO, both are included in this report. A visitor, whether domestic, inbound or outbound, is classified by the UNWTO as a tourist (or overnight visitor) if his/her trip includes an overnight stay; or as a same day visitor (or excursionist) otherwise. Previous reports and academic papers have included economic data relating to both tourism and related services such as catering, leisure and sports facilities (Algieri 2006). Market analysts generally break tourism flows down into the following categories: Inbound tourism defines arrivals by international tourists visiting for at least 24 hours but staying no more than 12 months. Outbound tourism is the flow of tourism out of Russia. Outbound tourism is not at the heart of this report, and only covered incidentally. Domestic tourism is the movement of Russian people within its national boundaries. The purpose of visit can be broadly defined as for leisure or for business. Tourism for leisure purposes will include visiting friends and relatives. Other forms of tourism may include education, medical or religious tourism. In our report, the following key terms or categories have been identified, in line with those used in most major commercial reports 5 : 4 Such as the Saint Petersburg marine terminal and the Sochi high speed rail system 5 This list corresponds to the categories used in Euromonitor

7 Travel accommodation is the main type of accommodation used by incoming and domestic tourists in Russia. We identify nine principal types: campsite; chalets; guesthouses; hostels; hotels; motels; private accommodation; self catering apartments; and other 6. Transportation includes the mode of transport used by tourists going to their destination and within their destination. Modes of transport include: air (schedule, charter and low cost carriers); bus/coach; chauffeur driven car (excludes taxis) ; cruise (day trip or 7+days); ferry (sea or river) and rail (excluding freight and car transport). Car rental includes the hire of passenger vehicles for self drive including small vans by both business and leisure users, from the airport or down town locations. Travel retail encompasses companies that put travel packages and components together and includes corporate business travel retail products; leisure travel retail products; travel retail outlets (travel agents and tour operators). Products include sales of accommodation, car rental, cruises and flights. Package holidays comprises traditional, adventure/trekking, city breaks, fly drive, spa packages and dynamic packaging. Tourist attractions are defined as the sites visited by tourists, cover sales, and free entry to incoming and domestic tourists. They include permanent attractions but exclude events, and communal leisure facilities such as swimming pools and golf resorts. (2.3 of the cultural tourism report expands on this). Health and wellness tourism includes spa packages, products and services to international and domestic tourists. Destination spas offer all inclusive programmes and educational courses to improve health and well being. Beauty treatments, massages and healthy meals are purchased as a package. Hotel/resort spas are in a hotel setting where the accommodation, meals and spa treatments are purchased separately. Other spas are those on cruise ships and traditional mineral and thermal springs. Medical tourism concerns domestic and inbound trips with the purpose of a medical treatment, including cosmetic surgery The scope of this report In addition to this introductory document, the NETOUR tourism reports will cover three main areas: cultural tourism, nature based tourism and business tourism. Russia offers a rich field for cultural tourism, including indigenous cultures, archaeological sites and historical monuments, presenting both pre revolutionary and the Soviet period. Present 6 For example holiday camps, which are not identified by Euromonitor but which appear in Russian statistics 6

8 day culture, including performing arts and local festivals, as well as the everyday life, add to the appeal of Russia. The resource base for nature tourism in the Russian includes huge wilderness areas (forests, taiga, tundra, rivers, lakes, and interesting geological features) providing attractions for nature based and eco tourism, hunting, fishing and sports tourism. Business tourism covers all forms of travel for business. On the supply side, it includes MICE tourism (meetings and incentive conventions and exhibitions). Although there are many other forms of tourism, the study of these three areas paints a broad but accurate picture of tourism as it operates in Russia today. 7

9 2. The tourism context 2.1. Russia s position within the global tourism market The Russian Federation, embarked on a process of change from the former Soviet Union to a market economy, is redefining its place in the international economy. Russia has a long tradition of internal domestic tourism, but has more recently opened up to international tourism. The primary flows of international tourism are to the cities of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The international tourism industry in Russia is still in early stages, with enormous potential for future development. On a worldwide level, tourism sector suffered relatively little from the recent global economic troubles. It suffered a decline in 2009, but began recovering from 2010 onwards (Table 1). Globally, demand for international tourism grew by 4.6% in 2011, with the European region (North and South) being the fastest growing area, both in rates (+6%, tied with Asia and the Pacific), and in absolute terms (+29 million of new tourist arrivals). International revenues, estimated at $US 1,030 billion in 2011, grew by 3.9% that year. According to the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) arrivals topped 1 billion in 2012 (from 983 million in 2011), with an overall market growth of 4%. See Table 1 (International tourism arrivals. Revenues by region) In relation with the world s top tourism destinations, Table 2 shows France in top position in terms of arrivals and the US in terms of revenues. Certain European destinations consistently rank highly both for arrivals (Spain, Italy, Turkey, the UK, and Germany), and for receipts (Spain, France, Italy, Germany and the UK), reflecting Europe s capacity to attract international tourism. Europe is also the main exporter of tourists (516 million of outbound flows in 2011), followed by Asia (215 million) and The Americas (162 million). However, the balance is progressively changing in favour of the Asian markets. Positioned between Europe and Asia, this rebalance will be of enormous importance for Russian tourism. 8

10 It is important to note that in the measurement of tourism flows, distance or proximity are important factors, as is the case for any other trade exchange. 7 Tourists travel within their continental region of origin in 80% of cases, taking inter continental flights in the remaining 20% of them. 8 Table 2 shows the world s top spenders in tourism services too. Germany and the US lead the ranking, but are closely followed by China, who has experienced a remarkable surge of total spending in 2011 compared to the previous year (around 40%). This country also occupies salient positions in the ranking of arrivals and receipts, reaching third and fourth position in the last few years. The dynamism of the Chinese economy is also present in the tourism sector, where the country is becoming a world leader as an exporter and receiver of tourism flows. Russia also rates highly in terms of spend. The UK, France, Russia, and Italy are amongst the top ten countries with the highest tourist expenditure. Northern Europe and Med countries are the main destination of tourists arriving from five out of ten of the top spending countries in the world. See Table 2. World s top tourism destinations. Top spenders The future prospects for the world tourism market are shown in Table 3. Asia will become a major actor in the market in the coming years, although Europe will remain the leader. Absolute numbers reflect the potential of this industry in fostering development of certain regions of the world. Central/Eastern Europe will grow by 3.7% in 2010/2020 and 2.5% in 2020/2030, reaching around 180 million visitors in In general, three key facts emerge from the table: First, the number of world tourism arrivals is expected to double to 1,800 million by 2030; Secondly, emerging economies will get the biggest share of this growth, and will represent nearly 60% of total arrivals in 2030; Third, the annual average growth in is expected to be 3.8% at a world scale, and 2.9% for See for example the world s balance of payments structure 8 UNWTO,

11 All these forecasts draw a positive horizon for the tourism sector in the incoming decades, showing the opportunities opened to developing countries in the near future. See Table 3. International tourism. Projections 2.2. The economic environment Since the fall of the USSR, Russia has tackled a series of deep structural reforms leading to increase its level of integration in the world economy. The country suffered during 2009 the most relevant economic recession since the fall of the Soviet Union, with GDP falling 7.9%. The recovery was vigorous in (+4.3%), stimulated by the rising price of oil and a boost in domestic demand (IMF, 2013; ECOSM, 2012). The macroeconomic situation in the country can be defined as reasonably good: stable growth, non budget deficit, and foreign debt of 15% of GDP. Russia began the second decade of this century as one of the world countries with the best prospects for economic growth in the middle run. World Bank estimates an average growth rate of 6.5% for the period Such an expected rate of growth would increase the share of Russia in the world economy from the current 3.2% to 4.3% at the end of this decade. 3. Analysis of inbound tourism Slightly more than 25 million foreign tourists will visit Russia in the year Although international tourism in Russia is still relatively modest, the enormous possibilities opened to Russia as a tourism destination are clear, given the exceptional resources at its disposal (history, nature, architecture, etc.) Growth rates Figure 1 shows the growth of international tourism numbers to Russia since Analysing the tourism data information available from UNWTO (2013), we can observe that the number of tourists in years have been gradually increasing. In 2002 it was surpassed for the 10

12 first time the level of 23 million tourists. It represents a growth of almost 10 millions of tourists along the past fifteen years. In year 2009 we can see the impact of world financial crisis, with a reduction of arrivals, although just two years after, in 2011, there has been a clear recovery of tourism industry that reached 24.9 million arrivals. Units ('000) Figure 1 Evolujon of number of tourists arriving to Russia In Figure 2 we compare the evolution of tourist arrivals to Russia with those of Europe and the Rest of the World. Between 1995 and 2010, we can observe that although European inbound tourism has grown from 333 million to 445 million in 2010, it is losing importance in relative terms in world tourism, from 63% to 47%, due to the higher dynamism of rest of the world regions, in particular Asia. In Russia, we observe that relative arrivals stay constant over this period at around 2% 3%, while doubling in absolute terms, from 10 to 22 million. Figure 2 International Tourist Arrivals by region (million) Europe 333,00 63% Europe 372,00 54% Russia 10,29 2% Russia 21,17 3% Rest of the world 187,71 35% Rest of the world 290,63 43% World 531,00 100% World 683,80 100% Europe 408,40 51% Europe 445,40 47% 11

13 Russia 22,20 3% Russia 22,28 2% ROW 378,10 47% ROW 487,22 51% World 808,70 100% World 954,90 100% In Table 4, we can see a continuous growth in the number of international tourists to Russia and in Europe on a yearly basis. In 2009, with lower economic activity around the world, the indicator shows negative values for all three areas. As for Russia, the annual rate of growth amounted to 0.10, for Europe 0.05, and for the world See Table 4. Evolution of number of tourists Summarising Figure 2 and Table 4, we can see that the growth in international visits to Russia has been relatively high and stable as compared to Europe or to the world as a whole. In confirmation of this, the CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth rate) for the years in Russia amounted to 6%, Europe 2% and for the world 4% Origins of tourists Figure 3 groups the origin of tourists arriving in Russia, comparing Europe, East Asia and rest of the world, and shows the massive dominance of Europe. Figure 3 Arrivals to Russia by world regions Units ('000) Others East Asia and the Pacific Europe 12

14 Table 5 shows data on annual growth basis of these three regions. We can see some negative variation of arrivals for particular regions, except in 2010, where all show positive rates. See Table 5. Arrivals by region Figure 4 shows the number of tourists and their own share from the total number of visits. From this table, we can see that in spite of the absolute growth of the number of tourists from Europe, from 15 million in 1996 to 19.5 million in 2010, their share in the total number of visits to Russia has gradually decreased, from 94% to 88%. The number of visits from tourists from Asia shows a slight but positive growth. We can conclude that "other regions" is the major source of growth, increasing its share in total visits to Russia from 2% to 6%, with the overall increase in the number of arrivals to Russia for the whole period between 1996 and The East Asia and Pacific region has increased its share from 4% to 6% over the period. Although still dominant, the slowest growth is from Europe. This implies that, although there is an increase in the number of tourist coming from all regions, Russian tourism is beginning to diversify in terms of origins of visitors. Figure 4 Arrivals to Russia by region. Units ( 000) Europe % Europe % East Asia and the Pacific 652 4% Others % Others 359 2% East Asia and the Pacific 839 4% Total Arrivals % Total Arrivals % Europe % Europe % East Asia and the Pacific % East Asia and the Pacific % Others % Others % Total Arrivals % Total Arrivals % 13

15 In Figure 4, the region of Europe is a very large category, and needs further analysis. If we look closer to data, we see the predominance as origin of tourists of the neighboring countries, mainly the former Soviet republics. In 2010, 16 million tourists came from Central Eastern Europe countries (5.5 from the Ukraine, 2.7 from Kazakhstan, 1.5 from Uzbekistan) and only 2,9 million from other European countries: 1 million from Finland, 0.6 million from Germany 9, and 0.2 million each from other major countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, Turkey and Italy Means of transport used to the destination This has implications for the means of transport used to enter Russia, which will be largely determined by geographical origin of tourists. In accordance with the UNWTO statistics above, we can compare arrivals by mean of transport, including air and total arrivals. In Figure 5, we can see that tourists arriving by air represent a minor share compared to other means of transport. From 1995 to 2008, there is a progressive increase of people arriving by air, although it remains a small proportion of the total volume. Units ('000) Figure 5 Arrivals to Russia by air to compare with total arrivals Air Total This relatively modest proportion of air travel is confirmed in Table 6 the reason being the dominance of people coming from neighbouring countries in the overall tourism inflows. 9 Note that Germany provides the highest number of outbound tourists in the world: 50 million annually 14

16 See Table 6. Arrivals by air It is, however, on the rise. Even in 2003 and 2004, when arrivals by land decreased, the arrivals by air continued to grow. 4. Outbound tourism This section provides a brief analysis of recent data concerning tourism outflows Five main destinations for Russian tourists Outbound flows of Russian tourists, and main destinations, are reviewed in Table 7, using UNWTO (World Tourism Organization) data for and periods. In general, we observe a remarkable increase in number of Russian tourists travelling abroad during this period, from 3.9 million in 1996 to almost 26 million tourists in The primary destination is the Ukraine (7.9 millions), due to geographical proximity, the lack of language barrier, the resort climate of the Black Sea, historical affinity and the opportunity to visit friends and relatives (VFR) associated with this destination. In addition, for Russian citizens there is no need to obtain a visa. The Ukraine shares a long land border with Russia, with good railway connections and road networks. Although its market share has declined, from 38% in 2005 to 31% in 2010, the absolute number of outgoing tourists to Ukraine continues to increase, from 572,000 in 1996, to 6 millions in 2005 and 7.9 million in As we will see, the Ukraine is also one of the main origins of incoming visitors to Russia. Other important destinations are those of Egypt and Turkey. In these cases, access is only by plane. According to UNWTO data, in ,000 Russians visited Egypt, and in 2010 this figure increased up to 2.7 millions of visitors. Turkey was visited by 750,000, people in 2001, and by 3 millions in The growing popularity of those destinations allows tour operators to offer holidays at lower cost, thereby further boosting demand. See Table 7. The five main destinations of Russian tourists 15

17 5. Supply and demand In this section we analyse Russian`s tourist industry, particularly, the number of hotel establishment and other supply side information, such as the number of rooms and beds. As an indicator, we take the occupancy rate of the hotel establishments Evolution of supply In Figure 6, we see a constant growth of number of accommodation establishments between 2006 and 2010, due to the increase of foreign and domestic demand, as mentioned before. Figure 6 Evolujon of number of establishments (Units) In the year 2006 there were about 5,400 establishments operating, with the number increasing to 7,900 in Year by year, growth was stable and continuous. At the same time, logically, the number of available rooms and bed places also increased (Figure 7). 16

18 Figure 7 Evolujon of number of rooms, with number of bed places (Units) Number of rooms Number of bed places As we can see in Figure 7, the number of rooms was 263,000 in The 46.3% increase in the number of hotel establishments over the period, as compared to the number of rooms (26,2%) shows that the average size of hotels has been decreasing. The average size of a hotel in Russia was of 38.5 rooms per hotel in 2006 and 33.3 in As in other emerging destinations, it would appear that the quality of hotels has also been increasing (UNWTO, 2013) An apparent mismatch between supply and demand We can now check whether this development of accommodation supply matches the growth in tourist inflows. In fact, over this period, the number of foreign tourists arriving in Russia has increased by 10.8%, well below the supply side increase (26% increase in room numbers and 33% in bed numbers). We do not have information on occupancy rates per available room in Russia. However, occupancy rates per available bed would seem to be about 32% in 1998, 36% in 2006, and 31% in This means that the apparent greater increase on the supply side versus the demand flow has not necessarily translated into a important decrease in occupancy rates. Explanations could include a greater length of stay by tourists or perhaps a lower demand for accommodation in non hotel establishments. In any case, we are witnessing a development of the hotel industry in Russia, based on an increasing inbound flow of international and domestic 17

19 tourism, leading to higher investment in this sector. International hotel groups have been in fact investing in opening new establishments in principal urban centres of the country (Euromonitor International 2012). A result is the increase in the ratio of available beds per 1000 inhabitants. This indicator has been on an upward trend since 2005, and continues to grow in 2010, as can be observed in Figure 8. 5,00 4,00 3,00 2,00 1,00 0,00 Figure 8 Available capacity of hotels (bed places per 1000 inhabitants) 6. Tourist motivation and behaviour 6.1. Arrivals to Russia by main purpose As we can see in Figure 9, purpose of tourists visiting Russia have been driven predominantly by personal motives, including holidays and leisure, or visiting friends and relatives (VFR). In the year 2010 the number of business visits was 4.4 million, while the number of personal visits (holidays and VFR purpose tourists) approached 17.8 million. 18

20 Figure 9 Arrivals to Russia by main purpose Units ('000) Business reason Leisure & Culture One of the most striking findings of the report is the importance of VFR travel to Russia, accounting for more than 70% in 2010, with nearly 15.7 million visits per year (see Figure 10 below). It can largely be explained by the 25 million Russians living overseas in neighbouring countries of the former Soviet States (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, etc.), and in countries of the former Eastern Bloc. Excluding VFR, holiday and leisure tourism appears to represent a considerably smaller proportion of the whole, around 10% and fairly stable. One might, however, question whether the dominance of VFR purposes isn t a reflection of complexity of visa requirements, since visas are facilitated by an invitation to visit relatives or friends, or perhaps by underlying working (temporal) purposes. Note that the dramatic increase in VFR travel is from 1996 to Business tourism represents a growing proportion of visits, up to 20% of the total by 2010, representing 4.4 million visitors. Figure 10. Arrivals by main purpose (000 units) Holidays and leisure % Holidays and leisure % VFR % VFR % Business % Business % Total % Total % 19

21 Holidays and leisure % Holidays and leisure % VFR % VFR % Business % Business % Total % Total % Table 8 provides more detail, showing variation in purpose of the visit over the recent years. See Table 8. Arrival by main purpose 6.2. Total Expenditure by main purpose of the trip Building on data from 1999 to 2010, in Figure 11 we can see that expenditure for personal purposes (on holidays and leisure & VFR) initially exceeded that of business purposes. However, since 2006 onwards the situation has changed, and spending in business trips is now higher. In 2009 and 2010, we can see a general reduction in spending, due to worldwide economic budget and financial restrictions. Figure 11 Total Expenditure by main purpose of the trip US$ Mn Business and professional Leisure & Cultural 20

22 Figure 12 shows that inbound tourism revenues, as a percentage of GDP, reached their peak value of 2.5 in After that year, we see a sharp decrease of this indicator during the Russian crisis of 1999 and Since 2002 the index has gradually decreased in importance, showing that tourist expenditure is growing more slowly than the Russian economy as a whole. 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 Figure 12 Russian Federajon. Inbound tourism receipts over GDP (%) 0, Summary of conclusions In summary, regarding the state of the Tourism sector in Russia, and its recent evolution, the data shows that it is still in early stages of development, and finding its feet. Domestic tourism dominates the industry, with around 32 million movements per year. In addition, international inbound flows primarily come from neighbouring countries, mainly from former Soviet states and nearby EU countries, and are dominated by VFR visits. The mass of tourism is still domestic or within the former Soviet states. Therefore, the biggest short term potential market is to be found to the west of the Russian Federation. Beyond the neighbouring states, there is the EU countries. In the EU, out of which more than 500 million people travel for tourism purposes every year, the Russian Federation is less than a 4 hour flight from most major EU cities. 21

23 Indeed, a shift in the market can be seen since around The origin of tourist visits is beginning to diversify, with increased growth from a wider range of EU countries, from the Mediterranean basin and from the Far East. The proportions remain modest, but the trend is evident. In the longer term, still undeveloped, there is the massive Asian market. The potential is therefore enormous, both from nearby and more distant markets. However it does not still appear to be truly confronted: international inbound tourism volumes are growing, but only by about 5% between 2000 and Excluding VFR, international tourism outside of the two major cities remains insignificant. Compared to other sectors of the economy, international tourism appears still stagnant. In addition, for tourists coming to Russia, the two main destinations remain Moscow and St. Petersburg, which receive the bulk of visits. International tourism to other destinations is minimal. In terms of supply, Russia seems to be keeping pace with demand. However, there is little indication at least in this data of investment carried out to stimulate mass incoming demand. Perhaps current promotion lead by international events in Russia is pointing towards this type of necessary efforts to start developing Russia as an international destination for tourism. In the following Reports of the NETOUR EU Project we get deeper understanding of the situation characterising the Russian market for tourism by main products: cultural, business and nature based tourism. 22

24 TABLES Table 1. International tourism arrivals. Receipts by regions Source: UNWTO

25 Table 2. World s top tourism destinations. Top spenders Source: UNWTO

26 Table 3. International tourism. Projections Source: UNWTO

27 Table 4. Evolution of number of tourists Table 4 Evolution of number of tourists (Units ('000)) Russia Annual growth Europe Annual growth Global Annual growth , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,05 26

28 Table 5. Annual variation rate Table 5 The annual variation rate (Arrivals by region) Europe East Asia Others Total Arrivals ,66 0,11 0,12 0, ,06 0,16 0,87 0, ,11 0,00 0,71 0, ,17 0,01 0,13 0, ,15 0,12 0,18 0, ,02 0,04 0,04 0, ,07 0,32 0,04 0, ,04 0,04 0,11 0, ,03 0,19 0,03 0, ,00 0,00 0,04 0, ,01 0,02 0,06 0, ,03 0,03 0,11 0, ,04 0,07 0,11 0, ,11 0,12 0,24 0, ,04 0,05 0,08 0,04 CARG( ) 0,05 0,04 0,08 0,05 27

29 Table 6. Arrivals by air: annual variation rate Table 6 Annual variation rate (Arrivals by air) Air Total Arrivals ,08 0, ,36 0, ,10 0, ,17 0, ,11 0, ,01 0, ,26 0, ,11 0, ,18 0, ,01 0, ,07 0, ,15 0, ,09 0,03 CARG ,08 0,07 28

30 Table 7. The five main destinations of Russian tourists Ukraine % Ukraine % China % China % United Arab Emirates % United Arab Emirates % Poland % Spain % Germany % Germany % Rest % Rest % Total % Total % Ukraine % Ukraine % China % Turkey % Turkey % Egypt % Kazakhstan % China % Egypt % Kazakhstan % Rest % Rest % Total % Total % 29

31 Table 8. Arrival by main purpose Table 8. Arrivals by main purpose (annual variation rates) Business Personal motives (Holidays and Leisure & VFR) Total Arrivals ,58 0,66 0, ,08 0,30 0, ,07 0,11 0, ,16 0,33 0, ,12 0,20 0, ,02 0,06 0, ,08 0,00 0, ,03 0,15 0, ,02 0,06 0, ,01 0,18 0, ,01 0,00 0, ,02 0,01 0, ,03 0,26 0, ,10 0,06 0, ,04 0,14 0,02 CARG 1995/2010 0,03 0,06 0,05 30

32 References Algieri, B (2006). An econometric estimation of the demand for tourism: the case for Russia. Tourism Management. 12 (1) pp5 20. ECOSM (2012) Country Guide for Doing Business. Economic and Commercial Office of Spain in Moscow (ECOSM) State Secretariat of Commerce, Spain. Euromonitor International (2012) Passport Travel and Tourism in Russia Euromonitor International August IMF (2013) World Economic Outlook 2013 (April) International Monetary Fund, Washington DC. UNWTO (2012) Tourism Highlights 2012 World Tourism Organization, Madrid. UNWTO (2013) UNWTO database for Russian Federation World Tourism Organization, Madrid. UNWTO Understanding tourism: basic glossary. Retrieved from: tourism basic glossary [online] [accessed 18th September 2013]. 31

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