The Web of Things. Enabling exponential growth of IoT services. Dave Raggett, W3C. Sao Paulo, 13 th October 2016

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1 The Web of Things Enabing exponentia growth of IoT services Dave Raggett, W3C Sao Pauo, 13 th October 2016

2 Massive Potentia for the Internet of Things Smart Homes Wearabes Heathcare Power & Environment Smart Cities Manufacturing 2/37

3 IoT Landscape 3/37

4 A Rapidy Evoving Suite of Protocos and Technoogies Internet Protocos HTTP Cient requests, server responds WebSockets Asynchronous bidirectiona messaging Pub-Sub protocos MQTT XMPP AMQP Peer to peer WebRTC IoT Communication technoogies LPWAN WiFi Buetooth ZigBee KNX EnOcean Body Area Networks NFC and RFID Barcodes This is just a samping of avaiabe technoogies 4/12

5 Communication Patterns Huge variation in requirements across appication domains necessitate use of different communication patterns Rea-time requirements on the factory foor Data streams versus the occasiona update In some cases, osing the odd reading doesn t matter In other cases it is critica to store a sensor readings It is sometimes necessary to buffer and send bocks of readings to save power or improve network usage For devices that are ambient powered or which need to run for years on the same battery, it is essentia for the devices to spend most of the time aseep Push vs Pu vs Pub-Sub vs Peer to Peer 5/37

6 Body Area Networks ETSI TS Devices you wear or are part of your cothes, shoes, or even inside your body Appications to heathcare, fitness, and even tracking criminas reeased into the community Smart heathcare improving outcomes and reducing costs, especiay with the edery ETSI work on Smart Body Area Networks Need for unified data representations, semantic and open data modes 6/37

7 Sensor Data Streams and the Coud Device Gateway Coud IoT devices with oca connectivity Gateways that stream sensor data to the coud Powerfu scaabe coud based patforms Opportunities for services across many appication domains Big data, stream anaytics and advanced AI Machine earning and personaised services Need for open standards to create open markets of services that span coud patforms operated by different vendors Googe s Coud Patform for the IoT 7/37

8 Hubs as Patforms for Smart Home Apps Web standards can create opportunities for vendor neutra patforms for a market of apps for instaation on your home hub Your smart phone provides the human machine interface for these apps Improved sense of privacy compared with having your persona data being sent to the coud Apps based upon your socia connections Peer to peer with your friend s home hubs Samsung s Smart Things 8/37

9 Smart Manufacturing Greater fexibiity to address the trend to highy personaised products Reacting faster to changing market conditions Vertica integration from production ces to the board room Horizonta integration across both the suppy chain and the vaue chain within a business Robots manufacturing Tesa s eectric cars 9/37

10 Cyber-Physica Systems Leves of Abstraction Leve Attributes Network of interacting eements with physica input and output Seamess integration of computationa agorithms and physica components Expressing contro at different eves of abstraction and distributed across a network of devices Exampes Wireess sensor networks that coectivey reay processed information to the coud Automotive systems incuding engine management, and sef-driving cars City wide contro over traffic ights Smart grids that signa devices to reduce demand during peak periods, as we as storing and reeasing energy hed in smart homes, e.g. in eectric car batteries, and dedicated storage devices Smart medica systems, e.g. for insuin deivery for diabetics Process contro and smart manufacturing Configuration Cognition Cyber From Data to Information Smart Connection Sefconfigure for resiience Sef adjust for variation Sef optimise for disturbance Integrated simuation and synthesis Remote visuaisation Coaborative diagnostics and decision making Digita avatars for devices and components Time machine for variation identification and memory Custering for simiarity in data mining Smart anaytics for device heath, with mutidimensiona data correation Degradation and performance prediction Pug & pay Tether-free communication Sensor network With thanks to IMS Center for Cyber-Physica Systems in Manufacturing 10/37

11 Overcoming Fragmentation 11/37

12 Anaogy with the introduction of the Internet Before the Internet, there were many noninteroperabe network technoogies The Internet introduced an abstraction ayer across network technoogies Enabed end to end messaging, stimuating exponentia growth in services Direct anaogy with today s IoT sios and their ack of interoperabiity The IoT is sti immature and very fragmented We need an abstraction ayer for the IoT to counter fragmentation and bridge the sios 12/37

13 Web of Things abstraction ayer above the IoT Appications act on software objects that stand for things Digita avatars on behaf of physica or abstract entities Things with properties, actions and events Loca and remote things Rich descriptions for every thing Each thing has a URI for its name This provides access to its description Ontoogies that describe things and their reationships Using W3C s Linked Data framework 13/37

14 Web of Things enabing interoperabiity across patforms The Web wi enabe exponentia growth for open markets of services 14/37

15 The Web of Things countering fragmentation with standardised metadata and APIs Simpifying appication deveopment by decouping the underying protocos Essentia for scaing across the huge range of requirements across appication domains Enabing interoperabiity across different patforms with standardised metadata Describing the interfaces exposed to appications Describing the communication and security requirements for accessing things Describing the semantic modes and domain constraints 15/37

16 Distributed Web of Things Thing descriptions can be used to create proxies for a thing, aowing scripts to interact with a oca proxy for a remote entity Scripts can run on servers or as part of Web pages in Web browser for human machine interface Thing topoogies Peer to Peer, Peer to Peer via Coud, Star, Device to Coud, Star to Coud Proxy chains from the edge through the coud to the browser 16/37

17 Linked Data and Semantic Modes Essentia for enabing web scae open markets of services Semantic Descriptions ensure that patforms share the same meaning for the data they exchange Discovery based upon properties and reationships Search engines that can index the Web of Things For verifying that a thing is consistent with given modes For designing service compositions based upon the knowedge of which services are compatibe RDF = semantic network with nodes connected by abeed arcs W3C has a rich suite of reated standards 17/37

18 Communications Stack Cean separation of concerns Appication Deveoper (WoT focus) Patform Deveoper (IoT focus) Appication Things Transfer Transport Network Scripts that define thing behaviour in terms of their properties, actions and events, using APIs for contro of sensor and actuator hardware Software objects that hod their state Abstract thing to thing messages Semantics and Metadata, Data modes and Data Bindings of abstract messages to mechanisms provided by each protoco, incuding choice of communication pattern, e.g. pu, push, pub-sub, peer to peer, etc. REST based protocos, e.g. HTTP, CoAP Pub-Sub protocos, e.g. MQTT, XMPP Others, incuding non IP transports, e.g. Buetooth Underying communication technoogy with support for exchange of simpe messages (packets) Many technoogies designed for different requirements 18/37

19 W3C Web of Things Activity 19/37

20 Word Wide Web Consortium Mission: ead the Web to its fu potentia The Web is the word's argest vendor-neutra distributed appication patform Founded by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the Web 400+ Members Member-funded internationa organisation Deveops standards for Web and semantic technoogies HTML, CSS, scripting APIs, XML, SVG, VoiceXML, Semantic Web and Linked Data etc. Deveoper oriented, enabing cooperation between organisations with very different backgrounds W3C patent poicy for royaty free standards W3C staff of engineers activey participating in standardisation Increasingy invoved in verticas: Mobie, TV, Automotive, Digita pubishing 20/37

21 W3C Web of Things Activity W3C is chartering a Web of Things Working Group to deveop initia standards Charter currenty under review by W3C Members W3C Web of Things Interest Group Interoperabiity tests across patforms using open source impementations Further work on semantics, security and privacy Pans for an IoT on the Web Business Group Focus on business eve requirements across domains Buiding a shared understanding through coaboration with externa groups incuding Hypercat and BSI Web of Things Pugfest, Beijing /37

22 Members of the Web of Things Interest Group 22/37

23 The Need for Coordination 23/37

24 IoT Aiances and Standards Deveopment Organisations Source: AIOTI IoT Standardisation report reease /37

25 Liaisons and Coaborations Reaching out to industry aiances and SDO s to drive convergence to uneash the potentia, e.g. Pattform Industrie 4.0 Especiay the semantics subgroup Proposed German Smart Home Initiative Industria Internet Consortium Open Connectivity Foundation OPC Foundation IETF/IRTF IoT-SF BSI & Hypercat onem2m GSMA AIOTI AIOTI 25/37

26 Agie Processes for Standardisation Today, severa IoT aiances and standards deveopment organisations are working on modes as descriptions of devices and services Organisations are working on this in isoation with risk of fragmentation Joint white paper on semantic interoperabiity to counter this Buiding a shared understanding of the roe of semantic interoperabiity See Discussion underway on next steps to keep the momentum fowing We need agie processes for vocabuary deveopment that meets the timescaes and business reaities facing SMEs Experimenta, eary commercia use, widespread use Encouraging re-use where practica 26/37

27 IoT Security Shoud Worry Us A Breaches of privacy Cybercrime Physica safety in the home, across the city and within businesses Threats to nationa infrastructure Looming risks of cyberwar Need for joint work on best practices and technica standards Pan for joint white paper on end to end security, trust and privacy 27/37

28 The Chaenges for IoT and Big Data Lots of sensors wi generate a vast amount of data API Research estimated 200 exabytes in 2014 and 1.6 zettabytes in % is currenty processed ocay, athough this varies by domain This creates a greater voume of sensitive data, increasing the risk of Data and identity theft, Device manipuation, Data fasification IP theft, server/network manipuation, etc. Impact of introduction of data consoidation and anaytics at network edge Cisco, HPE and others App patforms in the coud or at the network edge wi be targets for attacks 28/37

29 Security, Trust, Safety, and Resiience Strong security reies on understanding and adherence to best practices Trust prior agreements and attestation by trusted third parties Bootstrapping trust and security, and ways this can unrave Mutua authentication of communicating parties Authorisation determining who can do what ACLs, Rues and Capabiities Ensuring that IoT systems are safe to use even when things go wrong Resiience maintaining contro in the presence of fauts and attacks Defense in depth, monitoring, machine earning, poicies 29/37

30 Privacy and the Internet of Things The IoT has the potentia to gather huge and unprecedented amounts of persona information This information may ast indefinitey Risk of abuse by individuas, criminas, companies and governments Sense of intrusion into your persona space Fear of harm due to discosure of persona information Strongy identifying information Your address, data of birth, sexua orientation, Principe of data minimisation high cost to companies for handing persona data securey Privacy poicies determining what purposes data can be used for, and for how ong Weaky identifying information When sufficient such data is combined this can uniquey characterise you Companies need to provide privacy poicies on how they hande such data Need for adhering to best practices to avoid reputationa damage to companies Incuding reguatory requirements 30/37

31 Buiding the Communities Open Source, Maker movements, Digita Acceerators 31/37

32 Web of Things for the Maker Community Open source projects are underway, e.g. for the Arduino and more powerfu MCUs Arduino Ethernet Shied 16 KB RAM MicroSDcard sot Controed through SPI bus Poing or H/W interrupt Cost: 4.75 GBP on ebay Arduino Uno with ATmega328P MCU 2 KB RAM 1 KB EEPROM 32 KB FLASH Lots of I/O pins Cost: 2.33 GBP on ebay 32/37

33 Web of Things for the Maker Community Microduino m-cookies Arduino compatibe with none of the wiring hasses Famiy of sma boards Boards snap together magneticay Can be combined with Lego See 33/37

34 Web of Things for the Maker Community Web of Things Gateway Based upon NodeJS (i.e. JavaScript) Support for mutipe protocos Runs on reativey powerfu devices, e.g. Raspberry Pi Further work panned on instaabe apps Insta apps onto SD card More detais at 34/37

35 Wrapping Up 35/37

36 The Bottom Line The Web is essentia for reaizing the fu potentia of the IoT The Web provides a unifying framework for semantic interoperabiity The Web acts as a goba marketpace for suppiers and consumers of services 36/37

37 Work with us to buid the Web of Things! For more information on W3C see: 37/37

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