Introduction To Internet Of Things (IoT) and It s Applications. Dr. Raja Vara Prasad ECE Dept. IIIT Chittoor Andhra Pradesh

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1 Introduction To Internet Of Things (IoT) and It s Applications Dr. Raja Vara Prasad ECE Dept. IIIT Chittoor Andhra Pradesh

2 Outlines What is IoT? Why So Important? Benefits with IoT Anything to do With Smart Cities Applications of IoT Smart Cities Example Applications a) Smart Buildings b) Smart Grids c) Smart Transportation d) Smart Agriculture e) Smart Health Care.. Challenges Ahead

3 Internet of Things (IoT) Definitions: Connected devices? Internet? Things? Internet of Things? Wired Networks and Wireless Networks

4 Internet of Things (IoT) The Internet of Things also called The Internet of Objects, refers to a wireless network between objects, usually the network will be wireless and self-configuring, such as household appliances Wikipedia Internet of Things refers to the concept that the Internet is no longer just a global network for people to communicate with one another using computers, but it is also a platform for devices to communicate electronically with the world around them. -- Center for Data and Innovation

5 Internet of Things (IoT) The term "Internet of Things has come to describe a number of technologies and research disciplines that enable the Internet to reach out in to the real world of physical objects IoT in 2008 Things having identities and virtual personalities operating in smart spaces using intelligent interfaces to connect and communicate within social, environmental, and user contexts -- IoT in 2020

6 Internet Inter-networking TCP/IP protocol World-wide communication network of computers Used to send information quickly between computers around the world. Millions/Billions of smaller domestic, academic, business and government networks and websites, which together carry many different kinds of information and services. Internet is a network of networks

7 Internet - Snapshot of an Example Network

8 What are Things? Difference between Things and House hold appliance/devices (Embedded) Things : Embedded system with computation, Data processing and interfaces to Connect Wired or Wireless Network such that they communicate with each other. Things can be : Sensing Embedded object or Embedded Actuator or Combined sensing and Actuator node Examples: Any networked Electronic appliances Smart TV, Air Conditions, Lights, Washing Machines, Automobiles etc.

9 Things Embedded Platforms Sensors Computation power Microcontrollers Networking Interface Battery power Control mechanisms Actuators

10 Sensors for Things

11

12 Applications

13 Internet of Things

14 Basic Requirements for IoT Applications Sensors Intelligent Embedded Platforms Networking Gateways Applications and Analytics

15

16 Growth Trend of IoT

17 Stats on IoT

18

19

20 IoT role in Smart Cities Home Area Network (HAN) Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Smart City Applications

21 Wired Versus Wireless

22 Smart Home Energy Management

23 Smart Home Energy Management IITH

24 Results from Experimentation

25 IoT for Building Energy Optimization Reduce energy wastage using different contexts like Occupancy, Temperature, Humidity, Light Intensity and Weather conditions Remote operation and control of all appliances Encouraging solar power than grid to the maximum extent possible Enabling buildings for future Smart Grids

26 IoT for Improving the Productivity of Agriculture

27 IoT for Agriculture Disease identification using Leaf Image Analysis Remote Expert advice connecting farmer to the expert committee using mobile phone Enabling E-commerce for Farmers for selling their goods Updates on new technologies for improving the productivity of agriculture Emergency alerts indicating storms etc to minimize the loss due to natural calamity

28 IoT for Transportation Systems

29

30 Intelligent Transportation Systems Real time suggestions on traffic to a commuter based on monitored data and relevant databases like geographical, climate and planned events. Safer transportation suggestions to individuals. Pollution levels mapping of congested traffic zones of a city. Encouraging public/shared transport by suggesting commuters in real time with help of mobile APP Suggestions to road transport authorities for future planning.

31 Smart Grids

32 Smart Grids Smart Grid Investment Grant Program US Crores in 3 years to make Grid smarter Indian Government proposed 1 Lakh crores Budget for Smart Cities Load Scheduling

33 IoT for Business Segment User choice from data collected from Things usage connected to an individual User choice Location and situational based real time services for product selling User behaviour modelling Effects product design, manufacturing cycle and cost factors

34 IoT for Health Care + Real-time body temperature, pulse, blood pressure and dust contamination which could help people with respiratory diseases. + The data will be used to intelligently infer the person s health condition. This data will be send to a server. + interaction between the doctor and patient. + patient s location with GPS which could be useful in case of emergency cases + Nearby health centres database + Rich Database useful for Predictive Analytics model and enabling future research for Early Disease identification.

35 IoT for Health Care Challenges Ahead: + Reliability of sensor readings. + Security of data communication over the network. Encrypted data transfer for protection from malicious adversaries. + Devices are located on patient s body where patient could move from place to place. The communication system should adjust to the patient s movement. + Each device connected have limited energy resource (battery life) which has to be replenished quite often. + High reliability and low delay of medical data transfer. + Low cost design without compromising Quality of Service metrics like Reliability, Delay and minimum Energy.

36 Summarizing IoT applications

37 IoT IIIT Chittoor Context aware Energy management in a building Health monitoring using Sensors E-Commerce for Farmer Emergency Systems for Highways Traffic density based Traffic Management Systems Water and Air Quality Monitoring system Vehicle Schedules using IoT

38 IoT IIIT Chittoor Electrical load scheduling to reduce peak demand Medicine management and health monitoring for elderly persons Unmanned Robot for video surveillance Public complaint login systems Pollution mapping using public transport Leaf Disease identification for smart agriculture

39 Technologies for IoT Low energy Wireless networks: Bluetooth, Low power Wi-Fi, ZigBee Z-Wave : smart home applications RFID and NFC Optical tags: Image Processing LTE Advanced: Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications

40 Challenges and Issues Issues Society: People, security, privacy Environmental aspects Resource efficiency Pollution and disaster Technological Architecture Governance, naming, identity, interfaces Service openness, interoperability Connections of real and virtual world Standards

41 Challenges and Issues Privacy: IoT and Data Mining incompatible with privacy User consent: to give informed consent to data Freedom of choice: privacy protections and underlying standards should promote Anonymity: Users can't be too deeply profiled based on the behaviors of their "things".

42 Challenges and Issues Security: cyber attacks are likely to become an increasingly physical Computer-controlled devices in automobiles -- vulnerable to attackers who have access to the on board network ability to remotely control pacemakers without authority remote control of insulin pumps

43 Challenges and Issues Environmental aspects: Impacts of the manufacture, use, and eventual disposal of all these semiconductor-rich devices Difficult to properly recycle Major driver for replacement of electronic components is often technological obsolescence rather than actual failure to function

44 Challenges and Issues Technological Architecture: Governance, naming, identity, interfaces Interoperability: Standards

45 Extra Slides

46 Single Hop and Multi-hop topologies for WSAN in HAN Relay cluster-1 Relay cluster-n Sink Single hop Sensor Multi-hop Communication Relay Cluster head

47 Analytical Modeling and Optimization Frameworks for Energy Efficient Wireless HAN Design and modeling of Energy conserving relay node behavior for evolving wide area applications. Models for generic topology and Scalability in terms of nodes and traffic Energy should be utmost priority maintaining Reliability, Delay Tight coupling between Network and MAC parameters. Fig. Energy conserving Relay node state model

48 Optimization Framework -Combined MAC and Network Layers for HAN IEEE MAC Layer Generic Multi-hop Framework Energy Conserving States Route Independent OP IEEE MAC Generic Random Routing End-to-end Reliability, Delay and Energy

49 Concluding Remarks IoT, Definitions and it s importance Requirements for IoT Important Applications Architectures and Standardizations Challenges associated Theoretical Research Aspects

50 Important References Smart 2020 report: R. V. Prasad Y and P. Rajalakshmi, "Context aware building energy management system with heterogeneous wireless network architecture," 6th Joint IFIP Wireless and Mobile Networking Conference (WMNC), Dubai, 2013, pp gs-iot-basics-part-2/

51 Queries?

52 Thank You

53 WSN and WSAN

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