How can we reach the poor with marketbased

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1 How can we reach the poor with marketbased approaches? Mimi Jenkins 2016 Colorado WASH Symposium University of Colorado Boulder 1 March 2016

2 Point of View Market-based WASH delivery approaches can reach the poorest AGREE or DISAGREE?

3 Overview How Sanitation [WASH] marketing programs try to reach poor households Consumer financing options to increase affordability and market access for poorer and the poorest households Methods for identifying and targeting the poorest for consumer financing subsidies Ways to support equity in WASH marketing programs

4 Why do we care? Poorest have greatest need for WASH Human rights 100% access needed to protect public health Sustainable Development Goals

5 JMP 2015 Urban Sanitation Coverage Equity X-axis: overall Y-axis: by wealth quintile

6 JMP 2015 Urban Water Coverage Equity X-axis: overall Y-axis: by wealth quintile

7 Sustainable Development WASH Equity Goal Achieve progressive reduction in inequalities in WASH access and service levels over time

8 Equity Trends: Richest vs Poorest

9 Part 1. How WASH marketing tries to reach the poor, and what else can be done?

10 Sanitation Marketing 7-Step Framework Source: Pedi & Jenkins 2013

11 Sanitation / WASH Marketing seeks to catalyze the market to better serve the needs of the poor by: Investing in product design (Step 3) to lower costs and make improved sanitation more affordable for the poor Investing in supply chain and business model improvements (Step 4) to increase local accessibility and make it easier and simpler to purchase and install improved sanitation These strategies can greatly increase access for poorer household, but affordability barriers are likely to persist for some households and the poorest.

12 For WASH Marketing to work, even after lower prices Households Households need some cash (or other means) to purchase improved WASH goods / services from local businesses & suppliers Businesses

13 TWO DIMENSIONS of THE SANITATION / WASH AFFORDABILITY BARRIER Cash flow problem: able to pay over time from own sources of cash income, but struggle to accumulate the large up-front lump sum for sanitation all at once Absolute cash poverty problem: not enough cash income to pay full costs of toilet construction, upgrading or on-going maintenance, even when spread over time, (or paying full cost would unfairly burden household).

14 What can we do? Potential consumer financing options that work with market-based programs to address: Cash flow problem Saving up Borrowing Absolute cash poverty problem Market-compatible social subsidies to poorest households

15 What can we do for cash flow problems? Category Saving up Loan/Credit (Borrowing) Consumer Financing Options for Sanitation Purchase, Installation, Consistent Use VSLs (Village Savings & Loan), RoSCAs (Rotating Savings & Credit Association), savings groups Lay-away purchase Health insurance scheme Pre-paid services (via tax, electric, water bill) Consumer loan via microfinance institution (MFI), community or formal bank, revolving loan fund, selfhelp group Installment payment purchase (credit via the business) Product leasing/renting (e.g. for portable toilets)

16 Examples of some successful loan programs for sanitation Lesotho 1980 s (WSP 2002, Field Note) Large Gov t funded RLF, via Commercial Bank Urban on-plot sanitation Vietnam s (Tremolet et al. 2010, WB Six Country Sanitation Financing Study) Large Gov t funded RLF, via Vietnam Women s Union Urban on-plot sanitation Cambodia now (Geissler et al. 2012) WaterSHED Cambodia Hands-Off SanMark program Partnerships with 3 established MFIs Rural on-plot sanitation

17 Key Strengths / Limitations: Saving up Strengths / Favorable Conditions Limitations / Risks Assures households do not Can be very slow if savings rate is accumulate debt slow and / or amounts are small Established networks of Limited potential for scale if new savings groups offer groups must be created, savings rate potential channel for is slow sanitation product Savings for latrines compete with distribution and marketing in other cash needs poorly served areas, but May reach relatively better-off who requires testing new are able and have habit to save business and sales models

18 Key Strengths / Limitations: Borrowing Strengths / Favorable Conditions High compatibility with market delivery, expands access for lower income segments Potential for financial sustainability Needs favorable economic conditions, good financial sector regulatory policies Needs MFIs or other lending agencies willing to disburse, manage smaller social loans Limitations / Risks MFIs often uninterested in non-income, infrequent, small, higher risk sanitation loans Reaches relatively better-off who can qualify for and pay back loan Risk of loans used for non-sanitation purposes, difficult to track Can overburden poorer households with excess debt or damage credit-worthiness Requires intensive operational coordination between MFI and SanMark activities MFI brand and repayment risk if MFI actively distributes sanitation product and clients are dissatisfied

19 What can we do for cash poverty problems? Social Subsidy Options Price reduction subsidy Consumer Financing Options for Sanitation Purchase, Installation, Consistent Use Voucher Cash transfer social subsidy Output-based aid (OBA) subsidy to households Conditional cash transfers, for initial and on-going sanitation behavior/action (e.g., purchase, installation, upgrading, hygienic maintenance, consistent use) Consumer purchase rebate * * Less effective for cash poverty problems, unless combined with a borrowing option.

20 Voucher, CCTs and OBA experiences Very little experience using these for WASH Vouchers anti-natal health services, other health care, insecticide treated bednets, improved cook stoves CCTs incentivizing use of maternal & child health services, education attendance, nutrition, among social protection beneficiaries One case of an OBA sanitation rebate to households: Vietnam, on-going NGO program Rural, poor-qualified and vulnerable households Rebate paid for installation of durable latrine that meets Vietnam Gov t hygienic standards

21 EMWF Vietnam - Sanitation OBA Program Rural household rebate Central Vietnam, 2008 pilot test Sanitation Marketing (2003-5) 60-70% hygienic coverage Others unhygienic, simple pit latrine or open defecate GoV hygienic latrine standards increase costs (min. $93 investment, 2008) Financial incentive = $20 rebate to qualitied poor who build hygienic latrine within 6-9 months

22 Approach & Process 1. Solicit OBA qualified poor households in target communities 2. Hold public meeting 3. Provide product education, technical guidance, hygiene education 4. Screen and enroll qualified households 5. Link to market providers 6. Household choses type, provider 7. Verify & document location, usability & completion 8. Disburse cash rebate for completed latrines

23 Key Outcomes of EMWF OBA Pilot OBA successfully reached and triggered households less likely to adopt hygienic facilities on their own High satisfaction with facilities and construction quality Reached somewhat poorer, older households compared to those with self-financed hyg. latrine Selection, participation procedures unable to reach many poorer, more marginal households without sanitation

24 Key Strengths / Limitations: Vouchers Strengths / Favorable Conditions High compatibility with market delivery, potential for scale Flexibility to adjust voucher value Allows consumer choice Can reduce inequity by targeting vouchers to qualified households Opportunity to link to and leverage existing Social Protection Programs and targeting mechanisms Limitations / Risks High cost of initial set-up, overheads to manage and administer system Favors large-scale implementation, with significant, sustained funding Unable to fully eliminate inequity for peripheral, remote populations beyond reach of certified businesses Stock outages at redemption, retail points High risk of fraud in voucher distribution and at redemption points but possible to detect, control fraud, with active voucher tracking, monitoring systems May suppress post-program demand (i.e. when vouchers end)

25 Key Strengths / Limitations: CCTs Strengths / Favorable Conditions Leverage existing social subsidy schemes, needbased targeting mechanisms On-going CCTs can incentivize poorer households to install, correctly use products May work best with existing social subsidy frameworks, policies with long-term funding Opportunities to leverage, integrate with existing Social Protection Programs Limitations / Risks Potential for fraud, misuse of cash when paid in advance or without good on-going independent verification Complex and potentially costly to setup, manage disbursement, properly target households if not linked to SPP Verification, monitoring of on-going behavior at household level a major challenge Unable to eliminate inequity for peripheral and remote populations beyond WASH supply chain reach

26 Key Strengths / Limitations: OBA Consumer Rebates Strengths / Favorable Conditions High compatibility with market delivery Works best at later stages of market development, after majority who can pay have installed improved sanitation May be appropriate where improved sanitation is unusually expensive, e.g. difficult hydro-geology, high transport costs Limitations / Risks Number of rebate-qualified households often exceeds availability of subsidy fund Rebates require pre-financing which can limit access for poorest As with vouchers, may suppress post-program demand

27 What can we do? Indirect approaches Examples of Potential Indirect Approaches to Overcome Affordability Problems OBA to businesses/ suppliers Pricing cross-subsidies among consumer segments* Pricing cross-subsidies among products (e.g., bundled sale of water & sanitation product) Consumer cooperatives or buying clubs Community Driven Development (CDD) grants Dimension Addressed Variable but often cash poverty. Will depend on program objective, policies, terms and conditions for how program is set up *Appropriate mainly for piped water or sewerage connections and where ongoing utility services exist.

28 Methods for identifying and targeting the poorest and other vulnerable groups

29 Three main methods of poverty targeting Method Description Meansbased targeting Identifies poorest individuals using population-wide surveys of income, assets, economic status of every household Proxy variables often used to assess and categorize wealth levels Some countries (e.g., India, Cambodia) have national means-tested poverty ID systems, poor households have ID cards qualifying them for social protection benefits Conditions where method works best Where reliable national ID systems already exist Means-testing is very costly and not recommended for stand-alone sanitation programs.

30 Three main methods of poverty targeting Method Description Conditions where method works best Communitybased targeting Uses community-based participatory wealth ranking; identification by informed community leaders; and/or by self-selection with community (public) verification Requires clear (tested) inclusion and exclusion criteria and identification procedures Where reliable national ID systems do not exist Where the proportion of households likely to meet poverty criteria is relatively small (<20%?) in the community

31 Three main methods of poverty targeting Method Description Conditions where method works best Geographic targeting* Identifies geographic areas or sub-communities/ neighborhoods with very high rates of poverty, or proxy conditions Subsidies (e.g., vouchers, rebates only) distributed to all verifiable residents in zone. Requires very good spatially disaggregated data and onground verification prior to selection Appropriate and most efficient where very large majority (>80%?) in a well-defined area meet the poverty criteria and lack access. * To be avoided, falls into trap of old subsidy approaches, unless very strong hard evidence showing very high rates poverty or vulnerability in well defined, identifiable residential area.

32 Ways to support equity and needs of the poorest in WASH marketing programs

33 SanMark Program Design & Implementation 7-Step Framework

34 1. Include and consult the poorest in each program step of the Marketing 7-Step Framework. Make good use of available poverty data in situation analysis (STEP 1) Ensure bottom 2 wealth quintiles are consulted in consumer market research (Step 2), developing and testing new products (Step 3) and demand creation tools (Step 5), and are reached by communications channels, and supply chains Consider bottom 2 quintiles as separate market segment, if needed, during strategy development (Steps 2-5).

35 2. Build equity tracking into program monitoring and evaluation systems. Plan & budget for data collection to track household demand and purchase behavior by wealth quintile, vulnerable groups Include time, resources for baseline and follow-up assessments Harmonize poverty/vulnerability indicators, classifications with other agencies, gov t stats. bureaus Include indicators of change in household investment behavior, not just final purchase

36 3. Form a task force on WASH Equity and Markets. Bring together gov t, sector stakeholders, to explore & test new market-compatible pro-poor subsidy financing options for WASH Review current state of WASH equity in rural areas and data to characterize the poorest without WASH and the most disadvantaged areas Consider carefully staging and phasing of any subsidy financing options, and sustainability of subsidy funding, before starting Seeks ways to link and learn from existing Social Protection Programs in the country

37 4. Where loan or saving options are needed, seek partnerships with the right groups to deliver these. Don t attempt to set up or run financing or savings mechanisms as part of WASH Marketing Program itself Avoid involvement of WASH program staff in consumer financial transactions Assess the financial services, savings industry and MFI landscape to identify good potential partners Be prepared to make a clear business case when approaching potential MFI partners Allow time to develop partnership, avoid initial offers of high levels of subsidized financing to partner

38 Comments? Questions?

39 Resources WSP (2011) Identifying the Potential for Results-based Financing for Sanitation. Nov Results-Based-Financing.pdf Jenkins (2012) Alternative Consumer Financing Approaches for Purchase of Durable Health-related Products by the Poor: A literature review of promising options for PATH s Safe Water Project. SanMark CoP Website Reaching the poor Webinar, Watercredit.org, working with MFIs on sanitation and water loans, May%202012%29_FINAL.pdf World Bank Voucher Guide EPRI/DFID Designing Conditional Cash Transfer Schemes, at

40 Thank you

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