What drives bank customers to adopt online banking?

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1 What drives bank customers to adopt online banking? Majharul Talukder The growing pervasiveness and adoption of the Internet has caused banking institutions to experiment with innovative ways of banking in a computer mediated environment. The banking industry is rapidly embracing the e-business revolution in three ways: (1) as an information vehicle, (2) as a channel of financial transactions, and (3) as a tool to improve customer relations. The study examined these three aspects of online banking and how they affect the overall strategic plan of a financial institution. For the purpose of explaining the online banking operation, a local community bank was chosen as a case study. The study also demonstrated advantages, constraints and problems of online banking systems. Field of Research: Innovation and technology management; online banking 1. Introduction Online banking is a new phenomenon in the financial sector. With the advancement of information technology, many banks are adopting new ways of conducting business activities. New information technologies such as the Internet have revolutionized the world and given rise to new ways of interacting, communicating and doing business. The Internet offers dramatic opportunities and enormous advantages for banking organizations to improve their productivity, and opens up new and updated markets on a global scale. Financial services companies are looking at the Internet as a new distribution channel because of quality and flexible service, easy access, lower cost and improved interaction possibilities for potential customers worldwide. Banks are increasingly viewing the Internet as an important alternative delivery channel for banking services and products. These new models of commercial interactions are emerging as financial organizations and customers participate in the electronic marketplace. Banking organizations are now able to start new businesses and market their services around the world through the Internet without having any particular location and without direct contact with the clients. This technological innovation has challenged the classical business paradigm and redefined how business transactions will be conducted in the future. Today, commercial use of information technology is well established. With the help of the Internet, banking organizations can communicate with clients instantly and send required information to them with speed and promote business by creating a virtual storefront on the Internet. In the last few years, many commercial banks have started to offer online banking through the Internet in order to provide easy, rapid and flexible service to their customers. Although Faculty of Business & Government, University of Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia 1

2 security of online transactions has raised some concerns, electronic banking in fact will make tomorrow's financial system more secure with the development of electronic checks and digital cash payment systems. Online banking is going to develop much faster than most people may imagine. The rapid commercialization of online banking by financial organizations has created a field for study into their level of implementation and possible challenges in the process. This has raised questions about the problems faced at the managerial and strategic organizational levels, and about how management will approach these challenges. The question is also raised about how many people are aware of these innovations and what their perceptions about online banking services are. The objective of the study is to investigate the drivers of adoption of online banking and benefits of usage of online banking systems. The study also identifies the challenges faced by bank management in implementing online banking and how management meets those challenges. Newness of the study The rapid adoption of the Internet as a commercial medium has caused financial organizations to experiment with innovative ways of providing services to customers in a computer-mediated environment. These developments on the Internet are expanding beyond anticipation as a commercial medium and an ultimate channel for online banking. The Internet has emerged as a global marketplace and undisputed business medium in the information era. With the evolution of the Internet, traditional business activities are rapidly transforming into digital information systems. This development on the Internet is growing beyond imagination as a communication medium as well as a rapid and convenient channel for financial transactions. However, until recently, research on the implementation of information technology by banking organizations has been scarce. Therefore studying online banking and the utilization of the Internet in financial organizations is important to understand issues related to the execution of information technology in financial service organizations. Results of the study will be helpful for the financial organizations and particularly in developing countries to develop policies and strategies for online banking systems. The study will be useful for managing information technology innovations in the financial sector. The research will also be beneficial for the public, to make them aware of and to better comprehend the issues related to electronic banking, particularly issues related to privacy and security in online transactions. 2. Literature Review Information technologies such as the Internet have helped organizations develop innovative business methods, which have enabled those organizations to reduce cost, enhance coordination and improve interaction with customers (Angell and Heslop, 1995). The revolution of information technology has created the global village and affected the way we live and work (McLuhan, 1989). Technological advances have opened new and exciting avenues that challenged the traditional 2

3 ways of interacting, communicating and doing business (Kushairi, 1999). As the world scenario changes with the development of new technologies, time and speed become important in our daily life (King, 1994). A new organizational information and communication model that continuously adapts, adjusts and innovates will be essential. In this 21 st century, perhaps one of the several ways to face market challenges is to continue to reinvent and ensure the best means of communicating with customers (Ismail, 1999). Quality, flexibility and responsiveness are the important issues of today s corporate organizations; organizations that do not recognize this new discipline may decline and eventually disappear (Cushman and King, 1994). To survive in this environment, organizations must learn to be flexible and responsive to customers needs. An example of this responsiveness is shown by the financial industry. Financial service institutions have been one of the major adopters of the Internet in recent years. Financial transactions over the Internet began in 1995 (Jasimuddin, 2000). The advent of online banking offers considerable opportunities for banks to expand their business and provide better services for customers. Online banking is also known as electronic banking, virtual banking, home banking and cyber banking. The banking sector is one of the leading players in e-commerce. Online banking systems offer certain advantages over traditional banking methods. Consumers can use online banking from home or anywhere they have access to a computer with an Internet connection. According to Gomez, Inc. (2003), a marketing research firm, a recent online survey showed that consumers who use online banking prefer to use it more than traditional banking and are most likely to rate their bank s online efforts highly. They found a correlation between online bank use and consumer satisfaction. Customers who begin to use online banking are pleased with it. Groenfeldt (2000) mentioned that research found that online banking would continue to grow as banks improve the way they use it. Information Vehicle A bank can use the Internet as a tool to market and deliver information to potential customers. It can provide institutional, promotional information and special offer announcements in the website. A bank s website also can be used for public relations purposes that include press releases, newsletters and welcome letters. Financial information such as stock information, various fees and interest rates can be included in the site. The customer can view and print account balances and summaries, account transactions, full bank account statements, foreign exchange rates, request for statement of account by mail and requests for a check book (Jasimuddin, 2000). 3

4 Channel of financial transactions The Internet has made online banking a channel of financial transactions. Online banking can provide application forms to open checking and saving accounts, obtain a credit card, and apply for loans and investments. Checking an account balance and statement is the most obvious services in online banking. Bill payments, transfers of funds between accounts of the same customer at the same bank into different accounts as well as transfer of funds to other bank accounts are important features of online banking. Transactions are executed and confirmed quickly compared to traditional banking. Customer relations Online banking has provided a better opportunity to communicate with customers. It allows two-way communication between customers and bank management. Through online banking, a bank can improve customer relations by providing options such as service requests, opinion surveys, and complaint reports. A bank can offer an address where customers can write to the bank or request any service at any time they want. A bank can provide information and help customers to make financial and investment decisions. 3. Factors affecting the adoption of online banking The psychological and behavioral factors are the most important aspects that affect the adoption of any new innovation such as online banking. Availability of access to the Internet is an essential prerequisite for the adoption of online banking. The more widespread the access to the Internet, the greater the possibility for the use of online banking would be. According to Suganthi, Balachandher and Balachandran (2001), one of the more important characteristics for adoption or acceptance of any innovative service or product is the creation of awareness among the consumers of the product or service. According to Cooper (1997) ease of use of an innovative product or service is one of the three important characteristics for adoption from the consumer s perspective. The design of the website with an appropriate graphical user interface and navigational tools are important determinants of user friendliness and ease of use. The web design and web content have an influence on consumer satisfaction. The information content, amount of information, information format, and layout features affect consumer satisfaction. Proper navigational attributes, a search facility, and interactivity of the site affect the consumers perception of the user friendliness. Cost is another factor in consumer consideration of adoption of online banking. There are two types of cost involved in online banking. First, the cost associated with Internet access and connection fees and secondly, the bank s charges for using online services. Customers need to be charged a reasonable price for using online banking. 4

5 Many consumers are reluctant to use a new system of banking, as the existing banking system meets their financial transaction needs. For customers to change their present ways of operating and to take up new technology, it must fulfill a specific need. There are many ways to overcome the reluctance to change consumer behavior. Personal assistance to customers in performing online transactions can improve customers perceptions about using the service. Banks can also provide specific value added services, which are currently not provided through traditional banking (Suganthi, Balachandher and Balachandran, 2001). The speed of downloading information from a website increases users satisfaction. If online banking uses high-resolution graphics and inefficient web services, it might create a negative impact on consumers perceptions about online banking. However, download speeds can also be associated with users computer hardware power and connection process. There are some customers who like personal physical interaction while doing banking transactions. Some are not confident that their money is going the right direction via the Internet. There are some people who are afraid of using the new technology. The reason for this technophobia may be that they do not have enough confidence in it or knowledge about it. They may not know the benefits and convenience, or how to use the technology. They trust human beings rather than computers and machines. Concern about online privacy and security Privacy and security are important concerns affecting the acceptance and adoption of online banking. Although online banking has the potential to revolutionize the financial system by dramatically lowering transaction costs and facilitating new types of commercial transactions, many consumers lack trust in doing transactions through the web. People are worried about fraud and privacy of their data and personal information. Customers are not sure about the security of their transactions. They are also concerned about the lack of a predictable legal environment governing virtual transactions. The online banking system has made it easy to pay for bills, services, and money transfers electronically. However, security of online transactions has become a crucial issue as the criminal minded hackers might retrieve confidential account numbers and use them for personal purposes at the expense of other people. For that reason privacy and security are major concerns of online banking. There was a time when people were confident that invasion of privacy was difficult, but with the technological revolution it is becoming easy to invade privacy and confidentiality. Technology has changed the rules of privacy. At one time there was plenty of it but now it is almost gone, says Kevin Murray, who runs Murray Associates, a New Jersey-based firm that sweeps clients' offices for bugs and other surveillance equipment (Rotheder, 1998). In the age of technology people go through life involuntarily dropping crumbs of data about themselves. Following right behind there are powerful cleaners, computers accessed by marketers, 5

6 snoops and even criminals "sucking up the information", labeling and storing it for future reference (Rotheder, 1998). 4. Method The study was conducted in a regional bank in north Texas, USA. This bank was chosen due to the accessibility of information and the ability to observe overall online banking activities, which might not be possible with a larger national bank. The Bank was established in The online banking system is a recent adoption in the bank. It has more than $100 million in assets and 50 employees. Its online banking goal is to make banking easier and better for customers. This research adopted case study approach to draw evidence. The study provided an in-depth understanding and analysis of online banking implementation. The case study approach provided an in depth understanding of the implementation of electronic banking within the context of managing information technology innovation in the financial organization. The study combined several data collection methods such as the use of archives, observations of the web site, and in-depth interview with bank professional as well as statistical data regarding online banking activities. The frequency and descriptive statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS. 5. Data analysis and discussion Data of the study were analyzed to see what services the online bank provides, the usages of online banking and trend of the usages of online banking services. Online banking provides the ability to check balances, view account histories, transfer funds, pay bills, reorder checks, initiate a stop payment, authorize a change of address, download data to personal financial software, apply for a deposit account or service, submit a consumer loan request and pre-qualify for a residential mortgage loan product. The online bank provides online bill payment services to save time and money. Online bill payment costs only $5.95 per month with a two-month trial period free. Business accounts enjoy up to 20 bill payments per month free of charge then pay only $.40 for each additional bill payment. Customers can make unlimited bill payments and review payment history. This service eliminates check-writing, saves postage costs and trips to the post office. It is an easy, fast and convenient way of banking. Following are the online banking activities from June 2009 to May The data shows that the number of customers signed up for online banking rose from 783 in June 2009 to 1065 in May The number of account inquiries also increased from 5007 in June 2009 to 7408 in May Ninety three customers signed up for bill payment features in 2009 which increased to 98 in May The increasing rate was slower because many people are afraid to send their money through the Internet thinking that money might transfer to an unknown 6

7 location. The study found that the number of bill payment transactions is an increasing trend. In June 2009 there were 216 transactions and by May 2010 this went to 294 transactions. The number of new account or loan applications online has also increased. In June 2009 there were 177 applications and in May 2010 there were 270 applications. In June 2009 the number of customers who signed up for Internet banking was 783, in September 2009 it was 958, in December 2009 it was 1045 and in May 2010 it was The bank has a total of 5477 savings and checking accounts. Almost 19.5 percent of the total customers signed up for online banking. Online bill payment features brought a convenient way of conducting financial transactions. Consumers can pay bills at any time they want. Data shows that the number of bill payments transactions has increased favorably. In June 2009 the number of bill payment transactions was 216, in September 2009 it was 245, in December 2009 it was 254, in March 2010 it was 251 and May 2010 it was 294. This shows an increasing trend of online bill payment transactions. The bank works diligently to safeguard customers privacy. The information that customers provide is kept in the strictest of confidence. The bank has no intentions of selling personal information about customers to third party businesses. The bank is proud to make that commitment to every customer, because customers trust is the foundation of the business. The bank collects personal information about customers. However, the bank does not disclose any personal information about customers to anyone except as permitted by law. 6. Concluding remarks The study found that the local bank is using the online system extensively, not only for a competitive advantage, but also to facilitate activities for customers. The bank is providing all kinds of services that used to be done in the traditional banking methods. The study revealed that there is a positive trend toward the use of online banking systems. Customers are becoming more inclined to use online banking activities as it provides easy access and convenience. As usage and applications of information and communication technology, particularly the Internet, pervades all aspects of customers lives, online banking will be more extensive and widespread in the new millennium. The trend toward online banking will continue to grow in the future. In the turbulent business environment of the new millennium, online banking will be the new strategy for banking organizations. As privacy and security are the biggest concerns among the users of online banking, data and private information protection are critically important. Since transactions usually involve the use of an online system, a bank must provide some guarantee that transactions made will not result in any fraud. The snoops, hackers, spammers and illegal information collectors will never leave customers alone, but all kind of protections will make it much more difficult to steal customers information. However, an individual organization's efforts may not ensure protection of privacy and security in the electronic age. Therefore, 7

8 governments and other related international bodies should work together to develop international regulations and policies to promote security and privacy in the new-networked business environment. If online banking becomes secure and protected, then it will become widely accepted and a part of our daily financial transactions. References Angel, D and Heslep, B (1995). The Internet business companion: Growing your business in the electronic age. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Cooper, G (1997). Examining some myths about new products winners, in Katz, R (ed). The Human Side of Managing Technological Innovation. Oxford Press Cushman, D and King, S (1994). High-Speed Management: A revolution in Organizational Communication in the 1990s. In King, S and Cushman, D. (eds), High-speed management and organizational communication in the 1990s. Albany: State University Gomez Inc.(2003). Online Marketing Research Firm, Groenfeldt, T (2000). Room to Improve Internet Banking Services. US Banker. Ismail, I (1999). Changing Roles. Computimes. NST, December 8, 1999 Jasimuddin, S (2000). Saudi Arabian Banks on the Web. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, King, S (1994). High-Speed Management and Organizational Communication: A Road Map. In King, S and Cushman, D (eds) Highspeed management and organizational communication in the 1990s, Albany: State University Kushairi(1999). New Millennium in telecommunication. New Straits Times, May 17, 1999 McLuhan, M (1989). The Global Village: Transformation in World Life and Media in the 21 st century. New York: Oxford University Press. Rotheder, J (1998). You Are for Sale. PC World. pp , September 1998 Suganthi; Balachandher and Balachandran (2001). Internet Banking Patronage: An Empirical Investigation of Malaysia. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 8

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