N ATIONAL T RANSPORT S TRATEGY (NTS)

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1 N ATIONAL T RANSPORT S TRATEGY (NTS) OCTOBER, 2013.

2 NATIONAL TRANSPORT STRATEGY (NTS) Strategic document Version for public discussion

3 Contents Introduction Situtation analysis Current situation and projections Functional, regional and comprehensive analysis of the economic system Functional, regional and comprehensive analysis of the transport system Envisaged development of transport demand Cost-efficiency problems of the transport system Financing problems of the transport system Regulation, strategies, external matching SWOT, key issues Conceptual goals Social objectives Transport objectives Links between the situation analysis and the target system Target achievement tools Management tools Performance of public functions, their long term, predictable financing Long term, predictable financing of cost-efficient public services Coordinated development of incentives (tariffs, grants, awareness raising tools) Providing efficient planning, regulatory, institutional, monitoring background Development tools Programming, actual objectives Basic programming information Preparation and implementation timeplan, financial payment schedule Strategy Implementation of the strategy until Strategic outlook until Environmental assessment of the Strategy Connection of environmental assessment to the preparation of NTS Summary of results of SEA Annex I: Basic definitions used to the foundation of the transport Strategy

4 List of Figures Figure 1 The strategy making process... 8 Figure 2 Regional cooperations that reduce centralization... 9 Figure 3 Breakdown of bus trips per distance categories, (blue: long distance, orange: intercity) Figure 4 The performance of private and public modes of transport in domestic intercity and long distance traffic(source: NSO) Figure 5 Increase in the number of commuting workers by place of residence, (Source: NSO) Figure 6 The distribution of freight transport volumes and perforfmance by modes Figure 7 The distribution of road transport volumes (Sources: NSO) Figure 8 The distribution of railway transport by direction of transport (source: NSO 2010). 18 Figure 9 Changes in freight transport performances in Hungary (source: NSO) Figure 10 Permanent and temporary speed limit on MÁV and GYSEV railway network Figure 11 The condition of the national road network, 2011 (Source: MK) Figure 12 Structural network deficiencies Figure 13 Transport organizational cooperation Figure 14 Demographic tendencies of Hungary (Source: Eurostat and Forecasts of the 2012 Reference scenario modelling studies and own calculations based on data of the NSO) Figure 15 Tendencies of variation of per capita GDP in Hungary (Source: Eurostat and Forecasts of the 2012 Reference scenario modelling studies and own calculations based on data of the NSO) Figure 16 Estimated development and growth rate of the Brent spot oil prices (Source: IEA-EIA) Figure 17 Variation of the domestic passenger transport demands per transport modes Figure 18 Variation of domestic freight transport traffic demands per transport modes Figure 19 Structure of annual transport expenditures (annual average values in ) Figure 20 Specific external impacts (annual average value of ) Figure 21 Cost, funding and physical indicators of operating of public road infrastructure (estimation, 2012) Figure 22 Cost, financing and physical indicators of operating of railway network infrastructure (estimation, 2012) Figure 23 Cost, financing and physical indicators of intercity public road passenger transport public services (estimation, 2012) Figure 24 Cost, financing and phycial indicators of local passenger transport public services (estimation, 2012) Figure 25 Cost, financing and physical indicators of railway passenger public transport services, (estimation, 2012) Figure 26 Strategical matching of NTS Figure 27 Target system of NTS (Objective tree) Figure 28 Problems revealed during SWOT analysis and the related objectives Figure 29 Social utility of developments Figure 30 Main development areas Figure 31 The high traffic railway network attains good technical level as a result of developments

5 Figure 32 The high traffic public road network attains good technical level as a result of developments Figure 33 Social utility with the implementation of the objectives of the strategy until Figure 34 Social utility with the imlementation of the objectives of the strategy until List of Tables Table 1 Evaluation of interventions according to social utility and feasibility Table 2 Investment cost of development tools in the different development categories, billion HUF Table 3 Lenght of infrastructure to be developed in the different development categories, output indicator Table 4 Transport capacities modified as a result of developments of the different development categories, result indicator Table 5 Social level impacts expectable as a result of development of the different development categories, impact indicator Table 6 Development costs and annual benefits, Table 7 Development costs and annual benefits, Table 8 Development costs and annual benefits with financing constraints,

6 Introduction The main task of this document is to determine the transport strategy until 2030 with an outlook until 2050 and with a first phase until 2020 with special regard to the first two EU budget cycles beginning in Documents of the National Transport Development Strategy (NTS) Based on the results of the former work phases, starting from them the documents of NTS summarize the main statements, results and methodological frameworks formulated during the different steps of the strategy making process. The strategical documents have different purposes and detailing: Public discussion version This document: Shortened material for social coordination of NTS. Longer expert version integrated into the foundation documents: This is a long version basically prepared for expert circles and also containing methodological issues and parts presenting the process of analysis. Summary: Executive summary of the Strategy The Strategic Environmental Assessment and the Natura 2000 impact assessment are closely connected to the Strategy, the brief summary of which is also available. This summarizes in detail how the environmental assessment made impact on the preparation of the Strategy. The mentioned documents are the main documents of the National Transport Development Strategy and are published on the website. Besides the strategic documents detailed review and analysing documents were prepared to the foundation of the strategy the relevant findings, main results of which were built into the strategic documents. (We present here documents directly preceding the Strategy documents prepared under other contracts are not listed here.) The separate documents can be organized on the following subjects: I. Description, analysis of current situation Situation analysis Introduction, descriptive analysis of the transport system of Hungary, emphasized the main tendencies and problems. Functional, regional overview of the transport system Analysis of the transport demands generated by the economic-social cooperation of the different regions of Hungary, or of the resulting developments, including communication with the neighbouring countries, too. Analysis of the development needs of the national minor road network and of the issues related to the local governmental road network. In the frame of cooperation between the counties the analysis of development needs of the specified minor road network. -5-

7 Proposal for the missing junctions of the motorway network and construction of new junctions Analysis of proposals for the functional extension of the existing motorway network. Analysis of financial sustainability of the transport system Detailed analysis of the current resource needs of the Hungarian transport system, including operational, maintenance, development sources and assistances. II. Ground for Traffic analisys All transport mode traffic model Description of network, traffic model development for making the necessary calculations. III. Analysis contributing to the determination of development directions National Transport Concept and National Transport Concept foundation analysis Based on the findings and conclusions of situation analysis it summarizes the process and results of concept formulation. Strategic document (Expert document) Long version basically prepared for expert circles and containing methodological issues and part presenting the process of analysis Analysis of management tools Here the detailed analysis of the operational, regulatory, financing and institutional tools of the transport system was made. Analysis of development tools This is a detailed analysing document of the infrastructural, investment type development tools proposed by the different sub-system work teams in line with target system formulated in the Concept preparation phase Version analysis of the strategic elements During the strategy making process after the determination of the objectives and following the detailed analysis of development tools determined based on the strategy different analysis were made in order to define the priority system and the focuses of the strategy. According to the terminology of the Supply Contract the documents summarizing these analyses are called version analysis. Transport Energy-efficiency improving Action Plan Its purpose is the determination of energetic targets to be enforced in the National Transport Strategy (NTS) and the means of their achievement, or the working out of the short and medium term energy efficiency action plan of transport based on which the tasks formulated in Government Decree 1374/2011. (XI. 8.) on II. National Energy Action Plan of Hungary until 2016 with an outlook to 2020 will be completed. -6-

8 IV. Fundational sub-system strategies, analysis During the preparation of the National Transport Strategy, as its foundation documents, similarly to the earlier prepared basic strategy on Great perspective and long term development program of the national motorway and main road network the National Bicycle Concept and Network Plan National Railway Development Concept (NRDC) and National Railway Development Concept (NRDC) situation analysis Analysis of development possibilities of water transport were prepared as a summary of the sub-system development ideas. Process of NTS preparation The Figure representing the strategy preparation process shows how the system of means contributing to the solution of the problems and to the achievement of the conceptual objectives formulated based on the taking into account of national development targets, and on functional analysis, revealing the internal problems of the transport sector were determined. The definition of terms attached in the Annex assist the understanding of the process. -7-

9 Figure 1 The strategy making process -8-

10 1. Situtation analysis 1.1. Current situation and projections Functional, regional and comprehensive analysis of the economic system The National Regional Development Concept (OFTK) defines Hungary as a gateway and bridge between large international regions, and states that the country has significant development potential because of its geostrategic position. As a catalyst of Central-European integration, Hungary helped bring Romania and Bulgaria into the Visegrád Group and intends to continue in this role by helping and supporting the countries of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) in accordance with the European Union s integration policy. The establishment of the Trans-European transport network corridors in Hungary is an indication of the country s central role in the region. The following figure shows the major economic organizing forces that affect transport: Figure 2 Regional cooperations that reduce centralization There are two major industrial axes in the country, around which major production centers have formed. One is the automotive industry axis (marked with a gray arrow), which crosses the western part of the country and shows the effect of the European automotive industry s production facilities being moved to East-Central Europe in the last few decades. -9-

11 The Hungarian cities along the Trnava-Bratislava line (Győr, Szentgotthárd, Szombathely, Zalaegerszeg and Nagykanizsa) play important roles in the industry. The axis also has strong ties with ports on the Adriatic Sea, which has noticeable effects on the established infrastructure network. The other major industrial line is the heavy industry axis (also marked with a gray arrow), which crosses the eastern part of the country, running from Kosice to Oradea through Miskolc, Kazincbarcika, Tiszaújváros, Nyíregyháza and Debrecen. In addition to the traditionally strong heavy industry, the chemical industry has also shown significant growth in this region in recent years. Connecting to the economic regions of Romania particularly Timiș and Arad County has extended this economic axis, which can now use its link to the Black Sea as an international transport route. Cooperation between the agricultural sector and the food industry has created agricultural relationship zones (marked in green) in various parts of the country, often in cooperation with neighboring regions across the borders. These zones are smaller units in terms of GDP, but they have had a significantly influence on the economic relations and transport infrastructure of the regions. The three major agricultural relationship zones are the following: The North-Eastern region of the Great Hungarian Plain (Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg and Hajdú-Bihar County in Hungary and Satu Mare County in Romania), The South-Eastern region of the Great Hungarian Plain (Csongrád and Békés County in Hungary, Bihor, Arad and Timiș County in Romania and North Banat and North Bačka District in Serbia), and The region of the Little Hungarian Plain (Burgenland in Austria, Mura Statistical Region in Slovenia and Međimurje County in Croatia. Hungary s only metropolitan region is the region of Budapest and its catchment area (marked in yellow). The city and its agglomeration is the most economically developed region in the country and the center of economic management, innovation and knowledge. Its population and economic performance makes it a significant urban concentration even on a global scale. The capital s catchment area extends beyond nearby cities, even across the border to the north (through the connection between Esztergom and Štúrovo). Its prominent position in the transport network has made the region of Budapest the primary mediator of technological, intellectual and material development in its macro-regional relations in some cases to the detriment of the country s internal development and the improvement of equality between regions. The endogenous results of domestic growth also tend to culminate in Budapest. The city s primary network hub role is not sustainable in the long term. Improved equality between regions is the foundation for sustainable development. Budapest is the ninth most populous city in the European Union. Its functions, services and size make it the Carpathian Basin s third international city beside Vienna and Bratislava. The passenger traffic between the capital and its agglomeration which is dominated by private transport is a very important part of the region s transport system. Reducing private vehicle traffic and shifting passengers to public transport is necessary for environmental reasons. Hungary s other most relevant attraction zone is the area of Lake Balaton. The region s economic, cultural and touristic importance peaks during the summer, but the economic interdependence of the region s towns is strong throughout the year. -10-

12 There are some other city regions (marked in red) where the dominant city has significant influence on smaller neighboring towns. This and the level of cooperation in general is greatly affected by the quality of the region s transport infrastructure, which also links the region to other areas. These city regions include the catchment areas of Budapest, Debrecen, Győr, Kaposvár, Kecskemét, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyíregyháza, Pécs, Szeged, Székesfehérvár, Szekszárd, Szolnok, Szombathely, Veszprém and Zalaegerszeg. There are also larger areas of cooperation (marked in purple and blue) organized around various functions based on the unique regional characteristics. These relationships can have their foundations in economics, labor, industry, innovation, culture, tourism, educational or research Functional, regional and comprehensive analysis of the transport system Passenger transport Based on a nationwide analysis of intercity transport, we can make the following summarizing statements: some 2,563 thousand intercity trips are made daily in the country (on workdays), of which about 95% is passenger traffic, equal parts to and from residential settlements, and an average of 5% is so-called non-residence-based travel (which only accounts for 1.3% among Budapest residents and 7.4% among the residents of Pest County). This means that some 1,217 thousand trips are made daily from residential settlements, which is about 12% of the county s total population. Based on statistical estimates, local transport amounts to some 13,402 thousand daily trips, which is about 5.2 times the number of intercity trips. Suburban and local transport needs are classified primarily by geographical dimension: trips shorter than 70 kilometers are placed in this category. These represent a large portion of daily trips. Currently the majority of transport needs 97% of all travel and 96% of motorized travel arise in local and suburban transport. Even excluding local transport, this segment represents some 88% of all transport needs. Budapest s suburban traffic is prominent among the regions. It makes up nearly 17% of suburban transport (this is 17% of the 88% mentioned above, so it equates to 15% of all intercity travel). Large cities typically draw in intercity travelers, i.e. the number of incoming passengers exceeds the number of outgoing travelers. This is especially true in case of county seats, where the number of incoming passengers is times that of outgoing travellers. Long distance passenger transport includes international trips, domestic trips over 70 km, as well as trips between county seats that are less than 70 kilometers away from one another. Air travel makes up 60-65% of international passenger transport, with railway and bus transport sharing the remaining third at about a 2:1 ratio. -11-

13 In international travel long distance trips are typically made by plane, while shorter trips are by car. These transport needs vary based on the performance of the economy. The extent of non-work-related travel is influenced primarily by economic prosperity. Domestic intercity passenger traffic is dominated by bus transport, with a proportion of about 78%, with railway transport making up the remaining 22%. Travel by boat is negligible. Regional passenger transport needs are classified primarily by geographical dimension: trips under 70 kilometers are placed in this category, which are typically trips between minor towns and settlements. This group can be divided into two main sub-segments: traffic within touristic regions (Lake Balaton, Lake Fertő etc.) and communication between settlements Regional passenger transport within touristic regions can be traffic generated by general tourism (which is seasonal) or traffic generated by health tourism (which is active throughout the year). Hungary is doing relatively well by international comparison, in the sense that its private and public passenger transport is not dominated by cars as much as it is in Western Europe, where their proportion in terms of passenger kilometers is near 80% (excluding air travel). Based on the number of passengers, domestic intercity passenger transport is dominated by bus and railway transport, with buses carrying more than twice the number of railway passengers. Railway transport has a better position in passenger kilometers, due to its higher average trip length. The overall performance of private motorized passenger transport is similar to that of the public modes of transport. -12-

14 The following figure shows the breakdown of bus trips by distance category: Figure 3 Breakdown of bus trips per distance categories, (blue: long distance, orange: intercity) Figure 4 The performance of private and public modes of transport in domestic intercity and long distance traffic(source: NSO) Public transport has declined in almost all the counties of Hungary over the past decade. There are several areas where major development is necessary in order to make public transport services more attractive to passengers. These include service provider partnerships and transport associations. (An example of the latter was the Budapest Transport Association (BKSZ), which was replaced a few years ago by the Centre for Budapest Transport (BKK). However BKK has not assumed all of BKSZ previous functions.) Such organizations would facilitate the establishment of tariff communities and unified (electronic) ticketing systems. -13-

15 Due to a regulatory deficiency, it is generally not required to examine the availability of socially optimal modes of transport prior to the construction of new, high volume transport facilities, nor are there incentives to determine the optimal mode of transport and facilitate its development. Some towns consider such aspects in their settlement development contracts, but this is done on ad hoc basis. Parallel railway and bus services are in unnecessary competition in several places (see the National Transport Concept for a detailed analysis of the problem), which makes their financing unfavorable, while at the same time buses don t deliver sufficient connecting traffic to railways. Infrastructure development yields no benefit if it s implemented at the wrong place or in the wrong way. The harmonization of bus and railway schedules has begun, but is not yet complete and there is no interoperable tariff system. Bus travel is prominent primarily in short trips inside city agglomerations and in transport relations where no railway connection is available. The analysis in the document mentioned above has found that bus lines have a high rate of utilization on the following places: In the Budapest agglomeration Where no railway connection is available (suburban relations, Hévíz, other unconnected settlements) On shorter trips (Ózd, Balassagyarmat and Kecskemét), where bus fares are lower Where travel time is shorter by bus (Nagykanizsa, Zalaegerszeg and Keszthely) Where the bus station has a favorable central location (Veszprém, Eger and Nagykanizsa) Where the bus service is frequent (Eger, Kecskemét and Veszprém) The biggest problem of urban public transportation is the drastic increase of congestion in cities and city centers. Private vehicle use is becoming increasingly prominent in Hungary because the accessibility of cities by public transportation is inadequate, due to the deficiencies of infrastructure and organization. The suburbanization around large cities and the associated commuter traffic places an additional burden on the infrastructure of the city and its surroundings. According to census data, employment grew by 6.8% between 2001 and 2011, but the number of people working outside their settlement of residence increased by 29%. The largest increase (69%) has been in the number of commuters living in Budapest, i.e. people who travel outside the city for work. This has been due to many companies moving to and being established in the city s agglomeration in the past decade. After Budapest, the increase of daily commuters has been the greatest (nearly 50%) in Győr-Moson-Sopron and Hajdú-Bihar County (see figure 5 below). -14-

16 Figure 5 Increase in the number of commuting workers by place of residence, (Source: NSO) The capital city to be mentioned by all means due to its central location and very significant weight. The increasing suburbanization in recent years (even decades) has been greatly influenced by the widespread use of cars. This has created atomized (sprawling) territorial structures that continue to grow to this day, independent from the established railway network. The negative consequences of this process are well-known. The railway lines cross the capital in a radial structure. MÁV-START Zrt. operates trains on 11 railway lines. The suburban segment has the largest, continuously growing traffic in terms of number of passengers. In 2011 the company carried nearly 58 million passengers in this segment. Using the railway company s lines is important for urban transport because it connects areas that the city s network doesn t cover well. VOLÁNBUSZ Zrt. operates 5500 daily buses in Budapest s agglomeration, connecting 170 towns and villages to the capital, regional centers and each other. The buses run on a fixed schedule in the suburban network adjusted to railway schedules to ensure quality service. VOLÁNBUSZ Zrt s buses connect to the railway and tram lines of MÁV and BKV in more than 50 places. The Budapest Transport Company (BKV Zrt.) provides a significant portion of public transport in the capital and its agglomeration. In 2010 the company operated 239 bus lines, which carried million passengers (40% of the total number of passengers). 51% of the vehicles used by the company are buses. The second largest branch is tram lines, with 20% of the company s vehicles, running on 31 lines and carrying some 386 million passengers a year (a quarter of the total). The third largest branch is the metro and the underground. These three lines have a combined length of 31.4 kilometers. In 2010 they carried nearly 300 million passengers, even though their vehicles only make up 13% of the company s combined fleet. Trolleybuses have only a minor role in Budapest, with a total line length of 73 km and only 5% of the vehicle fleet and passengers (68 million). The five suburban railway (HÉV) lines have a combined length of 103 km and 10.6% of the company s vehicles, which were used by 69.5 million passengers in Scheduled public passenger boat transport on the river Danube started in the summer of BKV carried thousand passengers by scheduled boat service during this first season, between May 1 and September 2. MAHART Passnave (another boat company) carried a total of 300,000 passengers in Although the Danube runs across the city as a natural travel route, it s hardly used for public transport. -15-

17 Currently and in the medium term longitudinal passenger transport on the river will primarily serve tourism. International boat traffic uses both the northern and southern section of the Danube. There are currently 78 public piers in Budapest serving boat lines, with 7 additional piers catering for stationary vessels and 8 utility ports. The potential of passenger transport on the river strengthens as the land transport network becomes increasingly congested and tourism and local demand continue to grow. Travel by boat is expected to increase both in public transportation and tourism, but does not represent a significant transport performance. Passenger travel by boat plays an important role on Lake Balaton, where the public service is provided by Balatoni Hajózási Zrt. The company s principal activity is operating scheduled boats and ferries on the lake, but it s also responsible for the operation of 21 ports. Local or regional riverboat lines similar to the one in Budapest could be launched in other cities such as Győr and Szeged. The potential and real demand for water transport is unknown. It s in Hungary s best interest to ensure that tour operators continue to regard Budapest as one of the main attractions along the Danube. The city must continue to allow boats to moor in its downtown area and the infrastructure needs to be improved to provide better service. However, the boats should anchor, change passengers, and take supplies on board in less frequented designated areas (between the city limits and the downtown area), where these tasks could be accomplished more easily owing to a better supporting infrastructure. There have not been any significant changes in the navigability of Hungary s waterways over the last decade. The most important task remains ensuring the navigability of the Danube (a Helsinki corridor) for barges with a draft of 2.5 meters and a carrying capacity of tons. Currently the Hungarian section of the Danube does not fulfill this requirement. The river is only navigable with draft limitations in a half to two thirds of the year, depending on water conditions. The capacity and density of existing ports is inadequate, as is the quality of their services, which is well below the average of developed EU countries. Billions of Hungarian forints (HUF) of domestic funds have been invested in port development in the last ten years. The largest of these investments was the development of the national public and border ports of Győr-Gönyű and Baja. The former received 8 billion HUF in subsidies for complex development (to build an industrial railway connection, a commercial zone, internal roads etc.) and the latter was granted 380 million HUF. In addition to these two large scale projects, the ports of Szeged, Mohács, Esztergom, Csepel and Drávaszabolcs also received subsidies of varying sizes. The national and regional bicycle road network is discontinuous. Public road sections in towns where traffic is heavy and infrastructural development did not favor bicycles are particularly problematic. There are public road sections between settlements where bicycles are not allowed to run, but there is no alternative route to get to the other town by bicycle. The number of bicycle parking and storage facilities is low. There is no adequate infrastructure for safely parking and storing bicycles. Carrying bicycles on public transportation isn t provided for. Community bicycles (as a means of public transportation) are not available. The pilot systems for this are currently awaiting construction. Even so, urban cycling has seen significant growth, increasing its share in the modal split from 1% in 2000 to approximately 5% in However, it must be noted that cycling has not yet been integrated as a horizontal aspect into transport regulation. There have been major changes in Hungary s air transport in the past decade. Following the country s EU accession and the growth of low-cost airlines, Hungary now operates international airports in Budapest-Ferihegy, Debrecen, Győr-Pér, Pécs-Pogány, Nyíregyháza and Sármellék. -16-

18 Among these the Liszt Ferenc International Airport in Budapest is by far the most technically advanced and has the largest number of passengers, although the composition of its traffic has changed significantly following the bankruptcy of Hungary s national airline (MALÉV). Similar to other East-Central European airports, Hungary s international airports have seen a sharp traffic increase over the last decade, which clearly indicates a growing demand for air travel. The development of regional airports that receive international flights (Budapest, Debrecen and Sármellék) has been mostly successful so far. There have also been less successful attempts at development, for example in Pécs, where shortly after launch it became apparent that not enough destinations were offered and the local demand in the Southern Transdanubian region couldn t make the airport profitable. Freight transport Based on the analysis of freight transport, the basic features of the segment can be summarized as follows: The annual volume of transported goods is 248,368 thousand tons. The annual performance of freight transport is about 50,310 million ton-kilometers. The breakdown of freight transport by mode shows the dominance of road transport both in terms of volume and performance (see figure 6 below) Figure 6 The distribution of freight transport volumes and perforfmance by modes In terms of transported volume, domestic freight transport accounts for 63% of the total and international transport is 37%. In terms of performance, the share of domestic freight transport is only 25%, with international transport making up the other 75%. Most of the freight transport segment s performance is provided by railway and road transport. Inland navigation is used primarily for international transport. Pipelines while significant in terms of transferred volume are less relevant for the National Transport Strategy. Road transport carries 28,622 tons of goods internationally and 171,226 tons domestically (this is the breakdown illustrated by figure 7 below), which translates to 22,436 million freight tonkilometers internationally and 11,285 million domestically. -17-

19 Figure 7 The distribution of road transport volumes (Sources: NSO) In railway transport the distribution by transport direction is much more even. Figure 8 The distribution of railway transport by direction of transport (source: NSO 2010) The segment can be divided into urban freight transport and domestic long distance freight transport. Urban, short distance freight transport is conducted exclusively on road, while long distance transport also includes railways. Domestic freight transport is dominated by road transport. Railway transport s volume and performance is similar to that of pipelines. The segment can also be divided into export, import and transit transport. In international freight transport road and railway transport is joined by inland navigation. Freight transport is a service with derived demand, which means that its performance is determined by the commercial demand of producers (e.g. in the processing industry and agriculture) and consumer needs. Examining the breakdown of freight transport figures by mode, we can determine that following a slump in the early 1990s road transport has been the only mode of transport with a clearly upward trend. The performance of other modes of transport has stagnated (see figure 9). Freight transport performances show a trend similar to the one described above, but it s worth noting that when the volume of goods transported is weighted by distance, it shows a more modest lead by road transport. Hungary s total freight transport performance in 2011 was 50.9 billion ton-kilometers, of which road transport had a 68% share, leaving railways with 18%, pipelines with 11% and water transport with 4%. Road transport volumes continue to grow, which means an increasing load on the environment. -18-

20 Figure 9 Changes in freight transport performances in Hungary (source: NSO) Railway transport continued to lose ground to road transport, but its relative decline slowed and then stagnated. The sector has been liberalized and now there are some 10 companies trying to make rail freight transport a profitable business. According to the annual report of the company that allocates railway track capacities (Vasúti Pályakapacitás Elosztó Kft.), in terms of freight tons (volume), railway transport made up 18.5% of the total annual freight transport performance in 2012, which is 0.8 percentage points higher than in the previous year. In freight ton-kilometers (i.e. factoring in distance) the share of railways grew by 0.2 percentage points, to 18%. In domestic freight transport railways had a share of 7.3% in freight tons and 11.4% in freight ton-kilometers a 1.2 and a 2.3 percentage point increase over the previous year respectively. In international freight transport railways had a share of 37.5% in freight tons (2.1 percentage points lower than in the previous year) and 20.1% in freight ton-kilometers (a 0.7 percentage point decline). At the end of 2012 there were 38 licensed railway companies, with two dominant players in the market: Rail Cargo Hungaria Zrt. (with 26.9 million tons transported in 2011) and GYSEV Zrt s freight division and legal successor (which moved 5.4 million tons in 2011). Freight transport by inland navigation which amounts to 5-6 million tons a year, almost all of it conducted through ports on the Danube has seen a decline in loaded and a slow increase in unloaded volume. Exported goods are shipped primarily to Austria, Germany and Romania, while imports mostly bring ships from the Netherlands, Austria and Romania. Air freight, on the other hand, dominates those segments of the market where quick delivery is essential. Hungary s transport system has rather long transit times. Intermodal connections and logistic systems are not up to date, which makes waiting and transit times longer and fees higher. This is especially true for Hungary s outdated domestic railway infrastructure. What s worse, railway transit and waiting times have increased (or remained the same), even though railway freight transport performance is now well below that of previous decades. -19-

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