Table of contents. INTRODUCTION TO DUTCH GRAMMAR 7 Learning Dutch grammar... 7 Using this reference... 7

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1 Table of contents INTRODUCTION TO DUTCH GRAMMAR 7 Learning Dutch grammar... 7 Using this reference... 7 SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION 8 The Dutch alphabet... 9 The Letter IJ Syllables Four syllable rules The combination ch Word division into syllables: Prefixes and suffixes Dieresis: Breaking up a word between two vowels Long vowels Double vowels Open single vowels Vowel combinations Short vowels Figuring out whether a vowel is short or long Pronouncing short vowels Vowels preceding ch The letter e The mute e (or schwa ) Double ee Maintaining vowel length Keeping vowels long Keeping vowels short Consonants Consonant combinations Voiced and unvoiced consonants Irregular pronunciation Accents and apostrophes Accent aigu Apostrophe Summary DUTCH VERBS 39 Conjugating regular verbs The verb stem Stem rule Stem rule Stem rule Stem rule Conjugation of the simple present tense Using the simple present tense T and D verbs Conjugation of the simple past tense Using the simple past tense The past participle... 53

2 Conjugation of the present perfect tense Using the present perfect tense Conjugation of the pluperfect tense Using the pluperfect Conjugation of the simple future tense Using the simple future Conjugation of the future perfect tense Using the future perfect tense Conjugation of the conditional tense (or past future tense ) Using the conditional tense Conjugation of the conditional perfect (or past future perfect ) Using the conditional perfect Summarizing the regular verb conjugations Other conjugations The aan het continuous The perfect tense of the aan het continuous The te-continuous Passive voice The imperative The subjunctive The verb as an adjective: Present participle and verbable Gerund: The verb as a noun Summary Irregular verbs Strong verbs (partly irregular) Completely irregular verbs Zijn Hebben Zullen Kunnen Komen Mogen Gaan, slaan, staan, zien, and doen Auxiliary verbs Independent verbs Auxiliary verbs and the past participle Past participle: Hebben or zijn? Past participle turning into an infinitive Te + infinitive Te + infinitive: Te-continuous Te + infinitive: the verbable Te after durven, hoeven, hebben, and komen Te + infinitive: Dat-verbs Te + infinitive: om-verbs Te + infinitive after prepositions Auxiliary verbs and the bare infinitive Aan het + infinitive Summary Compound verbs Noun-verbs Separable compound verbs Separable verbs: Simple present and past tense Separable verbs: past participle Inseparable verbs

3 Separable or inseparable? Prefixes that can be part of both separable and inseparable verbs NOUNS AND ARTICLES 114 Articles Definite articles Definite article: Het Definite article: De Indefinite article: Een Using articles: Differences between Dutch and English Plural nouns Plural nouns ending in -en Plural nouns ending in -s Plural endings: -s or en? Less common plural endings: -eren and -a Irregular plurals Diminutives Diminutive endings Diminutive ending -tje Diminutive ending -etje Diminutive ending -pje Diminutive ending -kje Irregular diminutives Summarizing the diminutives Compound nouns Connectors Connectors e and -en Connector -s Connector -er No connector PRONOUNS 146 Pronominal adverbs The Dutch pronominal adverb List of Dutch pronominal adverbs Personal pronouns Subject pronouns Using marked subject pronouns Het is and het zijn ( it is and it are ) Object pronouns Using marked object pronouns Them: hen or hun? Colloquial subject and object pronouns Pronominal adverb: Het/hem/ze turning into er Possessive pronouns Independent possessives Alternative possessive Possessive names and nouns Colloquial possessive pronouns Reflexive pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Interrogative pronouns

4 Demonstrative pronouns dit, deze, die, and dat Dependent demonstrative pronouns Independent demonstrative pronouns Dit is and dit zijn ( this is and this are ) Pronominal adverbs: Demonstratives turning into hier/daar Summarizing dit, dat, deze, and die More demonstratives That which and the person who : Datgene and diegene Such : Zo n, zulke, and dergelijk(e) Such (formal use): Dusdanig and zodanig The same : dezelfde and hetzelfde Summary Relative pronouns Dat (that, which) Die (that, which, who) Wat (that, what, which) Wie (who, whom) Wiens and wier (whose) Indefinite pronouns Collective indefinite pronouns Alles and iedereen (everything and everyone) Al, alle, allen, and allemaal (all) Elk and ieder (each and every) Iets and niets (something and nothing) Iemand and niemand (someone and noone) Beide and allebei (both) Men (they, one) Sommige (some, certain) Summarizing indefinite pronouns Indefinite numbers Small amounts Several Few and many Summary Exclamative pronouns WORD ORDER 232 The three parts of a main clause Overview of the main clause The left part The finite formation Reflexive pronoun The reduced indirect object The reduced direct object The middle part Er, hier, and daar (EHD) Time Manner Place Direct object The right part of a sentence The other verbs The prefix of a separable compound verb

5 The miscellaneous box The postposition Indirect object The complement Link verbs Place of the direct object Prepositional phrase Negating sentences The use of geen in negating sentences Questions Closed questions Open questions Types of clauses The co-ordinating clause The subordinate clause Subclause and main clause compared Word order of all verbs in a subclause Separable verbs in a subordinate clause Subordinating conjunctions Relative clause Short subclauses Other shortcuts A funny word: er Locative er: unstressed daar Er replacing het, hem (it) or ze (them) Er in the sense of of it or of them Extra er at the beginning of a sentence Er as a subject Er or het as a subject? Word order for the advanced How flexible is a Dutch sentence? Components allowed before the left side Components that are allowed after the right side Combining the two Conclusion APPENDIXES 320 Appendix A: List of strong verbs Appendix B: Strong verbs by conjugation pattern Appendix C: List of te-verbs Appendix E: Noun verbs Appendix F: Commonly used separable verbs Appendix G: List of inseparable verbs - exceptions Appendix H: List of separable mis- and vol-verbs Appendix I: List of phrasal verbs Appendix J: Diminutives checklist Appendix K: Dutch grammar glossary

6 INTRODUCTION 7 INTRODUCTION TO DUTCH GRAMMAR Approximately 23 million people in Belgium and the Netherlands have Dutch as their mother tongue, which makes Dutch the seventh language in the European Union. The variety of Dutch spoken in Flanders (northern Belgium) is sometimes referred to as Flemish, although the extent to which Flemish and Dutch differ is a much-debated issue. Dutch is also the official language of Surinam. Dutch is a Germanic language, which means it has a lot in common with languages like German, English, Danish, and Swedish. Learning Dutch grammar Dutch spelling is quite easy compared to many other languages because it is based on a bunch of basic principles. The same goes for the conjugation of Dutch regular verbs. Once you know the conjugation rules, you can conjugate any Dutch verb. Irregular verbs, however, must be learned by heart. There are three articles to learn: the indefinite article een (a) and the definite articles de and het (the). Those who have studied German, Russian, or Latin will be delighted to learn that the Dutch language does not have a case system. This means that you do not need to use different articles or adjectives for subjects and objects. Adjectives are only inflected according to the type of noun they precede (de or het-noun). The hardest part of Dutch grammar is the word order. There are general guidelines for producing a sound Dutch sentence but the easiest way to master it is to read a lot of Dutch. Another hurdle for Dutch learners is the pronunciation. Just how difficult you find it depends on where you come from. The guttural g is easier for Spanish or Arabic speakers than for English or Japanese speakers. But Dutch learners almost unanimously agree that ui and eu are by far the most difficult sounds to master. The key to getting familiar with the Dutch sounds is exposure. Mix with Dutch speakers or immerse yourself in Dutch audio books, internet radio, and Dutch videos. Using this reference This grammar reference serves as an aid to learning the Dutch language in that it provides you with an overview of the grammar rules. However, you will have to look actively for opportunities to practice your skills. Visit The Dutch Grammar forum (www.dutchgrammar.com/forum/) to get in touch with Dutch speakers or to try the exercises made by native and non-native speakers, listen to the podcasts (and download all mp3 sound files for the grammar pages!) in the audio section (www.dutchgrammar.com/en/?n=audio.homepage), and check out the links on the links page (www.dutchgrammar.com/en/links/) for other online resources. All original 2008 Bieneke Berendsen

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