1 Media Prominence: A Leading Indicator of Brand Value How Effective Public Relations Contributes to Brand
2 Introduction: John Grebe, who established Dow s Physical Research Lab, once said If you cannot measure it, you cannot control it. The words ring especially true for marketers, who often struggle to show the direct value and impact of their programs on an organization s bottom line or their contribution to a brand. The question of Am I getting a good return on my marketing spend?, has been at the forefront of marketers minds since clever people started coming up with, and spending money on, creative ways to sell products. Demonstrating a good return has been easier for some forms of marketing than others. Showing the financial impact of online marketing, for example, is relatively easy. Online marketing allows marketers to see direct connections between ad placements and consumer behavior. It has been significantly more difficult to measure the value of PR, however, since the effects of media coverage on behavior has to be measured indirectly. While more difficult, it is not impossible to draw connections between how much a company spends on PR and how much value the company is creating. Our research firm Context Analytics has demonstrated that statistical analysis can be used to overcome the barriers and find the connections, using techniques that have solved similar problems in other marketing disciplines. The current economic crisis has once again thrust the marketing ROI issue into the spotlight. When the US automaker CEOs are taking nine hour car rides to prove their devotion to frugality, can a hard look at marketing budgets be far behind? This past fall as I reviewed the Interbrand Best Global Brands report and things were starting to get wild, I decided that it was an extremely relevant time to take a close look at the brands in that report and understand better how much of a role advertising and public relations played in differentiating them. I m obviously biased given my role. I fully expected that public relations would prove to play a crucial role in the marketing mix. I d be in the wrong business if I felt otherwise, but in the end even I was impressed with the findings. Cynics will likely question the report because it is being distributed by a public relations company, but I strongly encourage you to review it and keep an open mind. I hope that it comes at fortunate time and helps marketers and professionals as they may be struggling to show the value in disciplines that are notoriously tough to measure. Aedhmar Hynes CEO, Text 100 December 2008
3 Executive Summary: While debates may rage over exactly how to assess the value of brands, virtually everyone agrees that brands represent real and significant financial value to their owners. Managing a brand therefore requires careful and strategic investment and stewardship. But what are the drivers of brand value? Product quality, customer services, and in particular advertising, are some of drivers most commonly cited and studied. Until now, however, there has been relatively little research into the contribution of public relations to brand value. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlation between a brand s media prominence (a weighted composite of headline, lead paragraph and text mentions in independent media coverage that is not paid for by the brand owner), and brand value across the world s 100 most valuable brands, as measured by Interbrand in its 2008 Best Global Brands report. Key findings included the following: Media prominence accounted for 27 percent of differences between the brand values of Interbrand s Best Global Brands. The relationship between media prominence and brand value depends on product involvement i.e., the degree to which customers research a given product or solution prior to purchase. Media prominence was more associated with brand value for high involvement products compared to low involvement products. Advertising expenditures, however, were a leading indicator only for low involvement products, and accounted for very little brand value among high involvement products. Media prominence was a particularly important component of brand value for computer-related industries, such as software and hardware manufacturers, as well as computer and Internet service companies, accounting for 48 percent of differences between companies brand values. The results suggest that, in general, media prominence accounts for approximately one quarter of brand value, although this value is often higher for high-involvement brands, and particularly so in technology. This underscores the importance of managing and growing brand value through public relations efforts. Introduction: Interbrand s Best Global Brands study tends to provoke debate upon its annual release. There are certain limitations to this study for example, it excludes private companies, and Interbrand shrouds much of the detail of its methodology in order to protect its secret sauce. Nonetheless, it is a valuable benchmark in that it assigns a financial value to a brand, and can provide a basis for study in how various marketing activities impact this value. The specific question we set out to answer was: how does communications affect a brand s financial value? Specifically, we focused on the amount of media coverage that each of these brands attain. Further, we wanted to know how this varies by industry and product type.
4 Results: Media Prominence Accounts for 27 percent of Brand Value Among Interbrand s Best Global Brands To assess the degree to which media coverage is associated with brand value, we correlated the brand value of all of the brands in Interbrand s 2008 Best Global Brands report with a measure of media coverage, called Media Prominence. We selected Interbrand s brand valuation as our measure of brand value for two reasons. First, the Interbrand report is widely-read, respected, and recognizable to most marketing professionals. Second, Interbrand s brand value is based on financial metrics, in addition to consumer surveys and related measures of brand-awareness. Therefore, the results of this study can be interpreted as showing how media coverage relates to, not just a company s reputation, but the actual financial value of a brand which is likely to be of greater interest, particularly in the current economic conditions. We found a positive correlation between Media Prominence and brand value (r =.52). As Media Prominence increased, so did Brand Value. The R 2 between Media Prominence and Brand Value was.27, meaning that 27 percent of differences between companies Brand Value in the Interbrand report was accounted for by Media Prominence (note as a validity check, we also correlated brand values with media prominence for 59 brands studied in both Milward Brown s 2008 brand value report and the Interbrand report; a similar correlation emerged: r=.49). This finding is particularly important to communications professionals, because it suggests that as much as 27 percent of a company s brand value is tied to how often the brand name appears in the press. We also conducted a regression analysis to assess how changes in media coverage might translate into changes in brand value, using headline mentions as our media coverage metric. According to the regression analysis, one would predict that for a company with average brand value ($12.1 billion), an increase of 1000 headline articles would be associated with a seven percent increase in brand value. To illustrate: if SAP, a fairly representative company in the sample (brand value = $12.3 billion, headline mentions = 6,400), had an increase of 1,000 headline articles in one year, the regression analysis predicts that SAP s brand value would increase to $13 billion. Like correlational analyses, we cannot say for certain the exact patterns of causality between headline mentions and brand value. This data could, for example, also be interpreted as suggesting that a seven percent increase in brand value will lead to an additional 1,000 headline articles every year. As we discuss below, we believe that the actual relationship between media coverage and brand value is bi-directional, with each contributing to the other. To arrive at a more conclusive analysis of cause-and-effect, we normally look at a number of metrics over time for an individual company, but since this is outside the scope of this analysis we provide the above as an illustration.
5 Media Coverage is Particularly Important for Industries Selling High Inolvement Products To further understand the circumstances under which Media Prominence plays an important role in brand value, we segmented our results by industries that were well-represented in the Interbrand 2008 Best Global Brands report. These industries included Food and Beverages, Apparel, Automotive, Computing, Consumer, Financial Services, Personal Care and Luxury Brands 1. We found that industries that sell high involvement products (products where a buyer invests time and effort in Advertising Is More Important for Low Involvement Brands When assessing the effect of product involvement on the relationship between advertising expenditures and brand value, we observed a pattern opposite to the one we found with Media Prominence. Advertising expenditures had a much stronger association with brand value for low involvement products than for high involvement products. The correlation between advertising expenditures and brand value was r=.49 or R 2 =.24 for low involvement products, while the correlation between two was only r=-.05 or R 2 =.002 for high involvement products. This means that advertising accounts for nearly one quarter of brand value for low involvement products, while it accounts for less than 1% of brand value for high involvement products. deciding what to buy) registered higher correlations between Media Prominence and brand value than industries selling low involvement products (products that are more likely to be bought on impulse; see Figure 1). In the Computing industry, for example, Media Prominence accounted for nearly half, 48 percent, of brand value (r=.70; R 2 =.48), or sixteen times that of the Personal Care industry. The relationship between Media Prominence and brand value was also strong in other high involvement industries, such as the Automotive, Consumer and Financial services. 2 The effect of product involvement on the relationship between Media Prominence and brand value makes intuitive sense. The more complex a product is to a buyer, the more likely they are to research the product category and to look for information that they can trust. Much has been said of the increasing power of word-of-mouth and distrust in advertising in the past few years. If unpaid media placement, as opposed to paid media (or advertising), is more credible to buyers, then it too should play a key role in building brand value for high involvement brands. 1 See Table 2 for a breakdown of industry categorizations by company. 2 One exception to the involvement pattern was food and beverages, a low involvement category (in terms of purchasing frequency) where media prominence had a large association with brand value. This high correlation is most likely a result of how food and beverages are represented in the Interbrand report, rather than an actual pattern that would be observed among all food and beverage brands. In the Interbrand report, there are two extremely high value food and beverage brands, Coca-Cola and McDonalds, and 14 brands with significantly lower brand value. Furthermore, media prominence mirrored brand value- with Coca-Cola and McDonalds producing significantly more media coverage than their peers. Consequently, the correlation between media prominence and brand value was quite high for this industry (r =.88, R 2 =.67). When the highly valuable Coca-Cola and McDonald s brands were removed from the data, however, the correlation decreased significantly (r =.09, R 2 =.01). This situation was unique to food and beverage brands, as brands within other industry categories were much closer together in terms of brand value.
6 Figure 1 Conclusions and Future Directions: One of the most important things that one can learn from a statistics textbook is that correlation does not imply causation, and this lesson applies to this study as much as any other. We do not wish to make the claim that increases in media coverage cause brand value to increase. Most likely, there is a reciprocal relationship between media coverage and brand value, with each driving the other to some extent. For example, a new Apple product is likely to receive a great deal of attention in the media, largely because Apple already has an existing, strong brand value. However, this additional media coverage is likely to push the brand value even higher. The important take away message from this study is that, regardless of the direction of causation, a sizable amount of brand value, particularly for high involvement industries, is tied into media coverage. So, even if one interprets this study as showing that high brand value leads to more media coverage, it is still important for media coverage to be carefully managed since it is the window through which others will see your brand. Although this study focused on how the volume of media coverage relates to brand value, reputation in the media is likely to be an even greater predictor of brand value than volume alone. Context Analytics and Text 100 are currently working on a second report, which will assess exactly how the tone of media coverage relates to brand value. We expect that, when tone is taken into consideration, the strength of the association between media coverage and brand value will be even higher. This next report will also assess how newer forms of media, such as consumer generated media, relate to brand value as well. Look for this report in early Methodology: Sample of Brands This study included the 99 of the 100 brands featured in the 2008 Best Global Brands report (one brand, Thomson-Reuters, was excluded because it is a media company, and the Reuters brand name appears in an extremely large number of articles). According to Interbrand, there are three criteria for inclusion in the 2008 Best Global Brands report: 1) One third of the brand s profits must come from outside the brand s home country 2) The brand must be recognizable by individuals who are not customers of the brand 3) The brand s financial and marketing data must be publicly available
7 Data Sources Data Analysis Media Prominence. Media prominence is a weighted composite of headline, lead paragraph, and article body mentions for each company. Data was collected from 2006 media coverage in Dow Jones Factiva database of over 20,000 global print and online publications. We searched for mentions of each brand in English, Spanish, Japanese, German, French, Italian, and Chinese coverage. Interbrand Brand Value. We used Interbrand s brand value from their 2008 Best Global Brands report as our measure of brand value. Although the specifics of Interbrand s valuation methodology are proprietary, Interbrand reports that the valuation is based upon current as well as five years of future revenue that are attributable to the brand. Advertising Expenditures. Advertising expenditures from 2006 for 49 of the 99 brands was collected from sources that are publicly available, including Advertising Age s 2007 Top 100 Global Marketer report, which contains 2006 ad expenditure data, and 2006 Annual SEC filings. Fifty of the 99 brand s advertising data was not publicly available for several reasons. Many companies report their marketing expenditures in aggregate (e.g., collapse sales and marketing data into a single value), while others aggregate expenditures across different brands (e.g., Yum! Brands, Inc does not report ad spending separately for KFC, Taco Bell, and Pizza Hut). For one brand, Rolex, advertising expenditures were unavailable because the company was privately held. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the associations between Media Prominence, advertising expenditures, and brand value. These correlation coefficients, which range from -1 to 1, indicate the strength of the relationship between two types of data as well as the direction of the relationship. Associative strength is indicated by the distance from 0 (-1 or 1 would indicate perfect correlations as media prominence increases one unit, there is always a corresponding increase in brand value). The direction of the relationship is indicated by the positive or negative value of the correlation. Negative correlations indicate that increases in one measure correspond to decreases in another measures, while positive correlations indicate that the two measure increase together (e.g., a positive correlation between Media Prominence and brand value means that, as Media Prominence increases, brand value increases). To assess the influence of one year s marketing activities on next year s brand value, we correlated 2006 Media Prominence with 2007 brand value (taken from Interbrand s 2008 Best Global Brands report). We tested for non-linearity in the correlations, since it was possible that we would observer diminishing returns in enhancing brand value through Media Prominence and advertising expenditures. The results, however, suggested linear relationships between brand value and Media Prominence and advertising expenditures.
8 In this report, we often report another metric, R 2, which is derived from the Pearson correlation coefficient. This metric reflects the percentage of variance in Brand Value that is accounted for by variance in either media prominence or advertising expenditure data. The research team who conducted this study was led by Seth Duncan, Research Manager, Context Analytics. About Context Analytics: Context Analytics is a strategic communications research and consulting company. Context provides customized, actionable analysis to help our clients understand and leverage public perceptions in order to better manage corporate reputation. Since 1992, Context has worked with some of the biggest names in technology, consumer electronics, and healthcare, helping our clients better understand the impact of the rapidly changing media environment on their corporate reputation. As opposed to a one-size-fits-all approach to media research, Context s experienced analysts provide customized research and consulting services aimed at addressing client specific questions and business issues. Our services include global media research and measurement, social media research and influence mapping, primary survey research, consulting and research program management, competitive research, and business impact analysis. [context] analytics 77 Maiden Lane, Third Floor San Francisco, CA t: f:
9 Appendix: Table 1: Correlation Coefficients for Global Media Prominence and Brand Value Text Lead Paragraph Headline Media Prominence Ad Expenditures Brand Value Text -- r=.96 r=.92 r=.98 r=.31 (N=49) r=.52 Lead Paragraph r=.95 r=.99 r=.32 (N=49) r=.53 Headline r=.97 r=.23 (N=49) r=.49 Media Prominence r=.30 (N=49) r=.52 Ad Expenditures r=.15 (N=49) Table 2: Industry Categorizations Apparel Automotive Computing Consumer Financial Services Food & Beverages Luxury Personal Care Adidas Audi Accenture Blackberry AIG Budweiser Armani Avon GAP H&M Nike Zara BMW Ferrari Ford Harley Davidson Honda Hyundai Lexus Mercedes Porsche Toyota Volkswagen Amazon Apple Canon Cisco Dell ebay Google HP IBM Intel Microsoft Oracle SAP Duracell Motorola Nintendo Nokia Panasonic Samsung Sony Allianz American Express Axa Citi Goldman Sachs HSBC ING JP Morgan Merrill Lynch Morgan Stanley UBS Visa Danone Heinz Hennessy Kellogg s KFC McDonald s Moet & Chandon Nescafe Nestle Pepsi Pizza Hut Smirnoff Starbucks Wrigley Cartier Chanel Gucci Hermès Louis Vuitton Prada Rolex Tiffany Colgate Gillette Johnson & Johnson Kleenex L Oreal Nivea Xerox Yahoo 5 Total 12 Total 16 Total 8 Total 13 Total 15 Total 9 Total 7 Total *Note: Certain brands were not included in the above industry breakdown, due to the small size of their category or the brand s categorization on the Interbrand list as diversified (e.g., GE, Siemens, and Philips). These brands were included in all the other analyses.
10 Table 3: List of Brands Brand Country of Sector Origin Coca-Cola United States Beverages IBM United States Computer Services Microsoft United States Computer Software GE United States Diversified Nokia Finland Consumer Toyota Japan Automotive Intel United States Computer McDonald's United States Restaurants Disney United States Media Google United States Internet Services Mercedes Germany Automotive Hewlett- Packard United States Computer BMW Germany Automotive Gillette United States Personal Care American United States Financial Services Louis France Luxury Cisco United States Computer Services Marlboro United States Tobacco Citi United States Financial Services Honda Japan Automotive Samsung Republic of Korea Consumer H&M Sweden Apparel Oracle United States Computer Software Apple United States Computer Sony Japan Consumer Pepsi United States Beverages HSBC United Financial Services Kingdom Nescafe Switzerland Beverages Nike United States Sporting Goods UPS United States Transportation SAP Germany Computer Software Dell United States Computer Budweiser United States Alcohol Merrill Lynch United States Financial Services IKEA Sweden Home Furnishings Canon Japan Computer J.P. Morgan United States Financial Services Goldman United States Financial Services Kellogg's United States Food Nintendo Japan Consumer UBS Switzerland Financial Services JP Morgan United States Financial Services Philips Netherlands Diversified Thomson Canada Media Gucci Italy Luxury ebay United States Internet Services Accenture United States Computer Services Siemens Germany Diversified Ford United States Automotive Harley- United States Automotive Davidson L'Oreal France Personal Care MTV United States Media Volkswagen Germany Automotive AIG United States Financial Services AXA France Financial Services Heinz United States Food Colgate United States Personal Care amazon.com United States Internet Services Xerox United States Computer Chanel France Luxury Wrigley's United States Food Zara Spain Apparel Nestle Switzerland Food KFC United States Restaurants Yahoo! United States Internet Services Danone France Food Audi Germany Automotive Caterpillar United States Diversified Avon United States Personal Care adidas Germany Sporting Goods Rolex Switzerland Luxury Hyundai Republic of Korea Automotive BlackBerry Canada Consumer Kleenex United States Personal Care Porsche Germany Automotive Hermes France Luxury Gap United States Apparel Panasonic Japan Consumer Cartier Switzerland Luxury Tiffany United States Luxury Pizza Hut United States Restaurants Allianz Germany Financial Services Moet France Alcohol BP United Energy Kingdom Starbucks United States Restaurants ING Netherlands Financial Services Motorola United States Consumer Duracell United States Consumer Smirnoff United Alcohol Kingdom Lexus Japan Automotive Prada Italy Luxury Johnson & United States Personal Care Johnson Ferrari Italy Automotive Armani Italy Luxury Hennessy France Alcohol Marriott United States Hospitality Shell Netherlands Energy Nivea Germany Personal Care FedEx United States Transportation Visa United States Financial Services
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