Today s lecture is all about the System Unit, the Motherboard, and the Central Processing Unit, Oh My!

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1 Today s lecture is all about the System Unit, the Motherboard, and the Central Processing Unit, Oh My!

2 Or what s happening inside the computer?

3 Computer Architecture CPU Input Memory a.k.a. RAM Output Storage

4 System Unit (or chassis) The box-like case that houses the electronic components of the computer. tower model motherboard expansion cards hard drive floppy and CD drives bays power supply

5 Motherboard The main circuit board in the computer contains: CPU or Microprocessor chip System clock Power supply/battery Heat Sink Ports Expansion slots Buses allow communication between components Memory - RAM and ROM

6 Major Components of a Motherboard Microprocessor Single integrated circuit that executes the majority of the instructions to process data. 16 Bit ISA Slots Allows expansion of computer through modem, sound and video cards. 32 Bit PCI Slots Allows expansion cards that can transfer data faster than ISA slots. Battery Provides power for the system clock. Cache RAM Stores and retrieves information for the microprocessor at a faster rate than SIMM RAM so instructions can be executed faster. Power Connector Supplies power to the motherboard. BIOS Basic Input/Output System stores permanent instructions that start the computer. RAM Single Inline Memory Module stores data to be used by the microprocessor.

7

8 Definitions Integrated circuit microscopic pathway capable of carrying electric current, contain transistors, diodes, capacitors, and resistors that act as the gates (electronic switches). Chip small semi-conducting material that contains integrated circuit(s) (often used interchangeably with integrated circuit).

9 Central Processing Unit The Central Processing Unit, also called the microprocessor or chip, is the brain of the computer. It interprets and carries out the instructions that operate a computer.

10 The CPU has two parts: The Control Unit coordinates and controls all parts of the computer The Arithmetic Logic Unit does all the processing and calculations (including word processing)

11 Control Unit 1. gets instruction from memory (called fetching) 2. translates the instruction (decoding) 3. performs the command (executing) 4. writes result to memory (storing) instruction cycle

12 Registers are special high-speed storage locations in the processor that temporarily hold data and instructions during the machine cycle. storing location of instruction storing instruction while decoding storing data while its being processed storing results of calculation (accumulator)

13 Arithmetic Logic Unit Arithmetic (+, -, x, /) Comparative (<, =, >) Logical (AND, OR, NOT)

14 Binary Numbers and 1 are binary digits called bits eight bit binary numbers are bytes half of a byte (4 bits) is a nibble One byte represents 256 separate symbols or characters Characters and symbols are defined using a coding scheme like ASCII

15 Coding Schemes

16 = = = E

17 System Clock generates regular pulses or ticks each tick is a clock cycle clock speed (or rate) is the speed at which a processor executes instructions Clock speeds are measured in megahertz (one million ticks per second) and gigahertz (one billion ticks per second)

18 Speeding things up Pipelining CPU begins executing a second instruction before the previous instruction has completed its machine cycle. Coprocessors additional processor chip that assists the processor in performing specific tasks. Parallel Processors Using more than one processor to divide up the work.

19

20 Parallel Processing

21 Heat Sinks

22 Be sure you know how to: Identify the components on the motherboard Explain what the two parts of the CPU do Explain how the CPU uses the four steps of a machine cycle to process data Define the term, register Describe the arithmetic, comparative and logical operations performed by the ALU Explain why programmers use binary and hexadecimal numbers Describe how a series of bits represents data (coding schemes) Define the terms bit, byte and nibble Convert numbers between binary, decimal and hexadecimal number systems Explain the function of the system clock Define pipelining, parallel processing and co-processors

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