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1 Adaptations 1 of 21

2 Learning Intentions I will have a clearer understanding of the way in which animals and plants are adapted to their environments in order to survive I can consider the effects that changing climate is having on their pattern of distribution on this planet. I will be able to give some examples of adaptations of animals and plants 2 of 21

3 Success Criteria I have answered questions on adaptations of animals and plants using a power point for information I have used this information to construct a summary of adaptations of 2 or 3 animals and plants I have researched the effects that changing climate due to human activity is having on the distribution of animals and plants I have written a discursive essay illustrating the effects that changing climate is having on the distribution of animals and plants. 3 of 21

4 KS4 Biology Adaptation 4 of 21

5 Contents Adaptation What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Adaptations for a dry climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities 5 of 21

6 Different types of habitat In general, there are three major habitat types in the world. land habitats freshwater habitats marine habitats How do organisms survive in such different habitats? 6 of 21

7 What is an adaptation? A habitat is only populated by organisms that are adapted to survive there. Adaptations are special features or behaviours that make an organism particularly suited to its environment. Adaptations are a part of the evolutionary process. Why is it important that living things are adapted to their environment? Adaptations increase an organism s chance of survival and so increase its chance of reproducing. Why is reproduction so important for all living species? 7 of 21

8 Matching organisms to their habitat 8 of 21

9 Contents Adaptation What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Adaptations for a dry climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities 9 of 21

10 How are polar bears adapted? How are polar bears adapted to life in an extremely cold climate? Small ears help to reduce heat loss. Thick fur and a thick layer of body fat insulate from the cold. White fur acts as camouflage. Large feet spread the body s weight. The wide paws act as good paddles and snow shoes. 10 of 21

11 How are polar bears adapted? Other adaptations that polar bears have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh polar environment are: Eyes have brown irises to reduce the glare from sunlight reflection. Greasy fur repels water and keeps the bear dry. Skin is actually black to absorb any heat transmitted through the hairs. Body surface area is small compared to volume to reduce heat loss. 11 of 21

12 Contents Adaptation What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Adaptations for a dry climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities 12 of 21

13 Curious camel facts Camels are amazing creatures! Did you know that camels have three stomachs....some camels live to over 40 years old. some Bactrian camels can transport 450 kg. archaeological finds show that they originated in North America. Somalia is home to over 6 million camels! 13 of 21

14 How is a camel adapted? 14 of 21 How is a camel adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? Brown coat for camouflage. Fat is stored in the hump. There is no other body fat to prevent overheating. Loses little water through sweating or urine. Long, thin legs mean the body surface area is large compared to volume to increase heat loss. Wide feet for spreading body weight over soft shifting sand.

15 How is a camel adapted? Other adaptations that camels have evolved to cope with conditions in the harsh desert environment are: Nostrils can close when needed to protect the camel in sandstorms. Ears are lined with fur to prevent sand and dust from getting in. A very varied diet, ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones, is eaten. Long eyelashes protect the eyes from sand and dust. 15 of 21

16 How is a cactus adapted? How is a cactus adapted to life in a very hot, dry climate? Thick, waxy surface to reduce water loss. Leaves are narrow spines that reduce water loss and protect from predators. Stores water in fleshy stem. Plant surface area is small compared to volume to reduce water loss. Some have shallow, spreading roots for surface water, others have deep roots. 16 of 21

17 How is a kangaroo rat adapted? A kangaroo rat is a mammal that lives in dry desert habitats. How is this small animal adapted to this harsh environment? Nostrils can closed when needed to protect the camel in sandstorms. Brown fur for camouflage and only goes out at night when it is much cooler. Most water comes from its diet of seeds. Does not sweat, or pant, to reduce water loss. 17 of 21 A very varied diet ranging from grass and bark to thorns and bones. Large back feet to escape from predators allow it to hop 2 metres at a time! Long tail for balance when hopping.

18 Contents Adaptation What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Adaptations for a dry climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities 18 of 21

19 Aquatic adaptations How is this barracuda adapted to an aquatic environment? Streamlined shape to reduce friction when moving through water. Silver colouring allows the fish to be camouflaged. Gills have a large surface area so that oxygen can be extracted from the surrounding water. 19 of 21

20 Unusual plant adaptations Plants can live in acid or waterlogged soils where there is little nitrate. Some plants have evolved a rather cunning adaptation to obtain the nutrients they need. Pitcher plants have a large hollow filled with fluid that traps insects or other small organisms that may fall in. Hairs on the slippery inside of the plant are angled down to ensure that the victim cannot escape! The plant digests its victims to absorb the nitrates it needs! 20 of 21

21 Contents Adaptation What is an adaptation? Adaptations for a cold climate Adaptations for a dry climate Other adaptations Adaptation activities 21 of 21

22 True or false? 22 of 21

23 Matching adaptations 23 of 21

24 Multiple-choice quiz 24 of 21

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